Table of Contents


1. Overview

  • The poultry industry consists of three separate sectors: (i) The day-old chick supply industry (ii) The broiler industry, and (iii) The egg industry.
  • Broiler chickens are raised for meat i.e. fresh, frozen or value added (e.g. chicken fingers, saucy steaklets or polony). Egg layers or dual-purpose chickens are used for the production of eggs (they are lighter in weight than broilers, and so fattening cockerels from this second category with balanced feed bought in a bag is not as economically viable as doing the same with broilers).
For show poultry, see "Gamebirds, waterfowl & other poultry"



2. International business environment

The biggest chicken meat producing countries are the USA, China and Brazil. Brazil and the USA are the two biggest exporters of chicken, together accounting for about two-thirds of global chicken exports. For international projections and statistics find the latest OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook document at

South Africa: imports and exports

In 2017 the Americas, that is, Brazil and the United States, were the key suppliers accounting for more than two thirds of the imports. The United States exported more than 87 000 tonnes of poultry to South Africa, up more than 200 percent from 2016 and second only to Brazil's 337 476 tonnes (SARS, 2018). Trailing the Americas was Europe which accounted for 15 percent of the market share (Agbiz, 2018).


South African producers’ ability to compete with imported cuts will depend on the extent to which they are able to maximise carcass value going forward. Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) pieces represent the bulk of the domestic market, but imports of bone-in portions are likely to continue and strategies that reduce exposure in the IQF market will reduce the impact of such imports on profitability. The industry is also exploring the possibility of growing exports, a strategy that has been very successful for beef producers in recent years. In order to do so, competitiveness in the global context is critical.
Source: BFAP BASELINE | Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026 p 77



3. African business environment

Africa, which imports nearly 83% of the food it consumes, has a real chicken and egg problem. The continent is caught between pressure from imports in some countries and an inability to meet demand in others.

Africa's chicken crisis is an expression of overall weaknesses in its agricultural system. If Africa cannot raise its grain production it cannot expect to do well in increasing its chicken output.

The solution to Africa's chicken crisis lies in upgrading agricultural systems overall. Here are the major limitations:

  • Low-cost, high-quality feed. Expanding feed production involves investing in grain production, especially corn and soya. Research to increase efficiency and expand the range of feed sources will go a long way in helping to upgrade overall system.
  • The lack of starter stock (chicks and broilers bred specifically for meat production). Improvements in this area will require better breeding and extension programs akin to those needed for crops. Nearly 84% of chicken in Kenya is based on local breeds that have low levels of efficiency in converting feed into meat.
  • Disease control. Disease control is a problem for both crop and livestock producers and requires more investment.
  • Poor infrastructure (especially energy, transportation and water supply systems) is a major barrier to the expansion of chicken production, especially in rural areas. A lack of cold storage facilities forces farmers to keep feeding their chickens instead of slaughtering and refrigerating them. They generally transport live chickens to markets, which raises logistical costs and increases concerns over disease transmission.
  • The lack of credit for producers. Countries that provide credit for crop producers to purchase seed and farm input have the opportunity to extend their incentives to chicken production. Most African countries lack such systems and it is unlikely that they will introduce them for poultry farming if they do not have them for crop production.

So far Africa can hardly feed its people. But even worse, it cannot feed its chickens so that it can feed its people. The chicken crisis is yet another reason why Africa must focus on getting its agricultural act together. The crisis is a warning to African leaders: they need to wake up with the chickens and act in time.

Source: excerpts from a piece written by Calestous Juma, professor of the Practice of International Development, Harvard University, at