“Agro-processing is important because when you have an existing agricultural activity and you add value to the crops produced through agro-processing, that’s where the real income and real job opportunities lie,” Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies.
This section of The Agri Handbook for South Africa deals with adding value to the primary agricultural product. This finished product is what the consumer wants and pays money for. Because of this, farmers are often advised to be more involved in the activities that happen beyond the farm gate.
International business environment
- Find the Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) global overview of agro-processing, The Agroprocessing Industry and Economic Development, at www.fao.org/docrep/w5800e/w5800e12.htm.
- www.ifama.org – International Food and Agribusiness Management Association
- International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) – http://iufost.org/
- International Society of Food Engineering (ISFE) – www.iufost.org/isfe
Local business environment
Find the diagnoses of the country’s agro-processing investment needs, constraints and opportunities in the 2018/19-2020/21 Industrial Action Policy Programme (IPAP) – see heading 5.
- The agricultural and agro-processing value chain currently employs around 283,000 people, contributing 20.3% to manufacturing GDP and 2.7% to total GDP.
- SA is a net exporter of agro-processed products.
- The South African agro-processing sector has particularly strong linkages both up- and downstream. Upstream, the sector links to agriculture across a wide variety of farming models and products. Downstream, the sector’s products are marketed across wholesale and retail chains and through a diverse array of restaurants, pubs and fast food franchises. Agro-processing is the largest single sub-sector in manufacturing, showing relatively rapid growth in sales and employment over the past 15 years.
- The ‘organic’ link with primary agriculture makes agro-processing critical for employment creation and poverty eradication, and it presents key opportunities in the global value chains in the food and freight industries.
- South Africa’s agro-processing sector has the potential to generate an industrial impetus that can create jobs and answer some of the macroeconomic questions such as balance of payments (BOP) generated by the current import/export gap.
- The agro-processing value chain is central to government’s rural development and smallholder farmer development objectives.
Source: 2018/19-2020/21 Industrial Action Policy Programme (IPAP)
For the newcomer
Introduction to the General Principles of Agro-Processing:
Faced with the current economic realities, farmers worldwide are searching for new options of surviving, as well as expanding their business. One of the many opportunities to grow markets, turnover and profits, is by adding value to farm produce through further processing. Most value-added food products available to consumers have been processed in some way or other, even if the processing is as simple as cleaning produce before it is packed in plastic-or net bags. Two types of processing methods may be performed on raw materials:
- Primary Processing: this type of processing includes the simplest of processes such as washing, peeling, chopping, ageing, the milling of wheat for flour production, and the processing of sugarcane;
- Secondary Processing: this type of processing involves the conversion of primary processed products into more complex food products and includes procedures such as mixing, depositing, layering, extruding, drying, fortifying, fermentation, pasteurisation, clarification, heating etc
Source: Theresa Siebert in the introduction to the ARC manuals on agro-processing.
Find a list of the ARC manuals on agro-processing, crucial documents, under heading 9.
The agro-processing industry consists of various sub-sectors, which include:
- meat processing
- dairy products
- fruit and vegetables processing
- grain mill products
- sugar mills and refineries
- fruit juices
- cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery
- bakery products
- prepared animal feeds
Other food products/ingredients include starch and starch products, baby food, chips, baking powder, yeast, condiments, flavours and fragrances, mustard, vinegar, edible salt refining, tea and coffee processing and packing. Non-food products include tobacco, essential oils, biofuels, biopolymers, bioplastics, paper and paper products, wood and wood products, textiles, wearing apparel, rubber products, footwear and leather and leather products.
Government views agro-processing as a sector to be strengthened as it delivers on vital areas like job creation, exports and “raising overall economic productivity” (see heading 5). Business views agro-processing as “a high skilled, capital intensive and scale of economy business”. It welcomes government attention but lists concerns as being that interventions should not crowd out private sector investment or undermine the competitiveness of current players.
An interesting example of entrepreneurship on a fruit farm can be found at http://fruitlips.co.za. FruitLips processes fruit not exported, manufacturing jams, marmalades, chutneys etc. This offers jobs to “more than fifteen families”.
National strategy and government contact
Government has firmly identified agro-processing and its upstream sector, agriculture, as a critical driver of inclusive growth in South African economy, with very significant job creation potential. (The National Development Plan (NDP) postulates a million possible new job opportunities). The commitment to agro-processing has been repeatedly stated: in the NDP; successive iterations of the Industrial Action Policy Programmes (IPAPs); the Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP); Operation Phakisa (2016); and the Presidential 9-Point Plan (Revitalisation of the Agriculture and Agro-processing Value Chains).
Presidential Nine-Point Plan and Agro-Processing Support Scheme (APSS)
The agro-processing sector has been identified as one of the critical sectors earmarked for special attention under the Presidential Nine-Point Plan. The core issue here is to defend and expand the agricultural and agro-processing value chain as a key provider of labour-intensive growth.
Since 2009, the Department of Trade & Industry (the dti) has supported agro-processing industries to the tune of R1.2 billion through various incentive schemes. The sector also benefitted from total investments of around R7 billion, both by multinationals and local players. The next step – as a direct response to the 9-Point Plan – was taken in 2017, with the launch of R1 billion Agro-Processing Support Scheme (APSS), aimed at further ramping up investment and value-addition across the sector.
The Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) 2018/19 – 2020/21 identifies agro-processing as a sectoral focus area and worthy of support:
The latest IPAP diagnoses investment needs, contrainsts and opportunities in agro-processing. Key Action Programmes are planned in the following sectors:
- Indigenous plants, identified as having “enormous wealth of agro-biodiversity and have the potential to contribute to improved incomes, job creation and local economic development”.
- To identify the potential of underutilised agro-processing facilities and turn them around as viable, sustainable, job-creating agribusinesses.
- Facilitate the development and competitiveness of the Halal industry.
- To work with stakeholders and investors to unlock constraints in the poultry value chain that currently inhibit new investments, deeper localisation and inclusive growth.
- Agro-Processing Export Development: Rooibos and fruit export development, and sugar industry development.
Find the document on www.thedti.gov.za.
Department of Trade & Industry (the dti) Industrial Development Division (IDD) Tel: 0861 843 384 or 012 394 1409
- IDD is a division of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), responsible for providing leadership in developing industry policies and strategies that create an enabling environment for competitiveness, growth and job creation. The dti’s Agro processing unit is located in the IDD. The unit designs and implements programmes for the development of agro-processing sector, in support of the dti’s Integrated Manufacturing Strategy and government’s microeconomic reform strategy. Agro-processing has also enjoyed support under schemes such as the Agro-processing support scheme (APSS), Enterprise Investment Programme (EIP), the Co-operative Incentive Scheme and the Manufacturing Investment Programme and the Enterprise Investment Programme (MCEP). The dti has funded agro-processing facilities and projects through entities like the Coega Development Corporation (CDC).
Find details of Government incentives at www.investmentincentives.co.za.
Competition Commission Tel: 012 394 3332 www.compcom.co.za The Competition Amendment Act holds major implications for directors and senior management. The Act introduces provisions to hold personally accountable, and criminally liable, individuals who cause firms to engage in cartel activity.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) www.daff.gov.za
Details of all DAFF directorates can be found on the website. Included amongst the important ones for this chapter are:
- (i) Agro-processing Support Tel: 012 319 8457 / 8 DES [at] daff.gov.za Read about this new DAFF offering on the website. Key among its interests is supporting SMEs in agro-processing.
- (ii) Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 6020/23 Food Business Operators (i.e. producers, packers, processors, transporters, etc.) of regulated agricultural products of plant origin for export and local market can register their food business online. The electronic facility of registering Food Business Operators online will enable a process of tracing and tracking of the product in the supply chain. Find “Food Business Operator Codes” under the Food Safety and Quality Assurance pages at www.daff.gov.za.
- (iii) Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455
- (iv) Directorate: Inspection Services Tel: 012 309 8702/78/60.
Read about requirements for Food Business Operators (FBOs) at http://fbo.daff.gov.za. This is a prerequisite for packhouses, processing plants, exporters, grain storage facilities, retailers and municipal markets.
National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za
Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 www.ppecb.com
Department of Health Tel: 012 395 8799/89 www.health.gov.za Find the “Food Control” option on the website.
- Food premises are regulated by R962 (dated Nov 2012) of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act 54 of 1972) under the mandate of the Department of Health. Regulations relating to the labelling and advertising of foodstuffs, R146 (dated Mar 2010) of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 are also under the mandate of the Department of Health and enforced by local and municipal authorities.
- Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) www.agbiz.co.za
- Consumer Goods Council of SA www.cgcsa.co.za
- Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) www.hpcsa.co.za
- South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SACCI) www.sacci.org.za
- South African National Consumer Union (Sancu) www.sancu.co.za
- South African Association for Food Science and Technology (SAAFoST) www.saafost.org.za
The following are associations with which the Agro-processing unit at the Department of Trade and Industry has contact:
- AFMA (Animal Feed Manufactures Association) www.afma.co.za
- Agri SA www.agrisa.co.za
- AMIE (Association of Meat Importers and Exporters) www.amiesa.co.za
- Canning Fruit Producers’ Association www.canningfruit.co.za
- Cape Port Producers Association www.capeportproducers.co.za
- Chamber of Baking www.sacb.co.za
- Chamber of Milling www.grainmilling.org.za
- Fair Trade SA www.fairtrade.org.za
- Grain SA www.grainsa.co.za
- HORTGRO www.hortgro.co.za
- MPO (Milk Producers’ Organisation) www.mpo.co.za
- Milk SA www.milksa.co.za
- NRF (National Research Foundation) www.nrf.ac.za
- Paper Manufacturers’ Association www.thepaperstory.co.za
- Red Meat Industry Forum (RMIF) www.redmeatsa.co.za
- SA Cane Growers’ Association www.sacanegrowers.co.za
- SA Citrus Growers Association www.cga.co.za
- SA Feedlot Association www.safeedlot.co.za
- SA Flower Export Council www.saflower.co.za
- SAFLEC (SA Footwear and Leather Export Council) www.saflec.co.za
- SA Fruit & Vegetable Canners Association www.safvca.co.za
- SA Fruit and Vegetable Exporters’ Council Tel: 021 871 1308
- SA Fruit Juice Association www.safja.co.za
- SAGIS (SA Grain Information Service) www.sagis.org.za
- South African Ostrich Business Chamber www.ostrichsa.co.za
- SA Pork Producers’ Organisation www.sapork.biz
- SA Poultry Association www.sapoultry.co.za
- SA Subtropical Fruit Growers’ Association (Subtrop) www.subtrop.co.za
- SASA (SA Sugar Association) www.sasa.org.za
- SA Sugar Millers Tel: 031 508 7300
- SA Table Grapes Industry (SATI) www.satgi.co.za
- SA Wine Industry Information & Systems www.sawis.co.za
- Swaziland Sugar Association www.ssa.co.sz
- Textile Federation www.texfed.co.za
- Tobacco Institute of SA www.tobaccosa.co.za
- WOSA (Wines of South Africa) www.wosa.co.za
Find other umbrella bodies in the relevant chapters.
Training and research
Systems improvements and value-add was identified as a priority area in the National Agricultural Research and Development Strategy document. That was ten years ago, and the priority remains the same.
- ARC-Infruitec Nietvoorbij Tel: 021 809 3100 www.arc.agric.za Training courses are given in post-harvest handling of fresh fruit, fruit beverages, value adding to dried fruit, fruit processing and jam processing.
- ARC-Agricultural Engineering Tel: 012 842 4017 www.arc.agric.za ARC-AE training and research includes on farm processing – equipment, infrastructure, publications, advice etc. Find the list of publications under heading 9.
- The Provincial Departments of Agriculture working with the Agricultural Colleges offer a variety of value-add training courses. The following are on the list sent to this project by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture at Cedara: (i) Peach Processing (ii) Tomato Processing (iii) Peanut Processing (iv) Dairy Processing (v) Soya Processing (vi) Jam Manufacturing (vii) Health & Food Safety. Further examples would include Fort Cox College (value adding technology training), Grootfontein (meat processing), Tsolo College (baking bread, buns, scones). All offer training in marketing concepts too. Find the list of Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.
- Cape Peninsular University of Technology (CPUT) (i) Department of Consumer Sciences: food and nutrition Tel: 021 460 3431/28 dutoitl [at]cput.ac.za (ii) Food Technology Tel: 021 959 6236 www.cput.ac.za (iii) AgriFood Station Tel: 021 959 6276/021 953 38615 dolleyl [at] cput.ac.za
- CSIR Tel: 012 841 4464 http://biomanufacturing.csir.co.za The CSIR includes agro-processing in its activities. Feasibility studies, business planning, due diligence, etc. as well as implementation and establishment of businesses. Projects include jam production, medicinal plants, hydroponics, mussel farming, leather works and wooden products.
- Dairy Cheret Tel: 011 314 8618 http://dairycheret.com
- Durban University of Technology (DUT) Department of Food and Nutrition: Consumer Sciences Tel: 031 373 2322 www.dut.ac.za
- FoodBev is the Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) responsible for facilitating education and training in the food and beverages manufacturing sector. Visit www.foodbev.co.za or call 011 253 7300.
- North-West University (i) Mechanical Engineering Centre of Excellence in Advanced Manufacturing Tel: 018 299 1329 www.dticoe.co.za Services like product development provided to the food processing and “polymer and natural fibre composition” industry. Extruders and relevant equipment can be built. (ii) Consumer Sciences Tel: 018 299 2470 http://health-sciences.nwu.ac.za/consumer-sciences
- SESTO Tel: 011 888 6099 www.sesto.co.za SAQA accredited training provider delivering learnerships and skills programmes nationally.
- Stellenbosch University Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 www.sun.ac.za/foodsci
- Technology and Human Research for Industry Programme (THRIP) is a flagship research and development instrument of the dti and the National Research Foundation (NRF). Agro-processing is one of its interests. Tel: 012 481 4040.
- University of the Free State www.ufs.ac.za (i) Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 www.ufs.ac.za/censard (ii) Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology Tel: 051 401 2396 www.ufs.ac.za/biotech
- University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences Tel: 033 260 5428 / 59 http://dietetics.ukzn.ac.za
- University of Limpopo Limpopo Agri-Food Technology Station Tel: 015 268 2785 / 3359 www.ul.ac.za
- University of Pretoria www.up.ac.za (i) Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being (IFNuW) sheryl.hendriks [at] up.ac.za (ii) Centre for Nutrition Tel: 012 420 6030 andre.oelofse [at] up.ac.za (iii) Department of Consumer Science Tel: 012 420 2531 consumer.science [at] up.ac.za (iv) Department of Food Sciences Tel: 012 420 3202 food.science [at] up.ac.za
- University of South Africa (UNISA) Department: Life and Consumer Sciences Tel: 011 471 3644 www.unisa.ac.za
- University of Venda Department of Nutrition Tel: 015 962 8510 / 8114 www.univen.ac.za
Find the details of the various associations and companies involved in the relevant agro-processing chapters. In addition to these chapters, also see “Grain storage and handling” and “Consultants”. Be aware too that role players like the ARC, CSIR and Eskom also help in value added activities.
Refer to the SAAFoST website where details of a number of consultants are given. Visit www.saafost.org.za.
Finances and services
- Agri Bio Equipment and Solutions Tel: 021 979 3180 www.agribio.co.za
- CFAM Technologies (Pty) Ltd Tel: 018 285 1031 www.cfam.co.za and www.extruafrica.org.za CFAM is leading supplier of Extrusion plants in Southern Africa. We can assist you with the following: (i) extruded product formulation and development in our Extrusion R&D Centre – for example porridges, snacks, cereals, shakes, etc (ii) design and supply of complete extrusion plant that will produce the same products as made in the R&D Centre (iii) financial analysis models of the plant to do business case development (iv) training and mentoring of plant personnel and operators (v) ongoing maintenance and support to ensure sustainable operation of the plant.
- Coldsure Distribution Services Tel: 016 933 8679 www.coldsure.co.za
- DMG Events Tel: 011 783 7250 www.exhibitionsafrica.com Africa’s Big Seven, which happens at Midrand, “brings together hundreds of global farm to fork suppliers with motivated buyers from each segment of the buying community”.
- EVN Africa Consulting Services Tel: 015 291 2020 / 012 991 5509 www.evn.co.za/community-agriculture.php Food processing plants are one of its offerings
- GPB Consulting Tel: 021 852 7811 www.consultgpb.co.za
- Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Food, Beverages & Agro Industries Tel: 011 269 3000 www.idc.co.za Support is given mainly to horticultural activities, particularly those with a processing element.
- Interpaarl Logistics Tel: 021 862 0445 www.interpaarllogistics.co.za
- MBB Consulting Engineers Tel: 021 887 1026 www.mbb.co.za Post harvest value adds and processing
- National Cleaner Production Centre Tel: 012 841 3772 http://ncpc.co.za Enables lower production costs through reduced energy and water usage, and waste management
- SEDA Alfred Nzo Agro Manufacturing Incubator (SANAMI) Tel: 039 254 5181 www.seda.org.za
- Urban-Econ Development Economists Tel: 012 342 8686 http://urban-econ.com Develops agro-processing strategies
- Van Der Vyver Transport Tel: 021 981 0300 http://vdvtransport.co.za Refrigerated and general transporter
Equipment and ingredients
- Albrecht Machinery Tel: 0861 000 516 www.albrechtmachinery.co.za
- Anchor Yeast www.anchor.co.za
- Anderson Engineering Tel: 033 387 1544 www.andersoneng.co.za
- BMG Tel: 011 620 1500 www.bmgworld.net Full range of process and conveyor belts
- Buckle Packaging and Engineering Tel: 011 613 8024 www.bucklepackaging.co.za
- Buhler Group Tel: 011 801 3500 www.buhlergroup.com Buhler is a global leader in the supply of process engineering solutions, especially for the milling and food industry.
- Crown National Tel: 021 527 5000 www.crownnational.co.za
- Danisco www.danisco.com
- Donaldson Filtration Solutions Tel: 011 997 6000 www.donaldson.co.za Donaldson process filtration provides the food and beverage industry with quality filtration products worldwide.
- Dryers for Africa Tel: 082 925 4396 www.dryersforafrica.co.za Agricultural processing equipment
- Dynamiko Food Ingredients Tel: 011 314 9302 An extensive range of ingredients for the peanut butter, jam, cheese, yoghurt, ice cream, and dairy blend beverage industries.
- Dwaggas Tel: 021 933 2184 www.dwaggas.co.za Salt to the food sector
- Exim International Tel: 021 511 4000 www.exim.co.za
- Facet Engineering Tel: 011 769 1168 www.facetengineering.co.za Process systems and machinery for the agri-food sector
- Flexicon Tel: 041 453 1871 www.flexicon.co.za Bulk handling equipment and systems
- Goldman Engineering Tel: 021 511 3755 www.afrigol.com Food processing technology
- GRAMEC Tel: 011 882 1914 www.gramec.com Industrial mixers, blenders, dryers
- HG Molenaar & Co Tel: 021 868 2210 www.hgmolenaar.co.za Large-scale machinery for food and beverage manufacturers
- Heat and Control Tel: 021 948 5934 www.heatandcontrol.com Food processing, seasoning, conveying, packaging and inspection equipment systems
- Interfab Tel: 011 477 1060 www.interfab.co.za The design, fabrication and installation of stainless steel process equipment
- JBT FoodTech Tel: 021 982 1130 www.jbtfoodtech.com Processing and preserving technologies
- John F Marshall Tel: 011 842 7100 www.johnfmarshall.co.za
- John King Chains Tel: 011 894 3570 www.johnkingchains.com Bakery, timber and sugar industry chains, cereals processing chains, water treatment chains and more …
- Macadams Baking Systems Tel: 021 907 1000 www.macadams.co.za
- Spraying Systems Co. Tel: 011 618 3860 www.spray.co.za
- Stargate Scientific Tel: 011 675 7433 www.stargatescientific.co.za Equipment and consumables supplied into many industry laboratories which include food and beverage
JSE-listed and general
- Astral Foods www.astralfoods.com
- AVI Limited www.avi.co.za
- British American Tobacco www.batsa.co.za
- Clover Industries Ltd www.clover.co.za
- Famous Brands www.famousbrands.co.za
- Heinz Foods SA www.heinz.com
- Hudson & Knight www.hudsonandknight.co.za
- Illovo Sugar Ltd www.illovosugar.co.za
- Libstar Tel: 021 507 7500 www.libstar.co.za
- McCain Foods (SA) www.mccain.co.za
- Mondelez South Africa http://za.mondelezinternational.com
- Mondi Ltd www.mondigroup.com
- Nampak www.nampak.com
- Nestlé (SA) (Pty) Ltd www.nestle.co.za
- Nutritional Holdings www.nholdings.co.za
- Oceana http://oceana.co.za
- Pioneer Food Group Ltd www.pioneerfoods.co.za
- Premier Fishing & Brands Ltd http://premierfishing.co.za
- Quantum Foods Holdings Ltd http://quantumfoods.co.za
- RCL Foods Ltd www.rclfoods.com
- Rhodes Food Group Holdings Ltd www.rfg.com
- SAPPI Ltd www.sappi.com
- Sea Harvest http://seaharvest.co.za
- Sovereign Food Investments Ltd www.sovereignfoods.co.za
- Tiger Brands Ltd www.tigerbrands.com
- Tongaat Hulett Ltd www.tongaat.co.za
- Unilever South Africa www.unilever.co.za
- York Timbers www.york.co.za
Other companies listed on the JSE, not specifically agro-processing but nonetheless relevant to this publication include Kaap Agri, Mondi, Omnia, SASOL, Barloworld, Bell Equipment and the banks. Also relevant here are the many former co-ops, now companies, like AFGRI, GWK etc. (GWK has its own “GWK Farm Foods” division. See www.gwk.co.za/Farm-foods). Find their details in the “Agribusinesses” chapter.
Websites and publications
Visit the websites and documents listed earlier in this chapter. Contact the ARC-AE at 012 842 4000 / 17 for the many publications dealing with on-farm processing. These include:
- Agro-Processing of Field Crops (chilli, bell peppers, tomatoes)
- Agro-Processing of Marine Foods
- Agro-Processing of Poultry (chicken and turkey)
- Oil processing in South Africa
- Oil seed processing using the ram press
- The extraction of essential oils from herbaceous materials by steam distillation
- Processing of Citrus Fruit (grapefruit, lemons, oranges)
- Processing of Dairy (butter, cream, buttermilk, cheese, yoghurt, milk and milk powder)
- Processing of Meat Products (Russians, tongue, hamburger patties, polony, frankfurters, bacon, ham, sausages)
- Processing of Berries, Volume 1 (blackberries, blackcurrant, blueberries, Cape gooseberries, cherries)
- Processing of Berries, Volume 2 (gooseberries, raspberries, redcurrants, strawberries)
- Processing of Cereal Crops Volume 1 (maize, oats, rice)
- Processing of Cereal Crops Volume 2 (sorghum, wheat)
- Processing of Cereal Crops Volume 3 (barley, sesame, poppy seed, rye)
- Processing of Cucurbits (butternut, cucumber, pumpkin, sweet melon, watermelon, baby marrow)
- Processing of Deciduous Fruit (apples, apricots, grapes, pears, plums, peaches, figs)
- Processing of Olives and Legumes (green peas, green beans, cowpeas, lentils, olives, peanuts, mushrooms)
- Processing subtropical fruit (avocado, bananas, figs, guava, kiwifruit, litchi, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple)
- Processing of Oil Seeds (soy beans, sunflower)
- Processing of Root Crops (asparagus, beetroot, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato)
- Processing of Textile Crops (cotton, flax, hemp, sisal)
- Processing of Industrial Crops (chicory, coffee, sugar cane, tea)
- Processing of Herbs and Spices (cinnamon, paprika, jojoba, parsley)
- Processing of Legumes (cowpeas, beans, green beans, lentils, green peas, peanuts)
- General food processing methods
- Processing of snack foods and confectionary)
- Manual on small-scale food processing (achar, jam, etc).
Find the excellent Competition, barriers to entry and inclusive growth: Agro-processing paper by the Centre for Competition Regulation and Economic Development (CCRED) on the internet. The review focuses “on entry and changes in competition dynamics in the agro-processing sector, in the context of the overall trade deficit in processed food products in southern Africa and the need to both expand participation and build competitive capabilities. The study focused in particular on three food value chains, poultry, milling and dairy, considering the developments since extensive competition investigations up to around 2010.”
Paremoer,T. 2016. POLICY BRIEF: Barriers to entry and inclusive growth: policy recommendations for agro-processing. The paper’s conclusion is: “Focusing on facilitating entry at one discrete level of the value chain will likely fail as it will miss the binding competition bottlenecks elsewhere. Ultimately, addressing barriers to entry requires complementary measures across industrial policies, development finance and competition”.
Neves, M.F. 2017. Future of The Food Business: The FACTS The IMPACTS The ACTS. 2nd Edition. New Jersey: World Scientific. Visit www.favaneves.org.
The Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy (BFAP) annual outlook includes processing in its baseline. Find the latest document at www.bfap.co.za.
Mkhathini, K & Zuu, S. 2015. Postharvest food drying technique using a solar tunnel dryer. Research & Technology Bulletin. KZNDARD. Find the document on www.kzndard.gov.za.
The Buyer’s Guide is an annual directory listing the providers of all processing aids, flavours, ingredients, antimicrobial agents, colorants, curing agents etc, food and beverage processing equipment – and more. Visit www.thebuyersguide.co.za.
Companies which sell processing equipment often have manuals and publications explaining the technology and/ or business opportunities involved.
Find the Buyers Guide at www.supermarket.co.za.
www.foodfocus.co.za – “Providing guidance & information for the food industry”.
Evans, J.A. 2008. Frozen Food Science & Technology. Indianapolis, USA: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Reporter. 2018, May 18. “Food and beverage industry faced with mounting risks”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/306/177213.html
- Reporter. 2018, May 8. “Challenges and opportunities as the fourth industrial revolution bring change to agriculture”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/358/176751.html. The article argues that increasing technology will allow smaller players to take on the bigger firms in agro-processing.
- Reporter. 2017, July 19. “IDC calls farmers in SA’s agro-processing industry to apply for funding”. Cape Talk. Available at www.capetalk.co.za/articles/265001/idc-calls-farmers-in-sa-s-agro-processing-industry-to-apply-for-funding
- Thomas, S. 2017, May 4. “Halaal park: coming to the table”. Business Live. Available at www.businesslive.co.za/fm/fm-fox/2017-05-04-halaal-park-coming-to-br-the-table/
- Reporter. 2017. “South Africa leading the way for African agro processing” Africa AgriLeaders Issue 2 2017 www.agricouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/AgriLeaders-vol-2-2017-for-WEB.pdf
Food & Beverage Reporter subscribers have access to agro-processing articles and an online, searchable directory. Visit www.fbreporter.com.