- “Fodder” refers to food given to animals rather than that which they forage for themselves. This includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, grains and legumes. “Forage” traditionally meant plant material eaten by grazing livestock – pasture, crop residue, immature cereal crops – but is used more loosely these days to include what was previously indicated by “fodder”.
- Crop residues are an important source of winter forage.
- In the drier central and western areas of the country, farmers commonly have small areas of drought tolerant fodder crops to provide a fodder reserve for droughts.
- The establishment and management of cultivated pastures is a highly specialised industry. Choice of species or cultivar, preparing the correct seedbed, the time to sow, seeding depth and density as well as fertilisation, are examples of aspects that should be taken into consideration. Grasses are often mixed with other grass species or with legumes like lucerne.
- Cultivated pastures (on dry land) can produce up to four times more than natural veld and play an important role in animal husbandry.
Local business environment
The Annual Report of the South African National Seed Organisation (SANSOR) includes a forage division chapter. This captures the developments and sales relevant to this sector. Find it at www.sansor.org.
The National Lucerne Trust (NLT) developed a grading system for lucerne hay which makes the trading of hay much more effective between sellers and buyers. Lucerne hay can be traded through the website www.lusern.org by registered members.
Sericea Lespedeza, commonly known as “poor man’s Lucerne” [or “smart man’s lucerne” (Bath) and “prosperity lucerne”(Fair)], is a summer-growing legume that can effectively replace Eragrostis curvula.
Like eragrostis, sericea grows well on old low-fertile and humus-depleted lands. But sericea outperforms eragrostis on shallow soils. Abandoned lands that couldn’t produce satisfactory yields of eragrostis can now be converted into productive sericea pasture.
The reason is simple. Eragrostis needs nitrogen, and to fertilise a grass pasture on shallow soils is a poor investment that carries high risk – if it doesn’t rain, your nitrogen is wasted. Being a legume, sericea doesn’t require any nitrogen. It’s also highly drought-tolerant and will produce a good forage yield on relatively infertile soil with no fertiliser at all.
Source: “Why it’s time to change to sericea”, an article by the late John Fair in Farmer’s Weekly. Find it at www.farmersweekly.co.za. Also find details on the Infopak on Sericea Lespedeza under the websites & publications heading.
For the newcomer
When it comes to choosing the best forage crop to plant, it is important to consider the following factors:
- Is the forage crop suited to the soil and climatic conditions?
- What sort of animal production will the forage crop be used for? For example, will it be used for milk production, fattening of weaners or the maintenance of dry cows, and so on?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of a particular forage crop, and how do these characteristics fit in with current stock farming practices?
- How versatile is a forage crop and can it be used for more than one purpose?
- Ensure that sufficient forage is planted to supply the required stock needs. It is preferable to work on a conservative forage yield and to make provision for a surplus.
- Where intensive forage crops are planted under irrigation, be sure to plant crops which provide good yields and have a high feed value. Irrigation is expensive and one must look at obtaining optimal forage yields and optimal usage.
- Before establishment, ensure that you know the fertilizer requirements for forage crops, the correct application times and how to correct any soil nutrient deficiencies.
- Where possible plant more than one forage crop, especially perennial grasses, in order to spread risk and to create a better fodder flow programme. Well-matched grass or legume mixtures can play an important role in this regard.
- Plant forage crops to complement sources of natural grazing and field crop remains and to gain the best advantage from all these sources of animal feed.
- Use of intensive pastures, particularly those under irrigation, can result in internal parasite and fungal disease problems in stock. An effective dosing programme should be followed and, in the case of sheep and dairy cows, preventative measures must be taken for foot rot.
Source: Forage Crop Production Guide by Pannar Seed (Pty) Ltd. This highly useful document can be found on www.pannar.com or at http://www.flipbookcafe.com/books/pannarseed/forage-crops-eng/
Find the grower notes on lucerne at www.lusern.org, website of the National Lucerne Trust (NLT). The NLT writes: “For emerging farmers, it is relatively easy to enter the lucerne industry and produce their own fodder as well as create a positive cash flow by producing seed and hay. By ensuring that only the best quality lucerne seed and hay is being produced, the industry will be more sufficient and profitable, also for the emerging farmer.”
Find grower notes, videos and other information on Tree Lucerne at www.biotechtreelucerne.com.
Associations and NGOs
- Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA) Tel: 049 842 4335 / 083 256 7202 www.grassland.org.za
The GSSA advances rangeland ecology and pasture management in Africa through a dynamic and professional Congress held in July each year, during which current research is presented to a mixed audience of scientists, practitioners and consultants. The Congress includes field trips to practical demonstrations of grassland science in practice, as well as special farmer information days and courses.
The GSSA publishes the internationally recognised African Journal of Range and Forage Science, and the popular publication, Grassroots. The website of the Society hosts all back issues of Grassroots as well as a searchable database of literature relevant to all aspects of grassland science.
Grassland science encompasses applied fields such as livestock production, wildlife management, nature conservation, water catchment management and range and mine-dump rehabilitation. The disciplines that it encompasses include, amongst others, ecology, botany, zoology, range and pasture science, animal science, soil science and genetics. The GSSA intermittently produces information days in collaboration with other organisations on a range of subjects, and has recently unveiled a mentorship programme to provide support to young scientists.
The GSSA hosts a members’ expertise database for the public who seek expert advice in different areas.
- National Lucerne Trust (NLT) Tel: 044 272 8991 / 082 773 4849 www.lusern.org The National Lucerne Trust is the representative body for the South African lucern seed and hay industry. Its services include the co-ordination of research projects, the collection and distribution of information, technology transfer, cultivar evaluation and the stabilisation of the industry.
- SA Tree Lucerne Association (satla) c/o 082 324 5982 Find grower notes, videos and other information on Tree Lucerne at www.biotechtreelucerne.com.
- Find details of SANSOR in the “Seed and seedlings” chapter.
Training and research
- Africa Land-Use Training (ALUT) Tel: 078 228 0008 www.alut.co.za Training courses facilitated by ALUT include how to choose, establish and use cultivated pastures.
- AMT Tel: 073 140 2698 www.amtrends.co.za Included in the market reports and feasibility studies done is “Lucerne production in South Africa”.
- ARC-Animal Production Rangeland Ecology, Forage and Management Tel: 012 672 9111 / 073 www.arc.agric.za Animal Production employs scientists and technicians with a wide range of skills including plant breeding, forage production, conservation agriculture and conservation of plant genetic resources. The focus of their work is research and development of new technologies in the area planted pastures in order to improve forage production for supplementing forage from natural veld. They have a team dedicated to breeding and development of new forage cultivars to improve forage production. They work in partnership with various seed companies in the sales and distribution of new varieties of forage species. They manage a Plant Genetic Resources Genebank, a national asset the focus of which is to ensure that our valuable forage species are conserved. They also conduct research on improving the efficiency of producing forage for livestock under various climatic regions. All these efforts contribute to their support of a thriving livestock production industry. A pasture management training course has been offered in the past. Contact Annetjie Loubser at 012 672 9153 or aloubser [at] arc.agric.za.
- ARC-Plant Protection Research Tel: 012 808 8000 The PPR researches weed management techniques, mainly focusing on alien plants.
- Eastern Cape Department of Rural Development and Agrarian Reform (i) Cradock Experimental Station Tel: 048 881 4513 (ii) Döhne Agricultural Development Institute Tel: 043 683 1240 (iii) Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute (GADI) Tel: 049 842 1113 http://gadi.agric.za
- NOSA Agricultural Services Tel: 087 286 9298 www.nosaagri.co.za
- The Provincial Departments of Agriculture, working closely with the Agricultural Colleges, present courses on cultivated pastures, hay and silage making, and conduct research on pasture production, weed control, and animal nutrition. Scientists and extension officers can provide advice on fodder flow management. The Soil laboratory at Cedara can conduct detailed soil analyses and provide advice on optimal fertiliser regimes for a wide range of crops. Find contact details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. Also see the GSSA delegate list referred to earlier.
- Stellenbosch University Department of Agronomy Tel: 021 808 4803 www.sun.ac.za
- University of Fort Hare Department of Livestock and Pasture Science Tel: 040 602 2059 www.ufh.ac.za Contact details are given for seven staff from UFH on the 2016 GSSA delegate list.
- University of the Free State Animal- and Wildlife- and Grassland Sciences Prof JPC Greyling Tel: 051 401 2211 Prof Hennie Snyman Tel: 051 401 2221 www.ufs.ac.za
- University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Life Sciences Tel: 033 260 5505 Prof K Kirkman – kirkmank [at] ukzn.ac.za http://lifesciences.ukzn.ac.za
- University of Pretoria Department of Plant Production and Soil Science Tel: 012 420 3809 / 3223 Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences Dr A Hassen – 012 420 3273 www.up.ac.za
- University of South Africa (Unisa) Department of Agriculture and Animal Health Prof FN Mudau Tel: 011 471 2818 www.unisa.ac.za
- Western Cape Department of Agriculture (i) Institute for Plant Production Tel: 021 808 5320 (ii) Outeniqua Research Farm Tel: 044 803 3718 www.elsenburg.com Training courses in pastures are offered. Experts give talks on Radio Elsenburg on pastures and feed possibilities e.g. Lobke Steyn on the use of dried apple pulp as feed for cattle.
The agribusinesses like VKB, OVK and Overberg Agri. Find their details in the “Agribusiness” chapter.
Seed, seed treatment and growing systems
- Agricol Tel: 021 981 1126 www.agricol.co.za
- Biotech Tree Lucerne™ Tel: 082 324 5982 www.biotechtreelucerne.com
- BRAZseed www.brazseed.co.za
- Feedgrow Tel: 051 412 6395 http://feedgrow.co.za Units and walk-in structures available for hydroponic fodder production
- Greenfeed Growing Systems Tel: 011 568 2210 / 082 853 8630 www.greenfeed.co.za Systems for producing feed crops aeroponically
- INCOTEC South Africa Tel: 033 386 1560 www.incotec.com
- Klein Karoo Seed Marketing www.seedmarketing.co.za www.pastureseed.co.za
- Lucerne Tree Farm Tel: 044 745 1132 https://lucernetreefarm.wordpress.com Seed supplier. Find the notes on the website about this fodder crop.
- Mayford Seeds/SAKATA www.mayford.co.za Supplies veld grass seed. Visit the website for details of distributors in the different provinces and in other African countries. These include C Baard, HAL Fennell, McDonalds Seeds, Seedplan Distributors and SAKATA branches in Southern Africa.
- MBF International Tel: 082 738 0080 or 072 796 3793 www.mbfi.co.za Seed treatment packages for Lucerne, clover and pastures
- Pannar Tel: 033 413 9500 www.pannar.com
- Southern African Cover Crop Solutions Tel: 031 785 1581 www.sacovercropsolutions.com
- Voer-Boer Tel: 082 890 9476 / 072 735 7000 www.voerboer.co.za Voer-Boer has developed a simple yet cost effective growing system for sprouting cereal grains as feed for livestock
For a full list of seed companies refer to the “Seeds and seedlings” chapter.
Feedmixers, balers and equipment
- Agricon Tel: 071 877 3324 www.agricon-pelleting.co.za
- Cango Engineering Tel: 044 272 3590 www.cango-hammermills.co.za
- Hygrotech SA (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 545 8000 www.hygrotech.co.za
- Orbach Agri Tel: 016 424 6805 www.orbach.co.za
- Richard Keenan SA (Pty) Ltd Tel: 033 330 3135 keenan [at] netfocus.co.za
- W & P Dienste Tel: 051 853 1161
Marketing and consultants
- Africa Land Use Training Tel: 078 228 0008 www.alut.co.za
- Barenbrug South Africa Tel: 021 979 1303 www.barenbrug.co.za
- The soil of pastures compact very quickly due to animal traffic. With regular applications of compost tea, says Ecosoil, this compaction will be removed and better growth will be obtained. Visit www.ecosoil.co.za.
- North West Development Corporation (NWDC) Tel: 018 594 2570 www.nwdc.co.za The NWDC is involved in facilitating an investment opportunity in a lucerne and maize pellet beneficiation plant.
See “Animal feeds” chapter
- Multi Feeds Tel: 053 474 1848/9 www.multifeeds.co.za They supply roughage and protein for livestock e.g. Lucerne, wheat straw, soy oilcake, fish-meal. They also research Lucerne cultivars. In addition to the South African market, Multi feeds exports to Botswana, Swaziland and Namibia.
Websites and publications
- Contact the GSSA for the African Journal of Range & Forage Science, or view it at www.tandfonline.com.
- Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the following publications, available from the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering: (i) Small-scale hay farming in South Africa (also available in Afrikaans) (ii) Artificial drying of Lucerne (also available in Afrikaans) (iii) Production of green Lucerne with a dehydrator system (iv) The operation and application of mounted mowers (v) The operation and application of hay rakes and hay tedders (vi) Guidelines for round bale silage (also available in Afrikaans) (vii) Building of permanent trench and bunker silage silos (viii) The operation and application of medium and big square balers (ix) The application and operation of round balers.
- Visit www.kejafa.com for the following publications, available from Kejafa Knowledge Works: (i) Diereproduksie vanaf aangeplante weiding in die somersaaigebied L Scheepers (ii) Practical Veld and Pasture Management C Dannhauser & J Jordaan (iii) Weidingshandboek (iv) Guide to Grasses of South Africa Frits van Oudtshoorn (also available in Afrikaans) (v) Management Intensive Grazing J Gerrish (vi) Pasture Profits with Stocker Cattle A Nation (vii) Quality Pasture A Nation (viii) Pasture Handbook (also available in Afrikaans)
- The Pannar Seed (Pty) Ltd website is worth a visit – www.pannar.com. Various cultivars of grain and fodder crops are described (find “Products” and “Technical information”), with details of different cultivars and their advantages. Their range also includes various fodder crops including forage cereals, perennial clover pastures, ryegrass, lucerne and forage sorghum. Download the Pannar Forage Crops Production Guide. It can also be read online at http://www.flipbookcafe.com/books/pannarseed/forage-crops-eng/
- Find the many guidelines and brochures at www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre/guideline-documents, website of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. This includes Forage cereals for dryland pasture production.
- Gids tot die Volhoubare Produksie van Weiding (Prof Hennie Snyman) and Die wonder van UHDSB (ultra-hoëdruk-strookbeweiding) (André Lund) can be ordered at 021 406 4962 or lbw [at] media24.com.
- The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa, brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) covers alternative fodder crops in along with the other information. Find the document on www.nwga.co.za or contact 041 365 5030. Also on the NWGA website, find the Media Gallery option which includes grazing and pasture management DVDs (links to Youtube where these can be watched).
- Find the Info-pack Sericea lespedeza (Poor man’s lucerne/Armmanslusern) on http://gadi.agric.za/InfoPacks/infopacks.php. It provides a brief summary of available information on the forage crop Sericea lespedeza.
- Die Kynoch weidingshandleiding. EB Dickinson, GFS Hyam, WAS Beytenbach, Keyser Versfeld. ISBN 0 620 14918 3
- Tropical grasses PJ Skerman, F Riveros. FAO. ISBN 92 5 101128 1.
- Die bestuur van aangeplante weiding in somerreenvaldele Chris Dannhauser. The Distributor, Warmbaths, SA. ISBN 0 620 16389 5.
- Available from the ARC-Animal Production is the Lusern/Lucerne CD. It is a comprehensive guide to the production and management of Lucerne in South Africa. Contact 012 841 9873 / 28. Other resources and publications are also available, like Cultivated Pastures for South Africa, a collection of brochures on the following pasture plants: (1) Acroceras macrum Nile grass, Nylgras (English) (2) Anthephora pubescens Borseltjiegras (Afrikaans) (3) Atriplex nummularia Oumansoutbos (Afrikaans) (4) Cenchrus ciliaris Bloubuffelsgras (Afrikaans) (5) Chloris gayana Rhodesgras, Rhodes grass, Nyankomo (Afrikaans) (6) Cynodon species Star grass, couch grass (English) (7) Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot, Orchard grass (English) (8) Desmodium intortum, Desmodium uncinatum Groenblaar Desmdium, Silwerblaar Desmodium, (Afrikaans) (9) Digitaria eriantha Smutsvinger (Afrikaans) (10) Eragrostis curvula Oulandsgras, Weeping love grass (Afrikaans) (11) Eragrostis tef Teff, Tef, T’ef (English) (12) Festuca arundinacea Tall fescue (English) (13) Leucaena leucocephala Leucaena, koa haole, ipil-ipil, wild tamarind, jumbie bean (English) (14) Lolium multiflorum Italian & Westerwolds ryegrass (English) (15) Lolium perenne Lolium boucheanum x L. perenne Perennial ryegrass Hybrid ryegrass (English) (16) Medicago sativa Lusern, Alfalfa (Afrikaans) (17) Pennisetum clandestinum Kikoejoe (Afrikaans) (18) Pennisetum sp (English) (19) Setaria sphacelata Mannagras (Afrikaans) (20) Sorghum sp (Afrikaans) (21) Trifolium pratense Red clover (English) (22) Trifolium vesiculosum Arrowleaf clover (English) (23) Vicia sp Vetch (English) (24) Vigna unguiculata Cowpea (English)
- Find the “Forage” option at https://wikifarmer.com.
- Find articles on the Farmer’s Weekly website like “Expert tips on producing better silage”, “Producing livestock feed without mechanisation”, “Get the grazing right!” and “Grazing and land value”.
- Van Rooyen, C. 2018, September 10. “Weistelsels sleutel tot vleisproduksie”. Landbouweekblad. Available at www.netwerk24.com/landbou/Bedrywe/Diere/weistelsels-sleutel-tot-vleisproduksie-20180906
- Find the advice given in the Vra Vir Faffa column about growing lucerne.
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