- Cassava is a woody shrub with an edible root, which grows all year round. It is found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world.
- Compared with grains, cassava tolerates poor soils and is more resistant to drought, pests and diseases. It has limited labour requirements. It stores well in the soil after maturity.
- Cassava is usually intercropped with vegetables, plantation crops (such as coconut, oil palm, and coffee), sweet potato, melon, maize, rice, groundnut, or other legumes.
- Roots can be harvested between 6 months and 3 years after planting.
- The root (or “tuber”) is used as a food (a substitute for rice or maize meal). It can also be dried, chopped and fed to animals. The leaves and tender shoots can be cooked as a vegetable or used in sauces.
- Cassava can be used as a substitute for wheat flour in many applications and cassava starch as seasoning in cubes, sauces and soups.
- Cassava is the cheapest known form of starch, and can be used in more than 300 industrial products including the manufacture of tyres, adhesives, ethanol, Pharmaceuticals, livestock feeds, biofuels and alcohol. Its many industrial uses identify it as potentially a great export crop for Africa. It has huge grower potential too.
- At present, average cassava yields are barely 20% of those obtained under optimum conditions.
- Cassava is identified as a crop of much potential and value in South Africa (see heading 3).
International business environment
- Africa, Asia and Latin America are the major producers of cassava.
- The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the largest consumer of cassava in sub-Saharan Africa, followed by Nigeria.
- Nigeria is the biggest producer of cassava while Thailand is the foremost exporter.
- It is the developing world’s fourth most important crop.
- It is the staple food of nearly a billion people in 105 countries where the root provides as much as a third of daily calories.
- Small-scale farmers grow it as a subsistence crop and sell the surplus.
- The crop is championed by NEPAD’s Pan-Africa Cassava Initiative (NPACI) and African agricultural research institutes as a powerful poverty fighter.
- Since it grows and can be stored underground, it is a useful source of food security where there is frequent conflict (the invader cannot easily destroy or remove the crop).
Visit the following websites:
- International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) – www.ciat.cgiar.org
- International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) – www.iita.org/cassava
- The Dutch Agricultural Development and Trading Company (Dadtco) developed a mobile processing unit (AMPU) which processes the root where it was grown. Dadtco has also successfully run cassava bread flour trials. Visit www.dadtco.nl.
Cassava and South Africa
- While cassava has had a long history in the rest of Africa, it is not a well-known crop in South Africa and its agricultural potential in South Africa needs to be fully exploited.
- It is mainly produced in Limpopo, and for industrial purposes. It is also grown in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.
- It is sold within South Africa or to traders from Swaziland and Mozambique.
- Currently some 20 000 tonnes of cassava starch is produced commercially.
If cassava could be introduced successfully in South Africa, it could become the preferred source for raw material as a result of its higher yield per unit area. At present, most glucose is produced from maize starch.
In South Africa the most suitable areas are north of Stanger in KwaZulu-Natal below the 800 m elevation. This area includes the hotter northern and eastern regions of KwaZulu-Natal and the eastern parts of the Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga respectively. These areas together have two million hectares of arable land below the 800 m elevation and an annual rainfall of 500 mm that offers potential for cassava production. Of these, 600 000 hectares are already planted to other crops such as sugar cane, timber, subtropical fruits and cotton. Allowing a loss of a further 400 000 hectares to grazing lands and densely populated settlements in tribal areas, there remain one million hectares which could be planted to cassava.
National strategy and government contact
Cassava features in the Department of Science and Technology’s Bio-economy Strategy.
It has also been one of the country’s eight Key Action Programmes, spelt out under the Department of Trade & Industry’s Industrial Policy and Action Plans (IPAPs). The IPAP 2015/16 – 2017/18 pointed out that he processing of cassava into starch was an example of how the agro-processing sector could “answer some of the macroeconomic questions such as balance of payments (BOP) generated by the current import/export gap”. South Africa sources its supplies of cassava from South East Asia but “with appropriate investment, planning and support, this situation can potentially be reversed”. Starch from cassava was identified as having “a myriad of applications in confectionery, sweeteners, textiles, paper, animal feed and alcohol production”.
Training and research
- ARC-Industrial Crops Tel: 014 536 3150 www.arc.agric.za Research has investigated the mechanisation of cassava production in the eastern part of South Africa. Training in mechanised production techniques, including the best planting techniques for mechanical harvesting is offered.
- ARC-Vegetable and Ornamental Plants (ARC-VOP) Tel: 012 841 9611
- National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Dr Moses Lubinga Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za TradeProbe 61 (January 2016) contains an overview of cassava and its related products. Find the document on the NAMC website.
- NOSA Agricultural Services Tel: 087 286 9298 www.nosaagri.co.za Training and/or training materials available
- University of the Free State Department of Plant Sciences Tel: 051 401 2514 www.ufs.ac.za
- University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) African Centre for Crop Improvement Tel: 033 260 5524 www.acci.org.za
- University of the Witwatersrand School of Molecular and Cell Biology Tel: 011 717 6310/26 www.wits.ac.za
- ABInBEV Cervejas de Mocambique (Mozambique) Accra Brewery Limited (Ghana) www.ab-inbev.com The Impala (Mozambique) and Eagle (Ghana) brands are based 60% to 70% on cassava. This has encouraged agriculture and the number of farmers contracted to supply cassava increased from 2 000 in 2011 to 10 000 in 2014.
- DADTCO Philafrica Tel: 011 063 2224 https://philafricafoods.com/dadtco
- Eastern Cape Development Corporation (ECDC) Tel: 043 704 5600 www.ecdc.co.za Trials with cassava have been run in the Eastern Cape near Port St Johns, Bizana, and in Ncera Village near East London.
- Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) Tel: 011 269 3000 www.idc.co.za
- Tongaat Hulett Starch Tel: 011 458 5000 www.tongaathulettstarch.co.za
Websites and publications
Refer to websites listed earlier in this chapter.
- Several documents of relevance can be found on the ARC-Industrial Crops pages at www.arc.agric.za. Find notes on cassava (its importance in the world, its potential etc) and documents like “Potential for mechanised cassava production in South Africa” here.
- Find the ARC Media video on YouTube entitled “Cassava The Rambo Crop“.
- Grower guides “Production Guidelines: Cassava” and “Mechanical Cassava harvesting Technology”” are available on www.daff.gov.za (take the “Resource Centre” option).
- Smallstarter. “How cassava beer in Mozambique has transformed a poor man’s crop into a cash crop”. Available at www.smallstarter.com/get-inspired/how-cassava-beer-in-mozambique-is-transforming-cassava-into-a-cash-crop/
- Agence France-Presse. 2017, July 13. “Beyond Barley: Cassava Beer Creating a Buzz in the Market”. NDTV Food. Available at https://food.ndtv.com/food-drinks/beyond-barley-cassava-beer-creating-a-buzz-in-the-market-1239017
- Find the notes “Biotechnology and trade in cassava” on the UN’s Food And Agriculture Organisation (FAO) website at www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E06.htm
Sources for the chapter:
- The notes on cassava at www.iita.org/cassava
- The DAFF “Production Guidelines Cassava” available on www.daff.gov.za
- Correspondence with, and notes by, Dr Tom Vorster at ARC-Industrial Crops
- The article “Cassava Research Project: Improvement of cassava for social and economic benefits” by Professor Chrissie Rey on www.saspp.co.za, website of the Southern Africa Society for Plant Pathology.
- “‘Rooting’ out hunger in Africa, and making Darwin proud”, a report in the Independent. Find it at www.independent.co.uk.
- http://agritrade.cta.int/en/Agriculture/Commodities/Horticulture/Sorghum-and-cassava-increasingly-used-in-brewing-across-Africa [link not working, 16 August 2018]
- Notes from SABMiller/ABInBEV
- www.thisdaylive.com/articles/csr-addax-petroleum-trains-rural-farmers-on-cassava-production/204281/ [link no longer working]
- Farmer’s Weekly, 17 January 2014, pp 30 -32.