Forests include plantations, natural/indigenous forests and woodlands/savannas. All activities linked to these fall under the umbrella of “forestry”. A look at the menu options of websites listed in this chapter will confirm the scope of forestry. The Center for International Forestry Research (www.cifor.org), for example, has “Climate change”, “Gender”, “Livelihoods”, “Forest management”, “Food & biodiversity”, “Landscapes” and more.
In addition to timber and related products, forests offer non-timber products and activity. They play a big part in our fauna and flora. Fruits, plants, medicinal herbs, birds and animals are found here. Trees protect watersheds and conserve the soil. They purify water and moderate its flow. They produce oxygen and help the planet against global warming. Often tourist activity incorporates forests or woodland area (South Africa’s Kruger National Park is a woodland area).
Our chapter focuses more on plantations. It is interested in forestry as “the science of planting, managing and caring for timber plantations”. Not that forestry, defined like this, lessens the undertaking. The landscape, the plant and animal species found within them, and the communities affected by them all still require attention. (See the notes by Forestry Explained on what goes with these enterprises at http://forestryexplained.co.za).
Forestry gives us several sectors downstream, like sawmilling, furniture making, paper and pulp production. For more on this, see the “Wood, pulp and paper” chapter.
Agroforestry is when trees are incorporated among other activities on the farm with environmental and other benefits. Interested readers are referred to the following sources:
- Kouarti, J. 2018, March 7. “Improving the Resiliency and Productivity of Farmlands through Agroforestry”. USDA. Available at www.usda.gov/media/blog/2018/03/07/improving-resiliency-and-productivity-farmlands-through-agroforestry
- The document “Agroforestry Strategy Framework for South Africa” (March 2017) on the Forestry South Africa website, www.forestry.co.za.
- The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) pages at www.fao.org/forestry/agroforestry/en/
- The World Agroforestry Center website, www.worldagroforestry.org. Of particular relevance here is the article “Surviving drought through agroforestry”.
International business environment
Find the “International News” section at www.forestry.co.za.
South Africa’s plantation area is 1.3 million hectares. This figure is dwarfed by that of other countries: 47 million hectares in China, 32 million hectares in India, 17 million hectares in Russia and 16 million in the USA (Forestry SA, 2016). The top producers of pulpwood are the USA, Brazil, China, Russia, Sweden, Indonesia, Canada, Finland, Chile and Poland. The top sawlog producers are the USA, Canada, Russia, Brazil, China,Sweden, Indonesia, Germany and Finland.
Loss of forests leads to a loss of biodiversity and diminishes the planet’s ability to withstand global warming. The main threats to the world’s forests are conversion to agriculture, illegal logging, population growth and urbanisation, and poverty. Globally, what mainly causes concern for the management of forests, is deforestation through the illegal cutting down of trees, the expansion of logging into areas which are protected or of high conservation value (HCV), and timber supply from controversial sources.
South Africa: imports and exports
- The Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP) identifies this sector as ranking amongst the top exporting industries in the country (APAP, 2015: 12).
- About 75% of the timber produced in South Africa is exported, mainly as wood chips but also in the form of treated poles and sawn timber. [ABSA, 2016]
The South African timber market follows world price trends.
Find the forestry pages on the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) website, www.fao.org/forestry/en/
The Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)’s publications pages include titles on forest management, forest research, forest degradation, and many more resourceful tools for scientists and those concerned about the future of the world’s forests. Visit www.cifor.org/library.
www.un.org/esa/forests/index.html – the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), the successor to the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF)
www.foresters.org – Global Association of Online Foresters
Read about New Generation Plantations (NGP) at http://newgenerationplantations.org
Local business environment
Forestry South Africa runs websites that give a very useful overview of forestry in the country. Visit Forestry Explained (http://forestryexplained.co.za) and www.forestry.co.za for statistics, news, information on training and legislation and more.
“Forestry, timber, paper, pulp and furniture” has featured in the Department of Trade and Industry‘s Industrial Policy Action Plans (IPAPs). The forestry industry is described as “one of the strategic economic sectors … making a significant contribution towards the GDP”. It had maintained a positive growth rate despite the economic slump and drought conditions (ABSA’s Agricultural Outlook 2017).
About half of the more than 1 700 indigenous tree and shrub species found in South Africa grow along the south and east coasts and on the southern and south-eastern slopes of inland mountains. The other half is spread over the interior plateaus. Indigenous forests are indispensable to the country’s heritage, beauty, wildlife and environment, while commercial forests provide jobs and economic opportunities for many people, especially in rural areas. Plantations cover about 1,3 million ha of South Africa. Over 80% of these are found in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal, with the rest largely located in the Eastern Cape, Western Cape and Limpopo.
Plantations can be classified into two main categories: hardwood and softwood. Eucalyptus (mainly Eucalyptus grandis and its hybrids) and wattle (Acacia mearnsii) are the main hardwood species grown in South Africa. Pine (of which Pinus patula is the most common species) accounts for all South African softwood plantations.
As a tree poor country (where indigenous forests are protected), South Africa has had to rely almost exclusively on the development of exotic forest plantations to meet its demand for wood.
Private sector ownership in forestry accounts for 83% of the total area planted to timber. This includes corporates such as Sappi, Mondi, NCT, and other corporate landowners. 56% of the plantation area is managed mainly for pulpwood production, 36% for sawlog purposes and 4% for mining timber. The remaining 4% is used for other purposes (ABSA, 2016).
Primary roundwood is processed by 184 plants, of which 90 are sawmills (including veneer and plywood plants), 33 poletreating plants, 18 pulp and board mills and chipping plants and 13 mining timber mills. (ABSA, 2016).
Sources: Forestry SA; ABSA Agricultural Outlook 2017; www.gcis.gov.za; the Forestry and Wood Products Market Value Chain Profile (see heading 8).
Find the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) website at www.fsc.org. To find out more about forestry certification, contact SGS South Africa at 021 506 3280 and the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at 012 428 7911.
- The certification of forests and forest products emerged during the previous decade as an environmental initiative to halt the destruction of the world’s natural forests.
- Certification encompasses an independent and ongoing assessment / audit of an organisation’s forest management practices, to measure compliance against a range of nationally and internationally recognised social, economic and environmental standards.
- South Africa has the highest percentage of certified forests worldwide.
- South Africa is developing a South African National Forestry Certification standard as part of the South African Forestry Assurance Scheme (SAFAS). The Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is expected to be implemented during 2018. See www.forestry.co.za/safas/.
National strategy and government contact
The Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP) credits the private sector for its “excellent management capacity” and for ushering in “efficiencies across the value chain”. The State on the other hand can still play a significant role in ensuring adequate levels of capital investment, more especially in longer rotation timber/sawlog plantations. (APAP, 2015: p 15)
Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) www.thedti.gov.za Find the Amended Forest Sector Code (April 2017) in terms of the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Amendment Act on the website. Read about the Industrial Policy Action Plans (IPAPs) and the South African Furniture Initiative in the “Wood, pulp and paper” chapter.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) Find the forestry linked material by taking the “Branches” and then “Forestry & Natural Resource Management” menu options at www.daff.gov.za.
- Directorate: Forestry Operations Tel: 012 309 5708 Eastern Cape – 043 604 5523 Mpumalanga & Limpopo – 015 516 1062 Other regions – 012 309 5708
- Directorate: Commercial Forestry Tel: 012 309 5706
- Directorate: Forestry Regulations and Oversight Tel: 012 309 5710
- Directorate: Small Scale Forestry Tel: 012 309 5712
- Directorate: Woodlands and Indigenous Forest Management Tel: 012 309 5716
- Directorate: International Trade Tel: 012 319 8185
- Eastern Cape Regional Office: Tel: 043 604 5523 / 082 805 5984 NkosipenduleQ [at] daff.gov.za
- KwaZulu-Natal Regional Director Tel: 033 342 8101 / 082 887 2098 KimW [at] daff.gov.za
- Limpopo and Mpumalanga Regional Office Tel: 015 519 3300 / 083 631 0781 AndrewT [at] daff.gov.za
Further details of extension personnel can be found in the Directory: Extension, Advisory and Forest Management Services on the Directorate National Extension Reform web pages at www.daff.gov.za.
Also relevant are directorates like Marketing and International Trade.
The instruments of policy relevant to the forestry sector are:
- The National Forests Act, 1998 (Act No. 84 of 1998) – concerned with the sustainable management of forests and the protection of forests and trees as well as community participation
- The National Veld and Forest Fires Act, 1998 (Act No. 101 of 1998) – concerned with the combating of veld and forest fires
- National Water Act, 1998 (Act No 36 of 1998) – afforestation is a stream-flow reduction activity (SFRA). The introduction of this Act led to the forestry sector losing some 80 000ha (APAP, 2014:13).
- The Wattle Bark Industry Act, 1960 (Act No. 23 of 1960) which provides for the control of the wattle bark industry
- The Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act (CARA), 1983 (Act 43 of 1983) seeks to protect prime agricultural land and manage land use nationally.
- The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), 1998 (Act No 107 of 1998 means that afforestation requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
- The Forest Sector Transformation Charter
Planting trees in a fairly regulated process. A water licence and an environmental impact assessment (EIA) are required.
Certain trees are protected by law and should anyone wish to cut or utilise these trees they need to apply for a licence from their local DAFF office. In terms of Section 15(1) of the National Forests Act, no person may cut, disturb, damage or destroy any protected tree or possess, collect, remove, transport, export, purchase, sell or donate any protected tree or any forest product derived form such a tree without a license.
Forestry South Africa (FSA) Tel: 011 268 1104/1 – Head Office, Tel: 033 346 0344 – Pietermaritzburg Regional Office www.forestry.co.za Forestry South Africa (FSA) represents the interests of 11 corporate forestry companies, about 1 300 commercial and some 20 000 emergent small-scale timber growers in the country. In total its membership owns or controls well over 93% of the Industry’s plantations. It is thus regarded by all stakeholders, both private and public as being the representative body of the South African Forestry Industry.
- Paper Manufacturer’s Association of South Africa (PAMSA) represents the country’s pulp and paper producers
- Sawmilling South Africa (SSA) represents the formal sawmills in the country – www.timber.co.za
- South African Forestry Contractors Association (SAFCA) is an association of forestry contractors which assists contractors with technical information and represents them on national forums and bodies. Call 082 377 7998.
- South African Wood Preservers Association represents timber treaters and preservative manufacturers. Visit www.sawpa.co.za.
- The Wood Foundation (TWF) promotes the benefits of growing trees and the use of wood as a preferred material in the construction of homes and the manufacture of all manner of products. See https://thewoodfoundation.co.za.
- South African Institute of Forestry – see heading 6
Other groups of relevance:
- Dendrological Society and Foundation www.dendro.co.za
- Institute for Timber Construction South Africa www.itc-sa.org
- South African Utility Pole Association Tel: 033 330 3418 / 083 627 6897
- The Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry of South Africa (TAPPSA) www.tappsa.co.za
- The Chemical, Energy, Paper, Printing, Wood and Allied Workers Union (Ceppwawu) Tel: 011 712 0300
Training and research
- Find the “Research and development” option on the “Forestry Regulation & Oversight” pages at www.daff.gov.za.
- Contact the Forestry Industry Museum and Information Centre at 013 764 1058.
General role players
- Forest Industries Training Providers’ Association (FITPA) http://fitpa.co.za
- FP&M SETA (Fibre Processing and Manufacturing Education and Training Authority) Tel: 011 403 1700 www.fpmseta.org.za The SETA responsible for training in the forestry sector.
Tertiary and research
- Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) Natural Resources and the Environment Tel: 012 841 2911 www.csir.co.za Find published research highlights and information about the CSIR’s involvement in forestry on the website.See also www.forestry.co.za/research-csir/.
- Forestry and Forest Products Research Centre Tel: 031 242 2300 / 31 http://ffp.csir.co.za A joint venture between the CSIR and the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
- Fort Cox College of Agriculture and Forestry Tel: 040 653 8033/4 www.fortcox.ac.za
- Institute for Commercial Forestry Research (ICFR) Tel: 033 386 2314 www.icfr.ukzn.ac.za A research institute funded by the private sector timber industry and focussed on applied research in many fields, including amongst others, tree breeding, silviculture and forest protection. See also www.forestry.co.za/research-icfr/
- Merensky Research, Development & Environment Tel: 011 381 5750 www.merensky.co.za
- Nelson Mandela University School of Natural Resource Management Tel: 044 801 5019 / 111 Josua.louw [at] mandela.ac.za http://snrm.mandela.ac.za Forestry National Diploma, B.Tech, M. Tech and D. Tech in forestry. Accredited short courses are also offered.
- South African Institute of Forestry www.saif.org.za
- Stellenbosch University Department of Forest and Wood Science Tel: 021 808 3323 http://academic.sun.ac.za/forestry/ Offers all levels of degrees in forestry and wood science
- University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg) Farmer Support Group Tel: 033 260 6275 http://fsg.ukzn.ac.za
- University of Pretoria Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) Tel: 012 420 3938/9 www.fabinet.up.ac.za A world-class Institute working in the field of combating pests and diseases in the forestry and agricultural sectors
- University of Venda Department of Forestry Tel: 015 962 8310 / 110 www.univen.ac.za
Rhodes University, the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Cape Town offer some training relevant to the forestry chapter e.g. Woodland Ecology, Forest Ecology, Ecophysiology of trees – Nutrition, Water & Carbon.
The reader is referred to the Forestry and Sawmilling Directory, the most comprehensive directory for all involved in this industry. Refer to heading 8. Also find the extensive Business Directory on www.forestry.co.za with some 40 different categories e.g. agrochemicals, anti-split plates for pole manufacturers, automation and information technology, chain saws etc.
Websites and publications
Visit the websites of role players listed earlier in the chapter.
- The Forestry Handbook, published by the Southern African Institute of Forestry (SAIF). Visit www.saif.org.za for details (look for the “Forestry Handbook” menu option), or contact 082 523 8733. Find the other publications here too, like the Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science, the Fire Manager’s Handbook on Veld and Forest Fires (by William C Teie, edited by Tian Pool), and There’s Honey in the Forest.
- Forestry and Sawmilling Directory and Wood Southern Africa & Timber Times are very useful to anyone involved in this industry. Visit www.woodsa.co.za or call 011 726 3081.
- SA Forestry Online – http://saforestryonline.co.za/
- Find the annual Forestry and Wood Products Market Value Chain Profile on the Directorate Marketing web pages at www.daff.gov.za, website of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
- Tree Farming Guidelines for Sappi Outgrowers is a practical guide to timber forestry. The manual is available on CD-Rom (contact 033 347 6629 or write to Sandra.holder [at] sappi.com). Chapters can be downloaded from www.sappi.com.
- The A1-size poster Pests & diseases in South African Forestry can be ordered from SA Forestry magazine. Write to Debbie [at] saforestrymagazine.co.za.
- Subscribe to the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) eNewsletter. Go to www.cifor.org for details.
- Venter F. & Venter, J-A. 2015. Making the Most of Indigenous Trees (3rd edn). Pretoria: Briza.
- Esterhuyse, N., Breitenbach, J. von & Söhnge, H. 2012. Remarkable Trees of South Africa. Pretoria: Briza Publications.
- Van Wyk, B. & van Wyk, P. 2014. Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Penguin Random House.
- Identify South Africa’s 980 larger indigenous tree species, as well as 135 alien invasive trees with an App. Read about The Tree App South Africa at www.thetreeapp.co.za/