- Herbs and spices are used for enriching what we eat and for delighting the tongue. It is the seasoning and flavouring of food brings out all the variety and tapestry of regions, nations, continents.
- The increasing demand in developed countries for natural flavour offers tremendous potential for spice crops as sources of natural flavours. Spices include pepper, ginger, cinnamon, clove, paprika and nutmeg – to name only a few.
- Herbs and spices are used fresh, dry and in blends in preparation of food and beverages. Because of the variety that exists, a farmer needs to do good market research to decide which crop to grow.
- Herbs are also used to treat illnesses. They are used by phytotherapists (a person who practices herbal medicine) and homoeopaths, to treat a wide range of health problems.
- The processing end of herbs and many spices is essential oils (see separate chapter). In addition to flavouring and pharmaceutical uses, essential oils also play a role in personal care items (cosmetics, toothpaste, perfume) and industrial purposes (washing powder, polish, paints). New applications in agriculture include being used as organic pesticides and in veterinary use for insect repellents and safer dips for fleas and ticks.
Sources: Southern African Essential Oil Producers Association (SAEOPA) and www.naturalnutrition.co.za
International business environment
Africa’s low per capita incomes, especially among rural populations, are directly linked to the problems of poverty and hunger. Thus, agriculture is – or could be – a critical engine of economic growth. However, small-scale producers in mainstream agriculture face multiple barriers: declining prices for traditional crops, lack of access to capital, transport, market access, and the market dominance of large commercial enterprises, among others.
Alternative crops, in the form of natural plants, are far better suited to the creation of viable agribusinesses in rural communities. First, indigenous African plants occur naturally and so are relatively easy to cultivate commercially. Second, natural plant production is labour intensive rather than capital intensive, and so minimises capital investment while at the same time maximising job-creation potential. Third, African communities have extensive knowledge of indigenous plants, creating a natural competitive advantage in this sector.
Favourable market conditions in the natural plant products sector also support the involvement of small-scale suppliers. The global nutraceutical market alone is estimated to be worth $60 billion annually in sales of dietary and meal supplements, as well as specialty products. There is also increasing demand for organic and natural products such as herbal teas, essential oils, herbs and spices, phytomedicines and phytocosmetics. This growth has been supported by a global swing away from synthetic products to those that are natural, healthy, sustainably produced and fairly traded.
Africa has only just started to tap the virtually unlimited economic potential of its natural botanical heritage. To reap the full benefit, much more has to be done to commercialise crops, to increase value-addition on African soil, and to capitalise on new market development opportunities. To introduce these crops into the main market stream will be a major challenge, but can be done with support, training and funding.
Some international websites
- www.ifeat.org – International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEAT)
- Find updates on the spices web pages at www.intracen.org/itc/market-insider/spices/, website of the International Trade Centre
- www.botanical.com – the electronic version of “A Modern Herbal” by Maud Grieve
- www.indianspices.com – Spices Board of India. A directory of Indian Spices exporting companies is available from them.
- www.thespicehouse.com – Merchants of exquisite spices, herbs and seasonings (American)
- www.spiceadvice.com – A spice encyclopedia
- www.herbnet.com – “for everything herbal”, a US-based site
- www.herbs.org – Herb Research Foundation (USA)
- www.herbherbert.com – Australian website. It includes notes for gardeners, retailers and growers.
- http://abc.herbalgram.org – “Your source for reliable herb information”, presented by the American Botanical Council
Source: ASNAPP and SAEOPA
Local business environment
Find the annual, highly useful Herb and Spice Market Value Chain Profile and Essential Oils Market Value Chain Profile on the Directorate Marketing pages at www.daff.gov.za.
For the newcomer
- As many herbs and spices are especially suited to small-scale cultivation (many are short-term crops), they could be of major significance to smaller producers and also to limited-resource farmers in rural areas countrywide. Countries like China and India are good examples of success in essential oil production by small farmers.
- Herbs and spices are ideal for rural areas especially if they are dried locally. This reduces the volume to be transported, and the dried product can be stored under cool, dry conditions for a length of time.
- The advantages of essential oils as a crop are unlimited. The reason for it not being a popular crop is because of lack of basic agricultural and marketing information, and the exploitation and the ignorance of farmers when it comes to alternative crops.
- Most essential oil crops are relatively pest and disease free, drought tolerant, low risk, low input cost, no theft value and can be done collectively on small scale farms.
- A constant effort is made to recruit new emerging farmers in the industry.
- Projects overlap into the fields of agriculture, chemistry, economics, botany, consumer science, tourism health, indigenous knowledge systems and social studies. More people from all these disciplines and faculties could become involved to the advantage of the industry, the agriculture community and our country.
- Allied Health Professions Council of South Africa (AHPCSA) www.ahpcsa.co.za
- Homoeopathic Association of South Africa www.homeopathy.org.za
- The Health Product Association of Southern Africa (HPA) represents the majority of manufacturers and distributors of Complementary and Traditional Medicines in Southern Africa. See www.hpasa.co.za.
- Southern African Essential Oil Producers Association (SAEOPA) http://saeopa.wixsite.com/saeopa. You can call Karen Swanepoel – 082 081 6077 – or write to her at saeopa [at] gmail.com.
- South African Association of Herbal Practitioners www.herbalpractitionerssa.co.za
- South African National Halaal Authority www.sanha.org.za
Training and research
Various companies involved offer workshops and training. The newsletters available (see last heading) often carry news of these, as do the agricultural weeklies e.g. Farmer’s Weekly. Also refer to this sub-heading in the “Essential oils” chapter.
- ARC-Tropical & Subtropical Crops (ARC-TSC) Tel: 013 753 7000 www.arc.agric.za
- Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (KwaZulu-Natal) Tel: 033 355 9156 figueiredo [at] kzndard.gov.za
- Foundations for Farming does training in planting a vegetable garden and growing herbs, among other things. Contact Neill Jackson at 082 444 3947. Find details at www.foundationsforfarming.co.za
- KARWIL Consultancy Willie Alberts – 072 929 7080 Research and training on essential oil and industrial crops
- SAAFFI orchestrates Precise Short Training Courses (PSTCs). Find information at www.saaffi.co.za.
- South African Herb Academy (SAHA) Tel: 012 819 1049 www.herbclass.com Distance Learning Herbology Study Programmes. Contact SAHA for details of all courses and modules.
- Stellenbosch University Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 021 808 4900 www.sun.ac.za/horticulture
- Stellenbosch University Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 www.sun.ac.za/foodsci
- University of the Western Cape School of Natural Medicine Tel: 021 959 3064 www.uwc.ac.za
Some companies involved
- Abba Moosa Wholesalers Tel: 031 209 1125 www.orientaldelight.co.za
- Africa Spice Tel: 011 623 1322 www.africaspice.co.za
- Afriplex Tel: 021 872 4976 www.afriplex.co.za
- AMT Tel: 073 140 2698 www.amtrends.co.za Business plans and feasibility studies.
- Alpha Seeds Tel: 016 366 0616 alphaseed [at] lantic.co.za
- Ballstraathof Tel: 011 794 2316 www.ballstraathof.co.za
- BulbAloe Tel: 082 343 1707 www.bulbaloe.co.za
- The Cape Herb and Spice Company Tel: 021 701 5140 http://capeherb.co.za/
- Chilli Africa Tel: 082 820 8986 www.chilliafrica.co.za
- CP Rookie Mas Tel: 031 401 8595 www.cprookiespices.co.za
- Crown National Tel: 011 201 9000 www.crownnational.co.za
- Deli Spices Tel: 021 505 2000 www.delispices.co.za
- Entreshar Enterprises Tel: 011 886 0240 https://entreshar.co.za
- Essential Herbs Tel: 084 459 0072 / 083 409 8309 www.essentialherbs.co.za
- Golden Spices Tel: 011 493 4885 www.goldenspices.co.za
- Gout Care South Africa www.goutcare.co.za
- Green Energy Herbals Tel: 076 769 3387 http://greenenergyherbals.wixsite.com/greenenergyherbals
- Herbs-a-plenty Tel: 082 562 2343 / 082 338 5550 www.herbs-aplenty.com
- Herbal Africa Tel: 011 673 1692 www.herbalafrica.co.za
- Icy Herbs Tel: 051 943 0317 www.icyherbs.co.za
- Jacklin Organics cc Tel: 082 456 8886 www.jacklinorganic.co.za Certified organic dried chilli, dried basil etc
- KARWIL Consultancy Willie Alberts – 072 929 7080 Develops business plans for the industry.
- KPM Spice Enterprise Tel: 011 838 1605
- Lavender Farm Tel : 028 512 3476 http://lavender-farm.co.za
- Malanseuns Tel: 012 549 2128 www.malanseuns.co.za
- Margaret Roberts Herbal Centre Tel: 012 504 2121 / 071 161 6441 (mornings only) www.margaretroberts.co.za
- Marsing & Co Africa Tel: 011 462 6913 www.marsing-sa.com
- McCormick Tel: 011 990 4900 www.mccormick.com
- Natpro Spicenet Tel: 031 705 4118 www.paprika-sa.com
- Natura Laboratory Tel: 012 813 9400 www.natura.co.za
- Natural Herbs and Spices Tel: 021 510 8339 www.nproducts.co.za
- PaprieX Tel: 012 250 2676 www.papriex.com
- Peppadew International Tel: 011 516 4200 www.peppadew.com
- Peter’s Gate Tel: 076 412 1320 / 082 822 8924 www.petersgate.co.za Growers and supplier of plants/ seedlings
- Petrow Food Ingredients Tel: 011 613 2702 www.petrowfoods.co.za
- SAKATA Seeds Tel: 011 548 2800 www.sakata.co.za
- Salamander Concepts (Pty) Ltd Tel: 012 361 2112 www.ageless.co.za
- Spice and all things nice Tel: 021 448 2601 www.spice.co.za
- The Lavender Company Tel: 033 234 4741 / 082 825 9243 Growers and supplier of plants / seedlings
- The Spice Factory Tel: 011 918 7247 www.spicefactory.co.za
- Total Health Tel: 031 701 6827 www.totalhealth.co.za
- Unilever www.unilever.co.za Find contact details on the website
Various municipalities, provincial investment agencies and institutions like the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) have involvement in essential oil crops.
Websites and publications
Also see this heading in the “Essential oils” chapter.
- Herbs – Grow your own First Aid Kit
- Herbs for the Garden/Kruie vir die Tuin
- Production Guidelines for Ginger
- Growth Phases of the Ginger plant
- Production Guidelines for Turmeric
- Cultivation of Papaya
- Grow your own Pepper
- Die Verbouing van Peper
Contact them at Tel: 013 753 7000/81 or email infoitsc [at] arc.agric.za.
ARC-Vegetable and Ornamental Plant (ARC-VOP) provides publications relevant to the “herbs and spices” category e.g. The cultivation of parsley, The cultivation of culinary herbs in South Africa, Production of coriander in South Africa etc. Contact them at 012 841 9611.
Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the following publications, available from the ARC-Institute for Agricultural Engineering:
- Manual on the Agro-processing of Herbs and Spices
- Processing of Herbs and Spices (cinnamon, paprika, jojoba, parsley)
- Processing of Field crops (chilli, bell peppers, tomatoes)
- Oil processing in South Africa
- Oil seed processing using the ram press
- The extraction of essential oils from herbaceous materials by steam distillation
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) publications:
A number of publications are available at www.daff.gov.za. On the Directorate: Marketing web pages find the latest annual Herb and Spice Market Value Chain Profile and Industrial Products: Essential Oils Market Value Chain Profile.
Taking the Resource Centre option will bring you to the many notes for growers. These include:
- A guide to essential oil crops
- Brochure: Celery
- Brochure: Chillies
- Brochure: Cleome 2009
- Brochure: Cleome 2010
- Brochure: Devil’s Claw
- Brochure: German chamomile
- Cultivation of pepper
- Production guidelines for African wormwood
- Production guidelines for basil
- Production guidelines: Cleome
- Production guidelines for Lavender
- Production guidelines for lemon balm
- Production guidelines for lemongrass
- Production guidelines for peppermint
- Brochure: Rose geranium
- Production guidelines for rose geranium
- Production guidelines for rosemary
- Production guidelines for thyme
- Production guidelines: wild ginger
- Companies involved – e.g. SAKATA Seeds have grower guides. Contact SAKATA at 011 548 2800.
- Peter K.V. 2012. Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. There are three different volumes. Vital for those involved in the study, cultivation, trade and use of spices and herbs. Contact Academic Marketing Services at 011 447 7441.
- The South African Journal of Natural Medicine is dedicated to providing information to the general public and practitioners interested in all aspects of natural medicine. Visit www.naturalmedicine.co.za.
- Find the publications by Margaret Roberts at www.margaretroberts.co.za. The contact number for the Magaret Roberts Herbal Centre is 012 504 2121. These can also be ordered from Random House Struik (see www.randomstruik.co.za).
- Back to Eden. Jethro Klosse. Lotus Press. An essential handbook for those interested in herbalism and traditional remedies. Order it on www.amazon.com.
On the web:
- Find the feature “A guide to essential oil producers” and cultivating crop for essential oil distillation” in ScienceScope, Volume 11 Number 2 at www.csir.co.za/sites/default/files/Documents/SCIENCESCOPE_SMME_082017.pdf
- Under SPECIFIC CROPS at www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre/guideline-documents are grower notes on Horseradish.
- Find “How to Grow Basil Easily: Pro Tips To Do It Right” by Alex Harris at https://electrosawhq.com/how-to-grow-basil/
- Find the “Vertical growing” option at http://hydroponicssouthafrica.co.za. Systems on offer (vertical semi-interlocking pots) enable more plants per square metre than conventional methods.
- On www.agis.agric.za find notes on the following: comfrey, coriander, ginger, pepper, peppermint and spearmint, turmeric, sweet basil. [Website not working, 23 July 2018, 23 August 2018]
- Find the “Herbs” option at https://wikifarmer.com.
- Find the article “18 spices scientifically proven to prevent and treat cancer“ at https://wakeup-world.com.
- Find the free download “Spices that heal” by Suzy Cohen at https://shop.suzycohen.com/pages/here-is-your-free-download
- Find the herbal encyclopaedia on www.ageless.co.za.
- www.kruiekraaikoning.co.za, website of the Afrikaans radio station Radiosondergrense’s programme “Kruie kraai koning”.
- Find the “Herbal facts” at www.herbalafrica.co.za.
- Find the articles by Ivor Hughes on www.scienceinafrica.com and elsewhere. A series of his articles outline the basic requirements for small scale, sustainable cultivation and processing techniques for rural communities. In particular, look out for “Herbs in Africa: Conservation and Co-operation” .
- www.herb.co.za – the Bouwuet Garni website. Grower articles, links, popular features etc.
- Find notes on Companion Planting at www.herbherbert.com (Australian) and www.richters.com (Canadian).
- Find the extensive notes at http://healthyliving-herbs.co.za.
- www.petalive.co.za – natural treatments for your pet