- Citrus comprises the following broad categories: oranges, soft citrus, grapefruit, and lemons and limes.
- These can be consumed as fresh fruit or processed for juice making, juice concentrates and dried fruit production. Citrus fruit can also be processed as essential oils obtained from fruit peels.
- These are used by the flavour houses to add flavour to drinks and food, by pharmaceutical companies, in aromatherapy and by the cosmetics industry.
International business environment
- The top producers of oranges are Brazil, China, EU, USA and Mexico (SA is at number 8) (USDA, 2020). The top exporters of oranges are Spain (22%), SA (18%), USA, EU and Turkey (6%) (USDA, 2020).
- The top producers of tangerines/mandarins: China, EU, and Turkey (USDA, 2020). SA is at number 8, but she is the fourth largest exporter.
- The top producers of grapefruit are China, USA, Mexico, SA and Turkey. SA is the top exporter (USDA, 2020) and, after the US, the top processor (USDA, 2020).
- The top producers of lemons and limes: Mexico, Argentina and the EU. SA is at number 6. The top exporters are Mexico, Turkey and SA (USDA, 2020).
- South Africa remains the 6th largest exporter of soft citrus (BFAP, 2019).
- A World Citrus Organisation (WCO) was launched in October 2019. See https://worldcitrusorganisation.org.
South Africa: imports and exports
“On the full citrus spectrum, South Africa is the third largest exporter in the world, after Spain and Turkey, despite only being number 15 in terms of production volume. Oranges comprise the bulk of citrus exports, and are also the single most important fruit export product by value and volume in South Africa”, (BFAP, 2019).
The decision by the UK to leave the EU is a cause for optimism. Since it has no citrus industry, there is no need for protectionist measures like the EU has. The Citrus Growers’ Association continues to focus on opening and expanding market access in key markets including China, USA, India, Philippines, Japan, Vietnam and the EU (Chadwick, 2020).
The Citrus Growers Association website – www.cga.co.za – has information on packed and shipped volumes which is updated weekly during the citrus season. All growers of export citrus who pay the levy, and exporters who are registered with FPEF (Fresh Produce Exporters Forum) have access to this information, as do members of the CMF (Citrus Marketing Forum). Passwords for the Grower Section of the website are available by contacting gloria [at] cga.co.za.
- Find the updates of different citrus fruit at www.freshplaza.com and the monthly “Citrus: World Markets and Trade” from the USDA at https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf
- The annual Fresh Fruit Exporter Directory gives trade statistics for the citrus and other fruit sectors. Download it at the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) website, https://fpef.co.za.
Local business environment
Citrus yields a revenue of between R19- and R20 billion per year, of which 92% comes from exports. It provides jobs for more than 100 000 people (Chadwick, 2019).
Regions under citrus are climatically diverse. Examples are:
- the semi-tropical areas of the low-lying eastern seaboard (Zimbabwe, Moçambique, and Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa);
- the higher lying subtropical areas (Nelspruit, Letaba, Zimbabwe middleveld);
- the cool coastal areas of the Eastern and Western Cape.
The northern and eastern areas of Southern Africa are all summer rainfall areas, whereas the Western and Southern Cape enjoy a Mediterranean-type climate with winter rainfall. In the Eastern Cape a bimodal rainfall pattern exists with rains mostly occurring in spring and the fall. This broad climatic range from semi-tropical to Mediterranean-type climates has numerous, distinct advantages resulting in a wide range of cultivars being successfully produced from late February/early March through to late September/mid October.
Citrus produce in South Africa is sold through different marketing channels such as national fresh produce markets, informal markets (street hawkers), directly to processors for juice making and dried fruit production. The fruits are also sold directly to wholesalers and retailers through signed contracts. The largest portion – some 70% – is exported to foreign countries through export agents.
Any natural and/or phytosanitary disaster can also not equally affect all regions, and the supply of fruit from Southern Africa as a whole is thus fairly stable from year to year. However, this diversity also has disadvantages in terms of variability in quality of the same cultivar produced in different areas.
Because citrus production is primarily focused on export it is highly exposed to competition. Maintaining a good (cost competitive) position, high fruit quality (which includes compliance to phytosanitary standards) and keeping abreast with changes in world market trends are of the utmost importance, as are efforts by government and the industry to support market access and facilitate trade negotiations (BFAP, 2018).
The latest Citrus Market Value Chain Profile from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development at www.daff.gov.za (on the Directorate Marketing’s pages) provides an analysis of the citrus value chain.
Projects and new farmer information
The Info Pak (see “Websites & publications” heading) is a practical introduction to growing citrus.
- CGA Grower Development Company (CGA-GDA) Tel: 012 003 4209 http://cga-gdc.org.za Supporting sustainable and profitable black-owned citrus enterprises
- Of interest too are Citrus Growers’ Association (CGA) publications like Our Citrus Transforms, Women in Citrus, Youth in Citrus, Fruits of Success and New Stories of South African Citrus. All five books are available from the CGA offices. Call 031 765 2514 or e-mail Gloria [at] cga.co.za
- Citrus Academy Tel: 031 765 3410/2 www.citrusacademy.org.za The Citrus Academy was established at the beginning of 2005 as a division of the Citrus Growers Association, with the purpose of creating an enabling environment for skills development within the South African citrus industry. Since 2007, the Academy has been a separate non-profit company. The activities of the Academy are funded by CGA levies, with additional project funding sources from a variety of donors.
Grower’s points of interest
Citrus Improvement Programme and nursery practices
South African citrus producers purchase their trees from nurseries accredited by the South African Citrus Improvement Scheme (SACIS). The SACIS serves the citrus Industry via a centralised budwood supply farmblock – Citrus Foundation Block (CFB) – near Uitenhage, close to Port Elizabeth. Currently the CFB supplies all certified propagation material to accredited citrus nurseries. A nuclear block of virus-free material of all cultivars is maintained at the Agricultural Research Council-Tropical and Subtropical Crops (ARC-TSC) and at Citrus Research International (CRI) in Nelspruit. All the propagation material, except lemons, has been inoculated with a mild strain of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) to protect the trees against the more aggressive CTV strains that is commonly found in southern Africa.
Since the 1980s, rootstocks rendering high internal quality fruit (such as Troyer and Carrizo, X639 and MXT citranges, and Swingle citrumelo) have become the rootstocks of choice. This aspect is important for the future competitiveness of the Southern African citrus industry to produce fruit of high eating quality to compete with citrus production regions such as Argentina, Uruguay and Australia where trifoliate orange rootstock is preferentially used due to the cold tolerance it imparts on the scion. Rough lemon rootstock is still the preferred rootstock for lemons. Where Eureka lemons are used, producers are aware of incompatibility with certain citrange rootstocks.
Planting time and procedure
Since most nurseries are producing trees in containers, time of orchard establishment is not critical. However, in the colder, windy areas the preferred planting time is early spring (September/October).
Nursery trees are commonly topped at 60 to 70 cm height to allow scaffold development to occur at a height of 40 to 60 cm. Growers ensure that trees with goose neck root systems are not planted.
Citrus tended to be ranched in certain areas, especially the hot climatic regions. Due to increased establishment costs and the need for earlier economic break-even, and the need to have sunlight-, spray- and picker-friendly trees, there has been a move towards increasingly higher planting densities. Also, the new wave of technology development in tree size maintenance, particularly pruning, provide citrus producers with more confidence to plant at higher densities.
In the hotter regions, where Valencia oranges and grapefruit are produced, spacings of 7×3 meters or 6×3 meters are commonly used, whereas in the cooler regions, where Navel oranges, and Clementine and Satsuma mandarins are produced, spacings as wide as 6×3 meters and as close as 4.5 or 5×2 meters are used.
Preplant soil preparation
The high potential soils of the northern areas (with little or no need for pH correction) are usually only ripped and land preparation costs are thus quite low. In the Western Cape region a lot of money is spent on proper ripping and ploughing. Soil pH correction and other ameliorants (phosphorus, sometimes micro-elements) are added in a double ploughing action. Expensive subsoil drainage systems are often required. In addition, in many cases ridging is considered to provide for added drainage or where the soil is high in clay content.
In the case of replant soils the previous trees must be removed with their root systems, the soils must be ploughed and dried out properly to allow the incidence of soil borne pathogens such as Phytophthora to diminish, and replanting should only take place two years after the proper removal of the trees if the soils are not fumigated before replanting.
In certain citrus producing areas windbreaks are necessary to reduce wind blemishes. Many windbreak types have been tested or are commonly used. The most well-adapted windbreak tree throughout Southern Africa is beefwood or Casuarina (Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq.). Pinus radiata D. Don and silky oak (Grevillea robusta A. Cunn) are sometimes used. Deciduous type windbreaks are often used as secondary windbreaks in conjunction with beefwood in the Western Cape, e.g. Dutch alder (Alnus cordata) and Chinese poplar (Populus simonii [syn. P. obtusa]).
Whereas it is not so critical to plant in north-south row directions in the northern regions (lower latitude, dry winters), it is still commonly done. In the more southern latitudes, with the more extreme angle of the sun and where rain or dew can keep the tree wet for extended periods during harvest, it is essential to plant in a north-south row direction, especially with Alternaria susceptible cultivars.
Irrigation and fertigation
Under-tree microsprinkler irrigation systems are most commonly used, while a few orchards still use overhead sprinkler irrigation. More recently, however, drip irrigation systems have become increasingly common, with an increased use of drip fertigation where pH and electrical conductivity are controlled in a balanced nutrient solution which is provided daily to restrict root system development in a bid to control tree phenology. To attain good eating quality, pre-harvest water stress (limited or deficit irrigation) has become an accepted practice, for example with Satsuma mandarin.
Fertilisation of bearing trees is exclusively based on annual leaf analysis data from leaves from fruiting terminals and the previous history of the orchard with respect to yield, fruit size, quality and previous fertilisation record. Nitrogen phosphorus and potassium are most commonly applied as soil applications, whereas magnesium and the micro-elements (copper, boron, zinc, manganese and molybdenum) are applied as foliar applications, when required. Soil pH correction is achieved by the addition of calcitic or dolomitic lime, and water penetration or salinity problems are addressed by the application of gypsum.
In some production regions there is a shift towards selective pruning by hand or with pneumatic pruning equipment. Most large orchards are, however, hedged and topped mechanically. Though higher density plantings are the norm, growers should guard against too dense plantings which could result in crops being pruned away. Managing post prune re-growth is critical.
Source: Citrus Research International. Visit www.citrusres.com.
National strategy and government contact
Citrus is one of several crops identified as being both labour-intensive AND having high growth potential (DAFF, 2018; Sihlobo, 2018).
The National Development Plan (NDP), recognised the potential of commercial agriculture for job creation. In setting its targets for job creation, the NDP recognised:
- The employment requirement to produce citrus fruit is estimated at one worker per hectare of an estimated 60 000 translating into about 60 000 workers employed on citrus farms.
- Direct downstream labour requirements for citrus are estimated at one labourer per 2 500 cartons packed: with about 100 million cartons packed per year, some 40 000 jobs are created in packing plants for a period of six months, or 20 000 full-time equivalents.
- In addition, there are labour requirements for transportation, warehousing, port handling, research and development, and processing
The Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP), took its cue from the NDP and the previous Industrial Policy Action Plans (IPAPs), and wanted the citrus sector to increase plantings by 15 000ha to 80 000ha, which would realise an increase in employment from 70 200 to 85 200 jobs. It set out seven policy levers to achieve this, including reviewed trade policies and intensified infrastructure investment.
Citrus – like several other labour-intensive sectors like table grapes, apples, macadamias, pecans and avocadoes – has already reached and gone beyond the targets set by the NDP (BFAP, 2019). These gains have unfortunately been outweighed by the crisis in sugarcane and job losses in other sectors.
The Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) 2018/19 – 2020/21 featured fruit export development in the Key Action Programmes. Find the document at www.thedti.gov.za.
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The general “Fruit” page has contact details for the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum and other relevant bodies.
Citrus Growers Association of Southern Africa (CGA) Justin Chadwick: Chief Executive Officer Tel: 031 765 2514 www.cga.co.za
The CGA is mandated to maximise the long-term profitability of its members. A statutory levy of R112 per 15 kg carton allows it to fund a number of programmes – mainly research and research-related (disease management, integrated pest management and fruit quality enhancement). Other programmes include citrus improvement, market access, sanitary and phytosanitary issues, technology transfer, information and industry transformation. On the request of growers, logistics has now been included in the range of services offered to citrus growers and exporters.
Citrus Marketing Forum
- Joint Chairmen: Anton Kruger (CEO-FPEF) and Justin Chadwick (CEO-CGA)
- Secretarial services: Antonia Appel, Antonia [at] fpef.co.za and Gloria Weare, gloria [at] cga.co.za
The CMF currently meets two or three times a year, at the beginning of the citrus season, mid season (if necessary) and end of season. Export agents, growers of export citrus and other stakeholders have an opportunity to voice their opinions and discuss the various markets. Estimates for the various commodity types are also discussed and the meeting is therefore made aware of the destination of the fruit and can discuss alternative destinations and advise the export agents accordingly.
South African Citrus Processors Association Tel: 015 298 6001
CGA group of companies:
- CGA Cultivar Company Tel: 041 583 3464 www.cgacc.co.za
- Citrus Research International (Pty) Ltd. (CRI) Tel: 013 759 8000 www.citrusres.com CRI, the research arm of Citrus Growers Association, has been commissioned to research and develop the technical issues required to enhance access of southern African citrus to world markets. This includes requirements for opening new markets and retaining and improving access to existing markets. Read about research, the Citrus Improvement Scheme (CIS), Extension and more on the website, www.citrusres.com.
- Citrus Foundation Block: Uitenhage Tel: 041 992 5366 Citrus Foundation Block is responsible for multiplication of citrus propagation material. Commercial citrus nurseries buy budwood from the Foundation Block to make trees for the industry.
- National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za Agricultural industry Trusts (including the citrus one) are administered here.
- Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 www.ppecb.com PPECB provides internationally preferred food, safety, quality and assurance services to promote and instil confidence in South African products. Contact details of all their regional branches are available on their website.
Training and research
Read about the CGA Cultivar Company and Citrus Research International under the “CGA group of companies” heading.
- ARC-Agricultural Engineering (ARC-AE) Tel: 012 842 4017 Included in this campus’ mandate is agro-processing. Contact it for the Agro-processing of Citrus Fruit manual.
- ARC-Tropical and Subtropical Crops (ARC-TSC) Tel: 013 753 7000 www.arc.agric.za The ARC-TSC in Nelspruit breeds new varieties and houses the citrus quarantine facility.
- Citrus Academy Tel: 031 765 3410/2 www.citrusacademy.org.za (See earlier note about the Citrus Academy under heading 4). The Citrus Academy Bursary Fund supports students and a variety of academic institutions all over South Africa, and is paired with work experience and exposure programmes. The Citrus Academy also develops learning programmes and learning media that is used widely to enable and support skills development in the citrus industry. The website of the Citrus Academy has been designed as a functional tool where visitors can apply for bursaries, look for qualified candidates, find learning media and resources, access learning programmes, get involved in learning events, and catch up with the latest news of the Skills Development front.
- Citrogold Tel: 021 882 8277 www.citrogold.co.za
- Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3728
- Stellenbosch University Department of Horticultural Science Tel: 021 808 2112 www.sun.ac.za/horticulture
- Stellenbosch University Department of Plant Pathology Tel: 021 808 4799
- University of Pretoria Department of Plant Production and Soil Science Tel: 012 420 3220/4 www.up.ac.za
Learnerships and apprenticeships are a combination of on-the-job learning along with some theoretical training. The major part of the training can be offered on the farm. Find information on learnerships in the “Agricultural education & training” chapter, or on the AgriSETA website, www.agriseta.co.za (under “Skills delivery” option).
Companies: inputs and services
- Amathole Economic Development Agency Tel: 043 721 2070 www.aspire.org.za
- CGA Grower Development Company (CGA-GDA) Tel: 012 003 4209 http://cga-gdc.org.za Supporting sustainable and profitable black-owned citrus enterprises
- Citrashine Tel: 011 835 2646 / 015 345 1899 www.citrashine.co.za
- Du Roi Nursery Tel: 015 345 1650 www.duroinursery.co.za
- Futuregrowth Agri-fund Tel: 021 659 5300 www.futuregrowth.co.za
- Houers Koöperatief Bpk Tel: 015 345 8100 www.houers.co.za
- JBT Corporation Tel: 021 982 1130 www.jbtc.com
- Oro Agri Tel: 021 850 0667 www.oroagri.com
- Plan.a.head Tel: 033 342 7888 www.planahead.co.za
- River Bioscience Tel: 041 583 3464 www.riverbioscience.co.za
- Syngenta Tel: 011 541 4000 www.syngenta.co.za
- Vital Bugs cc Tel: 087 751 0279 www.vitalbugs.co.za
Companies: growers and exporters
Find the exporter lists on https://fpef.co.za.
- Afrigold SA Tel: 021 492 3955 www.afrigoldsa.com
- ALG Marketing Tel: 022 921 3439 www.algestates.com
- Alliance Fruit Tel: 083 642 8089 http://alliancefruit.co.za
- AMC Fruit SA Tel: 021 851 1234 www.munoz.co.za
- Bet-El Fruits Tel: 021 863 3146 www.betelfruits.co.za
- Bonfrut Tel: 076 610 2823 www.bonfrut.co.za
- Bono Farm Management Tel : 021 657 4033 www.bonoholdings.co.za
- Boschkrans Boerdery Tel : 013 262 3481 www.boschkrans.com
- Brooke House Tel: 010 500 8233 www.brookehouse.net
- Cape Five Export Tel: 021 850 4640 www.capefive.com
- Capespan (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 917 2600 www.capespan.co.za
- Citricom Tel: 021 887 2909 www.citricom.co.za
- ClemenGold 021 880 7033 www.clemengold.com
- Corefruit Tel: 021 863 6300 www.corefruit.com
- Delecta Fruit Tel: 021 860 3999 www.delecta.co.za
- Delica Global Export Tel: 021 555 1855 www.delicaglobal.com
- Denau Fruit Farms Tel: 023 357 9727 www.denau.co.za
- DKI Fruit Marketing Tel: 021 855 1621 http://dkifruit.co.za
- Dole SA Tel: 021 983 3600 http://dolesa.co.za
- ELE Trading Tel: 021 976 0604 http://eletrading.co.za
- Emex International Tel: 021 554 0522 www.emexintl.com
- EPIC Fruit Exporters Tel: 023 626 4330 www.epicfruit.co.za
- Everseason Tel: 022 921 3444 www.everseason.co.za
- EXSA Tel: 021 914 8280 http://exsa.com
- Favourite Fresh Export Tel: 021 880 6626 www.ffesa.co.za
- Fivestar Producers Tel: 054 431 0206
- Franschhoek Marketing Tel: 021 876 3141 www.freshnessfirst.co.za
- Freshgold SA Exports Tel: 021 555 1966 www.freshgoldsa.co.za
- Freshgro Citrus Growers Tel: 083 380 3777 www.freshgro.co.za
- Freshworld Tel: 021 808 7100 www.freshworld.co.za
- Fruits Unlimited Tel: 021 860 1800 www.fruits.co.za
- Fruitone Tel: 021 883 3447 www.fruitone.com
- Fruitworks Tel: 021 872 8327 http://fruitworks.co.za
- FVC International Tel: 021 505 5960 www.fvci.co.za
- GF Marketing Tel: 021 944 9700 www.gfmarketing.co.za
- Global Pacific Produce SA Tel: 021 202 8085
- Goede Hoop Vrugte Ltd Tel: 023 315 5293 www.ghfruit.co.za
- Goldee Trading 2 Tel: 011 848 9950
- Green Marketing Tel: 021 874 1055 www.gmint.co.za
- Group 91 Uitvoer Tel: 015 345 1671
- Grown4U Tel: 042 230 0760 www.grown4u.co.za
- GS Schoonbee Landgoed Tel: 013 262 4000 www.schoonbee.co.za
- Habata Agri Tel: 042 233 1199 http://habata.co.za
- Hendri Pieterse Boerdery Tel: 082 387 3901
- Hoekstra Tel: 021 869 8567 www.hoekstraexport.co.za
- Ideafruit Export Tel: 021 851 0126 www.ideafruit.co.za
- Impala Citrus Tel: 082 818 6453
- In2Fresh Tel: 012 482 6656 www.in2fresh.co.za
- Jo-Rie Products Tel: 042 293 0452
- Karpus Exports Tel: 011 483 3360 www.karpussa.com
- Kat River Citrus Primary (KATCO) Tel: 046 645 1134
- Katlego Sitrus Tel: 012 819 1121 www.katlego.co.za
- Kingfisher Fruits Tel: 021 100 3559 www.kingfisherfruits.co.za
- Laeveld Citrus Tel: 015 345 1610
- Le Roux Group Tel: 021 864 1967 www.lerouxgroup.co.za
- Letaba Estates Tel: 015 304 4000/6 www.letaba.com
- LGS Exports Tel: 021 887 2909 www.lgssales.com
- Lona Citrus Tel: 021 481 8200 www.lona.co.za
- Lucerne Fresh Tel: 023 004 1306 www.lucernefresh.co.za
- Komati Fruit Tel: 013 007 0306 www.komatifruits.co.za/
- Mahela Boerdery Tel: 015 345 1600 www.mahela.co.za
- Makutangi Farming Tel: 015 968 9505
- Market Demand Fruits Tel: 021 874 2028 www.marketdemandfruits.co.za
- Mouton Citrus Tel: 022 921 3405 www.moutoncitrus.co.za
- Niche Fruit Tel: 021 945 1390 www.suiderlandplase.co.za
- Onderberg Verwerkingskoöperasie Tel: 013 790 1146 www.onderberg.com
- Orex Export Tel: 054 431 6100 www.orexexport.com
- Patensie Citrus Tel: 042 283 0303 www.patensiecitrus.co.za
- Piet Citrus Tel: 082 561 7906 www.citrus-exporters.co.za
- Pips Fruit Tel: 021 863 1182/021 807 5000 https://pipsfruit.co.za
- Pomona Fruit Tel: 023 626 1890
- Pure Legacy Tel: 076 906 8197 www.purelegacy.co.za
- RSA Group Tel: 021 532 1300 www.rsa.co.za
- SAFE Farm Ventures Tel: 021 657 4000 www.safe.co.za
- SAFPRO Tel: 041 581 0886 www.safpro.net
- Samapro Tel: 044 533 0201 www.samapro.co.za
- San Miguel SA Tel: 041 368 9015 www.sa-sanmiguel.com
- Schoonbee Landgoed http://schoonbee.co.za
- Seaboard International Tel: 021 419 9929
- Seven Seas Tel: 021 851 2098 www.sevenseasfruit.com
- Southern Fruit Growers Tel: 021 852 4012 www.southernfruit.co.za
- Southern Fruit Trading Tel: 021 914 9352 www.southernfruittrading.co.za
- Star South Fruits Tel: 021 864 3655 www.starsouth.co.za
- Stargrow Fruit Marketing Tel: 021 880 1882 www.stargrow.co.za
- Summer Citrus www.summercitrus.com
- Suiderland Plase Tel: 021 945 1390 www.suiderlandplase.co.za
- Sunday River Citrus Company (SRCC) Tel: 042 233 0320 www.srcc.co.za
- Swellenfruit Packing Tel: 028 512 3440 www.swellenfruit.com
- Unichoice Produce Direct Tel: 021 914 5838 www.unichoice.co.za
- Unifrutti Tel: 021 852 8494 www.unifrutti.com
- Unipack Fruit Tel: 023 615 1290
- Valleyfresh South Africa Tel: 021 492 3955 www.valleyfresh.com.au
- Van Doorn Citrus Tel: 021 914 8618 www.vandoornsa.co.za
- Vanguard International Tel: 083 680 5156 www.vanguardteam.com
- WP Fresh Distributors Tel: 021 880 1310 www.wpfresh.co.za
- X-treme International Tel: 015 306 6260 www.thexgroup.co.za
- Zest Fruit Tel: 021 888 9100 www.zestfruit.co.za
Southern African Subtropical and Citrus Consultants (SASCCON) Tel: 083 629 3806 tom [at] fromabove.co.za, liezl [at] cri.co.za
Websites and publications
- The websites of the associations involved are a useful place to start when looking for information e.g. www.cga.co.za and www.citrusres.com.
- The Citrus Growers Association publishes a Citrus Statistics booklet every year in about May. This publication is free to all growers and members of the Fresh Produce Exporters Forum (FPEF). Any other interested parties can purchase the booklet by contacting Gloria [at] cga.co.za.
- Neves MF, Trombin VG, Neto LCM & Kalaki RB. 2019. Orange Juice Chain: Past, Present and Future. Available at http://citrusindustry.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Orange-Juice-Chain-Past-Present-Future-Fava-Neves-et-al-2019.pdf
- The annual Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Baseline looks at fruit generally before zooming in closer on citrus fruit. Find the document at www.bfap.co.za.
- Find the latest Citrus Market Value Chain Profile under “Branches”, “Marketing” and “Annual publications” at www.daff.gov.za, website of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD). Under “Resource Centre” find (i) Brochure grapefruit, (ii) Brochure Orange, and the Info Paks (iii) Cultivation of Citrus, and (iv) Step-by-step Export manual for the South African fruit industry.
- The Cultivation of Citrus and Citrus Pests in the Republic of South Africa, two publications published by the ARC-Tropical and Subtropical Crops. Tel: 013 753 7000.
- Call the ARC-Agricultural Engineering at 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the publication Processing of Citrus Fruit (Grapefruit, lemons, oranges).
- CD Roms from the ARC-PPR (Plant Protection Research) include: (i) Crop Pests, vol. 2: Citrus and Other Subtropicals (ii) Medically Important Spiders and Scorpions of Southern Africa. Write to booksales [at] arc.agric.za or infopri [at] arc.agric.za.
- Citrus is dealt with in the publication “Fruit and nut production in KZN”, which can be downloaded at http://www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre/guideline-documents
- The AgriSETA Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture “Monitor the establishment of a crop” includes orchard trees. Another relevant learner guides include “Harvesting agricultural crops”.
- Find the Orange Tree Information page at https://wikifarmer.com/orange-tree-information/
- Local and international links are provided on role player websites.
- The South African Fruit Journal is published bi-monthly and distributed to growers free of charge. Copies can be purchased – refer to www.safj.co.za.
- The photo gallery www.vitalbugs.co.za/citrusgallery.asp shows the different pests of citrus fruit.
- The National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC)‘s Agripreneur Issue 18 (September 2019) includes the article “The Determinants of Marketing Efficiency in the Smallholder Citrus Industry: Evidence From Four Provinces”.
- Previous documents from the NAMC and DALRRD have looked at South Africa’s trade in oranges. Find the South African Fruit Trade Flow and the TradeProbe at www.namc.co.za.
- Find the citrus news articles by Fred Meintjies at www.fruitnet.com.
- Bulbulia T. 2020, May 4. “R307m Economic Transformation of Black Citrus Growers Programme launched”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/r307m-economic-transformation-of-black-citrus-growers-programme-launched-2020-05-04
- ANA Reporter. 2020, April 20. “Increased global demand for citrus bodes well for 2020 exports – growers association”. IOL. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/economy/increased-global-demand-for-citrus-bodes-well-for-2020-exports-growers-association-46924649
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- Read the blog “An alternative to Durban” at https://agribook.co.za/blog/an-alternative-for-durban/.
- Bulbulia T. 2020, March 17. “Citrus industry expects record export season but warns of Covid-19 uncertainties”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/citrus-industry-expects-record-export-season-but-warns-of-covid-19-uncertainties-2020-03-17
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- Staff Reporter. 2019, October 23. “SA Citrus Growers’ Association launch World Citrus Organisation with other countries”. IOL. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/economy/sa-citrus-growers-association-launch-world-citrus-organisation-with-other-countries-35689279
- Noemdoe, D. 2019, April 1. “From fruit hawker to award-winning lemon farmer”. Food for Mzansi. Available at www.foodformzansi.co.za/from-fruit-hawker-to-award-winning-lemon-farmer/
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- Reporter. 2019, February 26. “Spain: According to European data, South African oranges are not the real problem for the citrus sector”. Fresh Plaza. Available at www.freshplaza.com/article/9075883/spain-according-to-european-data-south-african-oranges-are-not-the-real-problem-for-the-citrus-sector
- Ferrier, M. 2018, November 29. “Yuzu: the citrus fruit that looks like it fell off a lorry”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/food/2018/nov/29/yuzu-the-citrus-fruit-that-looks-like-it-fell-off-a-lorry
- Yende, S.S. 2018, May 27. “From crisis to export success”. City Press. Available at www.fin24.com/Companies/Agribusiness/from-crisis-to-export-success-20180525 [A story about Mabunbda Farms]
- Chadwick, J. 2017, October 31. “Better trade terms will improve access to Asia for citrus exporters”. BizCommunity. Available at: www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/358/169463.html
Our thanks to the CGA for reading our draft chapter, and for their feedback and suggestions
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