The Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) website is a comprehensive source of information on this industry. Visit www.afma.co.za.

  • The animal feeds industry is divided into the formal feed industry (members of AFMA) and the other which includes feedlots, smaller feed mills and home mixers.
  • Sixty different products, mainly of agricultural origin, are used to make balanced feed for poultry, cattle, sheep and other animals. The animal feed market has grown continuously for the past two decades in South Africa and abroad. It is clearly a vital part of the South African farmer’s life.
  • The growth of the animal feed industry in the coming couple of years is entirely dependent on the growth in the animal product market determined by consumer spending, particularly the poultry, beef, sheep and dairy industries which are big users of animal feed in the animal production value chain. By way of example, the importing of poultry products into the country does not only put the local poultry industry under pressure but also the animal feeds one. The imports of 2016 “effectively replaced 1.5 million tons of broiler feed … the equivalent of 15 medium sized feed mills which could have been locally manufactured” (AFMA, 2017).
  • Growth in the animal feed industry is positive news for grain producers.

The feed milling process

Raw material

Feed is made up of a number of raw materials that is all combined in different ratio’s to form a perfect balance of all the nutrients, minerals and vitamins. The bulk of the feed is:

  • maize
  • soya oilcake
  • sunflower
  • wheat bran

A number of other raw materials are also included e.g.:

  • limestone
  • molasses
  • lysine
  • fishmeal (not all feed)
  • vitamins
  • minerals

The bulk raw materials are stored in the silos and the lower volume dense materials is in flat storage on the mill floor.

Grinding

The grains are transported from the silos to grinders in the mill where it is grinded to a suitable coarseness depending on the type of feed manufactured. Thereafter the other raw materials that don’t need grinding are included as well as the prescribed premixes of vitamins, minerals and medication.

Mixer

The mixing process is important in the feed manufacturing process because if the feed is not mixed thoroughly, the concentrated minerals and vitamins will not be evenly distributed. Taking into account the low inclusion of about 2.5kg of premix in 1000kg of feed, thorough mixing is extremely important. During the mixing process, all the liquids like oil are also included.

Incorporator/conditioning

In the incorporator the mash feed is incorporated with steam to increase the heat and moisture of the feed, which is crucial in the pelleting process. The addition of the steam helps with the binding of the particles to form a pellet when pressed.

Pellet press

The mixed raw material, vitamins and minerals now goes through the pellet press where it is forced through a small opening (usually between 3.2 and 4.8mm) to form a pellet. The temperature of the feed is about 80°C on the other side of the pellet press.

Cooler

The pellet is still soft and too warm to store as it is post pelleting and the temperature need to be brought down. This is done in the cooler and the temperature is decreased drastically to make the pellet hard and durable. The pelleted feed goes through a shaker to get rid of unwanted fines and it is now ready to be bagged or loaded in a bulk storage bin.

Source: Johan Conradie at Epol/RCL Foods

Farmers sell most of their grains via SAFEX but some also negotiate with feed mills for pre-harvest contracts.

There is an established gristing principle whereby the farmer takes maize to feedmills. It is a way for him to save money because he only pays for the milling, mixing and other raw materials. Farmers can purchase commercial concentrates from feed suppliers, too, to mix with maize which they themselves have milled.

International business environment

Visit the International Feed Industries Federation (IFIF) and the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation (FEFAC) websites, www.ifif.org and www.fefac.eu.

  • World compound feed production is fast approaching an estimated 1 billion tons annually. In addition to the 1 billion tons of commercial feed produced by the feed industry, around 300 million tons of feed is produced directly by farm mixing, bringing the total global feed produced to an estimated 1.3 billion tons.
  • Commercial feed manufacturing generates an estimated annual turnover of over US $400 billion (IFIF, 2017). It is estimated that commercial feed production takes place in more than 130 countries and directly employs more than a quarter of a million skilled workers, technicians, managers and professionals.
  • The top ranking countries for the production of animal feeds are China, the USA, Brazil, Mexico and Spain. South Africa is ranked at 22 (AFMA, 2017).
  • The global animal feeds situation is covered in the most recent IFIF chairperson’s report which can be found on http://annualreport.ifif.org.

Local business environment

The Chairman’s Report which looks at the local business environment. Find it at www.afma.co.za.

AFMA feed sales for 2017/18 showed a negative growth of only 0,7% compared to the enormous drop in sales of 6,2% experienced during 2016/17, the highest percentage decrease in feed sales AFMA members have ever experienced.

The dramatic feed sales loss experienced in 2016/17 was the direct consequence of the challenges the livestock and poultry industries had to face and overcome. The poultry sector had to deal with cheap imports from the EU (within the EPA free trade agreement), the duty-free quota allowed under the AGOA agreement from the US in 2016/17, and cheaper products from Brazil in the latter half of 2017 that continued into 2018. In addition to this, the sector also faced a deadly Avian Influenza (AI) outbreak and vast numbers of birds had to be culled during 2016/17 to stop the spreading of the outbreaks.

In addition to this, feed sales experienced a double blow with the worst drought in South African history having devastating effects on other livestock species, specifically beef and sheep due to the lack of absence of grazing. This left producers with no option other than reducing their herds dramatically and retaining only their breeding stock, so as to rebuild their herds again after the drought.

The impact of the drought on beef and sheep saw feed sales dropping by 16,3% (±170 000 tons of feed). It is encouraging to see that this category has already started recovering in the last year, although it will take three to four years to fully recover to previous levels. One hundred percent of the drop in layer feed sales was due to AI and we expect a full recovery of these lost volumes by the end of the next financial year, if we are able to remain AI-free during this period. The drop in both broiler and breeder feed was due to AI and poultry imports. While we do expect a full recovery from the impact of AI, the negative effect of poultry imports will remain.

AFMA feed sales 2015-2018Total 2015/16Total 2016/17Total 2017/18% difference
Dairy feed912 312925 185950 2452,7%
Beef & sheep feed1 030 101861 792871 4171,1%
Layer feed951 535885 676846 694-4,4%
Broiler feed2 808 3602 652 9062 583 946-2,6%
Breeder feed499 307468 431477 2491,9%
Other706 810682 944699 0812,4%
TOTAL SALES6 908 4256 476 9346 429 081-0,7%

Source: AFMA press release, “SA feed sector stabilises after facing conundrum of challenges”, 30 July 2018.

SANS 898, Good manufacturing practice for the self mixing of feed in the livestock industry

The standard covers the self mixing of compound feed and supplements into livestock feed, to ensure that the products consistently meet the legal requirements for human and animal health, and environmental safety. For information on the standard, contact either the South African Bureau of Standards, 012 428 7911 or the Red Meat Industry Forum at 079 162 6465.

Find Codes of Practice and Guidelines in addition to a lot of other information under “Resources” at www.afma.co.za.

National strategy and government contact

Find the “Agriculture Inputs Control” option under “Branches” and “Agricultural Production, Health & Food Safety” at www.daff.gov.za. Application forms, Guidelines and contacts at DAFF are available.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

Agriculture Inputs Control – Division Farm Feeds

  • Mr. David Motloi – 012 319 6889
  • Ms Fhatuwani Vhulondo – 012 319 7103
  • Ms Elelwani Rathogwa – 012 319 7847

In terms of the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act, 1947 (Act 36 of 1947) and its regulations, all feed raw materials except for maize and unbroken grains, must be registered with the Registrar of Act 36 of 1947 before it could be sold into the market or used in animal feed production. All animal feed for sale is required to be registered in terms of Act 36. Find updates of the draft Feeds Bill at www.afma.co.za/feeds-bill. The Bill is expected to replace parts of Act 36 of 1947.

The Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP) identifies the increased reliance by South Africa on imported agricultural inputs (chemical fertilisers, diesel, machinery and ingredients for animal feed) as an issue requiring attention.

Find the “Acts & legislation” option (under “Resources & links”) at www.afma.co.za. AFMA has a Feed Registration Desk available for members to assist the process of registering feed and feed-related products. See www.afmafeedregistration.co.za.

Role players

Associations

  • Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) Tel: 012 663 9097 www.afma.co.za
  • AFMA is mentoring and driving the establishment/development of feed manufacturer’s associations in Southern African countries. These will be affiliated to the Southern African Feed Manufacturers’ Association (Safma), which has already been established.
  • Livestock and Animal Feed Industry Forum (LAFIF) – contact AFMA
  • Petfood Industry Association Tel: 033 343 2874 www.petwise.co.za

Training and research

  • Universities and Agricultural Colleges offer training in animal nutrition or related courses that are of value in the feed industry. These are usually the three/four year degree or diploma courses, but vital short courses are also given. Find contact details in the “Agricultural education & training” chapter.
  • The bigger feed manufacturers normally have their research done at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) or at one of the universities. Agricultural Colleges also undertake research in the area of animal feeds.
  • AFMA has embarked on establishing a training feed mill at the University of Pretoria (UP) for training and research purposes. An initiative between AFMA, UP and the Kansas State University will also see short courses offered. Other universities and technical colleges will also be accommodated.
  • A Feed Miller qualification was approved by the Quality Council For Trades & Occupations (QCTO) in June 2017. South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) registration will formalise this qualification.

Find the AgriSETA Learner Guide Intermediate Animal Nutrition NQF Level 4 at www.agriseta.co.za/downloads/LearningMaterial/116282_LG.pdf

ARC-Animal Production (ARC-AP) Tel: 012 672 9111 www.arc.agric.za

Training on the subject of animal nutrition is available at ARC-Animal Production in the form of short courses. Contact Ms Annetjie Loubser – 012 672 9153. The institute through its resources is in a position to test animal feeds and is on the forefront in investigating the use of a variety of by-products from agriculture and the food processing industries on a variety of farm animal species.

Contacts:

Ruminant nutrition:Dr F V Nherera-Chokuda – 012 672 9335 (Dairy nutrition)

Mr M C Muya – 012 672 9122 (Dairy nutrition)

Mr M M Ratsaka – 012 672 9306 (Feedlot systems)

Mr K-J Leeuw – 012 672 9320 (Feedlot systems, beef cattle and small stock nutrition)

Mr D B Nkosi – 012 672 9300 (Silage, Agro-byproducts, small stock nutrition)

Monogastric nutrition:Dr A T Kanengoni – 012 672 9355 (Pig nutrition)

Mrs P Sebothoma – 012 672 9272 (Pig systems)

Dr T Nkukwana – 012 672 9269 (Poultry nutrition)

Ms M J Mokoma – 012 672 9269 (Poultry Nutrition)

Dr M-J Thaela-Chimuka – 012 672 9316 (Aquaculture)

Ms M P Matlala – 012 672 9316 (Aquaculture)

Companies: animal feed suppliers

Find a comprehensive AFMA member and associate member list on www.afma.co.za.

Companies: Premixes, traders of raw materials, manufacturers of raw materials

Other companies involved

We include details of only some of the numerous other companies involved here. See also the “Implements” chapter (for feeders and mixers) and “Grain storage & handling” chapter (milling equipment).

Websites and publications

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