The Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) website is a comprehensive source of information on this industry. Visit www.afma.co.za.
- The animal feeds industry is divided into the formal feed industry (members of AFMA) and the other which includes feedlots, smaller feed mills and home mixers.
- Sixty different products, mainly of agricultural origin, are used to make balanced feed for poultry, cattle, sheep and other animals. The animal feed market has grown continuously for the past two decades in South Africa and abroad. It is clearly a vital part of the South African farmer’s life.
- The growth of the animal feed industry in the coming couple of years is entirely dependent on the growth in the animal product market determined by consumer spending, particularly the poultry, beef, sheep and dairy industries which are big users of animal feed in the animal production value chain. By way of example, the importing of poultry products into the country does not only put the local poultry industry under pressure but also the animal feeds one.
- Growth in the animal feed industry is positive news for grain producers.
The feed milling process
Feed is made up of a number of raw materials that is all combined in different ratio’s to form a perfect balance of all the nutrients, minerals and vitamins. The bulk of the feed is:
- soya oilcake
- wheat bran
A number of other raw materials are also included e.g.:
- fishmeal (not all feed)
The bulk raw materials are stored in the silos and the lower volume dense materials is in flat storage on the mill floor.
The grains are transported from the silos to grinders in the mill where it is grinded to a suitable coarseness depending on the type of feed manufactured. Thereafter the other raw materials that don’t need grinding are included as well as the prescribed premixes of vitamins, minerals and medication.
The mixing process is important in the feed manufacturing process because if the feed is not mixed thoroughly, the concentrated minerals and vitamins will not be evenly distributed. Taking into account the low inclusion of about 2.5kg of premix in 1000kg of feed, thorough mixing is extremely important. During the mixing process, all the liquids like oil are also included.
In the incorporator the mash feed is incorporated with steam to increase the heat and moisture of the feed, which is crucial in the pelleting process. The addition of the steam helps with the binding of the particles to form a pellet when pressed.
The mixed raw material, vitamins and minerals now goes through the pellet press where it is forced through a small opening (usually between 3.2 and 4.8mm) to form a pellet. The temperature of the feed is about 80°C on the other side of the pellet press.
The pellet is still soft and too warm to store as it is post pelleting and the temperature need to be brought down. This is done in the cooler and the temperature is decreased drastically to make the pellet hard and durable. The pelleted feed goes through a shaker to get rid of unwanted fines and it is now ready to be bagged or loaded in a bulk storage bin.
Source: Johan Conradie at Epol/RCL Foods
Farmers sell most of their grains via SAFEX but some also negotiate with feed mills for pre-harvest contracts.
There is an established gristing principle whereby the farmer takes maize to feedmills. It is a way for him to save money because he only pays for the milling, mixing and other raw materials. Farmers can purchase commercial concentrates from feed suppliers, too, to mix with maize which they themselves have milled.
International business environment
- World compound feed production is fast approaching an estimated 1 billion tons annually. In addition to the 1 billion tons of commercial feed produced by the feed industry, around 300 million tons of feed is produced directly by farm mixing, bringing the total global feed produced to an estimated 1.3 billion tons.
- Commercial feed manufacturing generates an estimated annual turnover of over US $400 billion (IFIF, 2018). It is estimated that commercial feed production takes place in more than 130 countries and directly employs more than a quarter of a million skilled workers, technicians, managers and professionals.
- The top ranking countries for the production of animal feeds are China, the USA, Brazil, Russia and Mexico and Spain. South Africa is ranked at 22 (AFMA, 2018).
- The global animal feeds situation is covered in the most recent IFIF chairperson’s report which can be found on http://annualreport.ifif.org.
Local business environment
The Chairman’s Report which looks at the local business environment. Find it at www.afma.co.za.
AFMA feed sales for 2017/18 showed a negative growth of only 0,7% compared to the enormous drop in sales of 6,2% experienced during 2016/17, the highest percentage decrease in feed sales AFMA members have ever experienced. AFMA members account for 60.5% of the animal feed produced in South Africa (AFMA, 2018).
The dramatic feed sales loss experienced in 2016/17 was the direct consequence of the challenges the livestock and poultry industries had to face and overcome. The poultry sector had to deal with cheap imports from the EU (within the EPA free trade agreement), the duty-free quota allowed under the AGOA agreement from the US in 2016/17, and cheaper products from Brazil in the latter half of 2017 that continued into 2018. In addition to this, the sector also faced a deadly Avian Influenza (AI) outbreak and vast numbers of birds had to be culled during 2016/17 to stop the spreading of the outbreaks.
In addition to this, feed sales experienced a double blow with the worst drought in South African history having devastating effects on other livestock species, specifically beef and sheep due to the lack of absence of grazing. This left producers with no option other than reducing their herds dramatically and retaining only their breeding stock, so as to rebuild their herds again after the drought.
The impact of the drought on beef and sheep saw feed sales dropping by 16,3% (±170 000 tons of feed). It is encouraging to see that this category has already started recovering in the last year, although it will take three to four years to fully recover to previous levels. One hundred percent of the drop in layer feed sales was due to AI and we expect a full recovery of these lost volumes by the end of the next financial year, if we are able to remain AI-free during this period. The drop in both broiler and breeder feed was due to AI and poultry imports. While we do expect a full recovery from the impact of AI, the negative effect of poultry imports will remain.
|AFMA feed sales 2015-2018||Total 2015/16||Total 2016/17||Total 2017/18||% difference|
|Dairy feed||912 312||925 185||950 245||2,7%|
|Beef & sheep feed||1 030 101||861 792||871 417||1,1%|
|Layer feed||951 535||885 676||846 694||-4,4%|
|Broiler feed||2 808 360||2 652 906||2 583 946||-2,6%|
|Breeder feed||499 307||468 431||477 249||1,9%|
|Other||706 810||682 944||699 081||2,4%|
|TOTAL SALES||6 908 425||6 476 934||6 429 081||-0,7%|
Source: AFMA press release, “SA feed sector stabilises after facing conundrum of challenges”, 30 July 2018.
SANS 898, Good manufacturing practice for the self mixing of feed in the livestock industry
The standard covers the self mixing of compound feed and supplements into livestock feed, to ensure that the products consistently meet the legal requirements for human and animal health, and environmental safety. For information on the standard, contact either the South African Bureau of Standards, 012 428 7911 or the Red Meat Industry Forum at 079 162 6465.
Find Codes of Practice and Guidelines in addition to a lot of other information under “Resources” at www.afma.co.za.
National strategy and government contact
Find the “Agriculture Inputs Control” option under “Branches” and “Agricultural Production, Health & Food Safety” at www.daff.gov.za. Application forms, Guidelines and contacts at DALRRD are available.
Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)
Agriculture Inputs Control – Division Farm Feeds
- Mr. David Motloi – 012 319 6889
- Ms Fhatuwani Vhulondo – 012 319 7103
- Ms Elelwani Rathogwa – 012 319 7847
In terms of the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act, 1947 (Act 36 of 1947) and its regulations, all feed raw materials except for maize and unbroken grains, must be registered with the Registrar of Act 36 of 1947 before it could be sold into the market or used in animal feed production. All animal feed for sale is required to be registered in terms of Act 36. Find updates of the draft Feeds and Pet Food Bill at www.afma.co.za. The Bill is expected to replace parts of Act 36 of 1947.
The Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP) identified the increased reliance by South Africa on imported agricultural inputs (chemical fertilisers, diesel, machinery and ingredients for animal feed) as an issue requiring attention.
Find the “Acts & legislation” option (under “Resources & links”) at www.afma.co.za. AFMA has a Feed Registration Desk available for members to assist the process of registering feed and feed-related products.
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- Animal Feeds Manufacturing Association (AFMA) Tel: 012 663 9097 www.afma.co.za
- AFMA is mentoring and driving the establishment/development of feed manufacturer’s associations in Southern African countries. These will be affiliated to the Southern African Feed Manufacturers’ Association (Safma), which has already been established.
- Livestock and Animal Feed Industry Forum (LAFIF) – contact AFMA
- Petfood Industry Association Tel: 033 343 2874 www.petwise.co.za
Training and research
- Universities like the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN)’s Bioresources Engineering department and Agricultural Colleges offer training in animal nutrition or related courses that are of value in the feed industry. These are usually the three/four year degree or diploma courses, but vital short courses are also given. Find contact details in the “Agricultural education & training” article.
- The bigger feed manufacturers normally have their research done at the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) or at one of the universities. Agricultural Colleges also undertake research in the area of animal feeds.
- An outcomes-based e-learning platform for training in the feed milling industry was introduced by AFMA in 2020. The course consists of various models covering subjects such as the feed milling environment, material handling equipment, material handling equipment, mixed feed production, feed science, operational team leadership, operational management, financial control, management for operational managers, employment law, quality management and more. AFMA has also established a training feed mill at the University of Pretoria (UP) for training and research purposes.
- A Feed Miller qualification was approved by the Quality Council For Trades & Occupations (QCTO) in June 2017. South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) registration will formalise this qualification.
Find the AgriSETA Learner Guide Intermediate Animal Nutrition NQF Level 4 at www.agriseta.co.za/downloads/LearningMaterial/116282_LG.pdf
ARC-Animal Production (ARC-AP) Tel: 012 672 9111 www.arc.agric.za
Training on the subject of animal nutrition is available at ARC-Animal Production in the form of short courses. Contact Ms Annetjie Loubser – 012 672 9153. The institute through its resources is in a position to test animal feeds and is on the forefront in investigating the use of a variety of by-products from agriculture and the food processing industries on a variety of farm animal species.
|Ruminant nutrition:||Dr F V Nherera-Chokuda – 012 672 9335 (Dairy nutrition)|
Mr M C Muya – 012 672 9122 (Dairy nutrition)
Mr M M Ratsaka – 012 672 9306 (Feedlot systems)
Mr K-J Leeuw – 012 672 9320 (Feedlot systems, beef cattle and small stock nutrition)
Mr D B Nkosi – 012 672 9300 (Silage, Agro-byproducts, small stock nutrition)
|Monogastric nutrition:||Dr A T Kanengoni – 012 672 9355 (Pig nutrition)|
Mrs P Sebothoma – 012 672 9272 (Pig systems)
Dr T Nkukwana – 012 672 9269 (Poultry nutrition)
Ms M J Mokoma – 012 672 9269 (Poultry Nutrition)
Dr M-J Thaela-Chimuka – 012 672 9316 (Aquaculture)
Ms M P Matlala – 012 672 9316 (Aquaculture)
Companies: animal feed suppliers
Find a comprehensive AFMA member and associate member list on www.afma.co.za.
- AFGRI Animal Feeds 011 063 2347 www.afgri.co.za
- Abagold 028 313 0253 www.abagold.co.za
- Allem Brothers (Pty) Ltd 056 343 3111 http://allems.biz/
- ALZU Enterprises 013 249 8900 www.alzu.co.za
- Barnlab 087 625 0756 www.barnlab.co.za
- BioMinerale (Pty) Ltd 013 246 7451 www.biominerale.co.za
- Brennco Feeds 015 516 0896 www.brennerbrands.co.za
- Crane Feeds (Pty) Ltd +268 518 4287
- Crown Chickens (Pty) Ltd 041 995 1700 www.sovereignfoods.co.za
- Dalein Voere (Edms) Bpk 012 819 8500 www.dalein.co.za
- De Heus Pty Ltd 031 785 1575 www.deheus.co.za
- Driehoek Feeds 087 820 4580 www.driehoekfeeds.co.za
- Eagles Rock Feed Mill (Pty) Ltd 014 577 0087 www.erfm.co.za
- Eggbert Eggs (Pty) Ltd 080 947 0121 www.eggberteggs.co.za
- Esco Feeds (Pty) Ltd 036 352 2193
- Farmix Animal Feeds (Pty) Ltd 051 433 4044 www.farmix.co.za
- Feedmaster (Pty) Ltd (Windhoek) +264 61 218 713 www.feedmaster.com.na
- Foodcorp 011 411 5400 www.foodcorp.co.za
- ITAU Milling (Pty) Ltd 051 875 2787 www.itau.co.za
- Lubern Feeds (Pty) Ltd 053 474 1685 www.lubern.co.za
- Marifeed (Pty) Ltd 028 312 1106 www.marifeed.com
- Meaders Feeds Ltd +230 249 3860 www.meadersfeeds.com
- Meadow Feeds 011 991 6000 www.meadow.co.za
- Molare Beleggings 013 813 1400 www.molare.co.za
- Montifeeds 043 726 5232 www.montifeeds.com
- New Hope Tel: 010 007 2336 www.newhopeagri.co.za
- NOVA Feeds 022 487 9100 www.novafeeds.co.za
- Nu-Pro Feeds (Pty) Ltd 058 303 9587 www.nupro.co.za
- Nutri Feeds 018 285 1020 www.nutrifeeds.co.za
- Nutribase 012 348 9291
- Opti Feeds (Pty) Ltd 018 632 4053 www.optifeeds.co.za
- Profile Feeds (Pty) Ltd 021 875 5890
- RCL Foods www.epol.co.za and www.molatek.co.za
- Rossgro Feeds (Pty) Ltd 013 665 1999 www.rossgro.co.za
- SA Feed Phosphates 053 441 3300 www.safeedphosphates.co.za
- Sernick Veevoere (Edms) Bpk 056 631 0120 www.sernick.co.za
- Tanqua Feeds (Pty) Ltd 028 261 1519 www.tanqua.net
- Telwiedré Feeds 058 852 2742 www.telwiedre.co.za
- TripleV Animal Feeds 058 863 8111 www.vkb.co.za
- Upigrow 054 331 2935
- Veekos 054 331 1351 www.veekos.co.za
- Voermol Feeds (Pty) Ltd 032 439 5599 www.voermol.co.za
- WW Bartlet Poultry Farm (Pty) Ltd 011 952 9903
- Yara Animal Nutrition South Africa 031 910 5100/5129 www.kkan.com
Companies: Premixes, traders of raw materials, manufacturers of raw materials
- 4Mix International 011 866 2900 http://4mix.co.za
- ADDCON 011 460 4002/3 www.addcon-africa.net
- AJ Oils 021 903 2080 www.ajoils.co.za
- Allied Nutrition 012 667 4213 www.alliednutrition.com
- Alltech (Pty) Ltd 021 865 2669 www.alltech.com
- Animal Nutrition & Health (Pty) Ltd 012 667 3961 www.animalnh.co.za
- Animate Animal Health (Pty) Ltd 012 661 3485/6 www.animate.co.za
- Apex Commodities (Pty) Ltd 011 475 1015
- Ashkan Consulting (Pty) Ltd 011 466 8763/4 www.ashkan.co.za
- Atlas Trading & Shipping 031 302 1700/1 www.grindrod.com
- BASF South Africa 011 203 2400 www.basf.co.za
- Bester Feed & Grain (Pty) Ltd 021 809 2500 www.bester.co.za
- Bioindustrial Services cc 011 822 8135 www.bioindustrial.co.za
- Biomin Animal Nutrition (Pty) Ltd 018 468 1455 www.biomin.net
- Bitek Industries (Pty) Ltd 011 393 1182 www.bitek.co.za
- Brisen Commodities (Pty) Ltd 012 640 1600 www.brisencommodities.co.za
- Buhler (Pty) Ltd 011 801 3500 www.buhlergroup.com
- Bupo Animal Health (Pty) Ltd 012 803 4376/9540 http://bupoanimalhealth.com
- Cargill RSA (Pty) Ltd 011 745 9600 www.cargill.com
- Central Analytical Laboratories 011 474 7450 www.calsa.co.za
- Central Edible Oil (Pty) Ltd t/a CEOCO 011 033 0800 http://ceoco.co.za
- CEVA Animal Health (Pty) Ltd 011 312 4088 www.ceva.co.za
- Chem Nutri Analytical 011 316 8800
- Chemfit (Pty) Ltd 011 922 1770 www.chemfit.co.za
- Chemuniqué (Pty) Ltd 011 789 2414 https://chemunique.co.za
- CJP Chemicals 011 494 6700 www.cjpchemicals.co.za
- Chem Nutri Analytical 011 316 8800
- COFCO South Africa 021 808 1900 www.cofcoagri.com
- DSM Nutritional Products South Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 398 6900 www.dsm.com
- ECO Vermiculite 015 306 0162 www.ecovermiculite.co.za
- Elanco Animal Health 012 657 6200 www.elanco.com
- Energy Oil (Pty) Ltd 011 824 0473 www.energyoil.co.za
- Evonik Africa 011 697 0700 www.evonik.com
- EW Nutrition South Africa 082 726 4924 www.ew-nutrition.com
- farmSPEC Tel: 031 564 9948 www.farmspec.co.za
- Feed First 012 664 0484 www.feedfirst.co.za
- Feedmix (Pty) Ltd 011 397 3350 www.feedmix.com
- Feedpharm Trading 021 853 1659 www.feedpharm.com
- Feedtek Tel: 086 111 5362 www.feedtek.co.za
- Free State Oil 087 358 8800 www.vkb.co.za
- Grains for Africa Commodity Brokers (Pty) Ltd 011 485 2575 www.grains.co.za
- Hochfeld Grains 011 853 2777 www.hochfeld.co.za
- Instavet Import & Export (Pty) Ltd 011 462 4215 http://instavet.co.za
- Jasuthi Specialities cc 033 267 7547
- Kemin Industries South Africa (Pty) Ltd 086 105 3646 www.kemin.com
- Loubser Bulk Services 018 013 0410/1 http://loubserbulkservices.co.za
- Louis Dreyfus Commodities Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 217 5300 http://www.ldcommodities.com
- Maize & More (Pty) Ltd 013 243 1166 www.maizeandmore.co.za
- Majesty Oil Mills (Pty) Ltd 011 660 7074 http://majesty.co.za
- Malachite Chemicals 011 455 1201 www.malachitechemicals.co.za
- Marsing & Co. Africa (Pty) Ltd 011 462 6913 www.marsing-sa.com
- NOVUS 012 665 5377 www.novusint.com
- Nutribase Tel: 012 348 0116 www.nutribasefeedsupplements.com
- Oceana Brands (Pty) Ltd 021 415 8500 www.oceana.co.za
- Olam South Africa (Pty) Ltd 031 566 5499 www.olamgroup.com
- Olfactum Nutrition (Pty) Ltd 012 347 5452 www.olfactum.co.za
- Orika South Africa 011 805 1932 www.orika.com
- Perdigon (Pty) Ltd 021 870 3965 http://perdigon.co.za
- Phibro Animal Health (Pty) Ltd 012 450 0600 www.phibro.co.za
- Protea Animal Feeds 011 842 3600 www.omnia.co.za
- Provimi SSA (Pty) Ltd t/a Provimi 087 806 4000 www.provimi.co.za
- Rand Agri 013 243 1166 www.randagri.co.za
- Rein Oil 021 845 5518 www.reinoil.co.za
- RussellStone Protein (Pty) Ltd 012 941 1586 www.russellstone.co.za
- SA Premix 051 653 1001 www.sapremix.co.za
- Saltcom Commodity Traders 012 941 2144 www.saltcom.co.za
- Sano-Modern Animal Nutrition 083 661 3974 www.sano-online.co.za
- Seaboard Overseas Trading & Shipping (Pty) Ltd 031 581 4500
- Southern African Grain Laboratory (SAGL) 012 807 4019 www.sagl.co.za
- Southern Oil 028 514 3441 www.soill.co.za
- Techniblend CC 021 884 4401 www.techniblend.co.za
- The Ingredient Company South Africa (Pty) Ltd (t/a TICSA) 021 863 1941 www.tic-sa.com
- Tongaat Hulett Starch 011 458 5000 www.tongaathulettstarch.co.za
- Trouw Nutrition 011 524 0440 www.trouwnutrition.co.za
- Unigrain (Pty) Ltd 011 692 4400 www.unigrain.co.za
- Vinci Trading 012 667 7000
- Virbac Animal Health 012 657 6000 www.virbac.co.za
- Vitam International 012 665 5245 www.vitam.co.za
- Vitas South Africa 087 551 0400 www.timacagro.co.za
- Westside Enterprises (Pty) Ltd 021 686 8265 www.westsideenterprises.net
- Wilmar Continental Edible Oils and Fats (Pty) Ltd 011 278 0300 www.wilmarcontinental.com
- Wisium SA 011 467 5915 www.coprex.co.za
- Zeus Raw Materials cc 031 573 1235 www.zerama.com
- Zinchem 011 746 5000 www.zinchem.co.za
Other companies involved
- Agri Inspec 012 843 5630 / 7 www.mpo.co.za (Animal feeds quality assurance protocol)
- Agri Silica SA Tel: 079 517 3386 www.agrisilica.co.za (animal licks)
- Agricon Tel: 051 448 0961 www.agriconrsa.com
- Agri Protein 021 422 1887 www.agriprotein.com
- Avipharm 033 342 7041 www.avipharm.co.za
- Biochemical Chemical Consultants Tel: 033 343 1414 http://bsclaboratory.com
- Buckle Packaging Tel: 011 613 8024 www.bucklepackaging.co.za
- Efficient Microbes Tel: 031 266 2935 www.efficientmicrobes.co.za
- Groenvoer Products Tel: 011 314 1211 www.groenvoer.co.za
- Midfeeds Tel: 011 468 1824 www.midfeeds.co.za
- Nviro Tek Labs Tel: 012 252 7588 / 082 889 0139 www.nviroteklabs.co.za
- Olmix SA www.olmix.com Algae-based nutrition of plants & animals
- P & B Lime Works Tel: 028 424 1157 www.pandblime.co.za
- Saltcor Tel: 021 951 6501 www.donaldbrowngroup.co.za Animal feeds and licks
- South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www.sabs.co.za
- Spesfeed Tel: 011 803 2050 www.spesfeed.com Animal nutrition and animal feed consultants
- Stargate Scientific Tel: 011 675 7433 www.stargatescientific.co.za Supplier of laboratory and testing equipment for GMOs
- Tau Rollermeule Tel: 018 581 2180 https://taumeule.co.za
- Timac Agro Tel: 087 551 0400 www.timacagro.co.za Plant and animal nutrition experts
Websites and publications
- AFMA Matrix is the dedicated feed industry magazine, available from AFMA. You can also download to from www.afma.co.za.
- The publications of other industries e.g. Dairy Mail, Porcus, Poultry Bulletin etc periodically cover animal feed issues.
- Find the annual South African Animal Feeds Market Analysis Report under the “Annual Publications” option on the Directorate Marketing web pages on the DALRRD website, www.daff.gov.za. Also of interest will be the Maize Market Value Chain Profile (in which the Animal Feeds industry is briefly covered), and the Soyabean Market Value Chain Profile.
- NOSA Agricultural Services has training materials on animal feeds. Find more at www.nosaagri.co.za. Training is also offered.
- The SADC Secretariat and German Development Corporation‘s Profiling of the Regional Agro-Processing Value Chains in the SADC Region (March 2019) includes a look at animal feeds.
- Read about the FeedCalculator App at www.feedcalculator.com.
- Find the Global Animal Feed Market Research Report by MicroMarket Monitor at www.micromarketmonitor.com.
- Find the Animal Feed option at www.wattagnet.com and its magazine www.feedstrategy-digital.com.
- www.KnowMycotoxins.com is aimed at educating the various market segments in the animal feed industry that continuously face up to the repercussions of mycotoxins in animal feed and – ultimately – on their livestock performance.
- Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the following publication, available from the ARC in Silverton: Bulk density of various products used as ingredients in animal feeds
- The FAO and IFIF published the Good Practices for the Feed Industry to increase safety and feed quality at the production level. Find the publication at www.fao.org or www.ifif.org.
- Reuters. 2019, June 12. “Dutch firm generates buzz with big fly larvae farm”. Eye Witness News. Available at https://ewn.co.za/2019/06/12/dutch-firm-generates-buzz-with-big-fly-larvae-farm
- Reporter. 2018, April 23. “Feeding cattle: learn the basics”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/feeding-cattle-learn-basics
- Find the article “Labelling legislation for animal feeds in SA” (notes on feed labels as per Act 36 as it applies to animal feeds) at http://agriorbit.com/labelling-legislation-animal-feeds-sa/
- Find the story about K9 Petfoods “Black female entrepreneurs expand business with dti, IDC, Woolworths partnership” (2017, May) at www.bizcommunity.com.
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