The SA agricultural sector spends around R12 billion on fuels annually, most of which is diesel (Agri SA, 2017). A fuel-tax rebate exists for VAT registered farmers, who can claim money back on their diesel purchases. Agri SA tells us that according to the Government Gazette No. 10584, farmers are entitled to 262 cents per litre on 80% of total eligible purchases (108 cents per litre fuel levy on 80% of eligible purchases, plus 154 cents per litre Road Accident Fund levy on 80% of eligible purchases). Find the Diesel Refund Guide, downloadable in pdf format, on www.sars.gov.za.
What kind of engine oil should I use in my farm equipment?
The equipment owner should always select and use oil that at least meets the minimum API Engine Service Classification recommended by the engine manufacturer. Most gasoline engines require motor oils designated “API Service SG or better”. Farm diesel engines require oils designated “API Service CF-4 or better”.
What do you mean by “API Engine Service Classification” system?
This system, developed by the American Petroleum Institute, provides a guide for the selection of crankcase oils suitable for various service conditions. It classifies general ranges of engine service needs based upon:
- engine design and construction
- lubricating oil
- operating conditions
- maintenance practices
- fuel characteristics
Here’s how it works. Each service class is designated by letters, the first letter being “S” for petrol and “C” for diesel engines. The higher the second letter the higher the performance level of the oil. This provides a convenient means for the engine manufacturer to indicate the service characteristics of his various engine designs and hence their lubrication requirements.
Do the SAE numbers define oil quality?
No. The SAE numbers refer to the viscosity of oil only, as defined in the SAE Crankcase Oil Viscosity Classification. “Viscosity” is a measure of the “resistance to flow”, or you might say it is the “body” or “thickness” of the oil. A poor quality oil can have the same SAE viscosity classification as a good oil.
How is multi-viscosity oil different from a single viscosity oil?
A multi-grade oil is one which meets an SAE viscosity requirement at both 0oC and 100oC. It does not thin out as much when heated or thicken up as much when cooled as a single viscosity oil. For example, SAE 15W-40 oils meet cold cranking requirements of SAE 15W at 0oC and high temperature viscosity requirements of SAE 40 at 100oC. Thus, a multi-grade oil stretches the usable temperature range. It provides easier cold-weather starting, quicker, more efficient lubrication, reduced engine wear, and better fuel economy.
How often should I change engine oil in my tractor?
If your tractor is in A-1 mechanical condition, operating on the recommended type crankcase oil, and under normal operating conditions, follow instructions in the owner’s manual. If any of the conditions vary greatly, the drain period should be reduced accordingly.
Does oil actually wear out?
The functions of the engine oil are to lubricate, cool, seal and clean. When an oil loses its ability to perform any of these functions, it is worn out. Contamination of oil occurs in all engines. The contaminants are unburned and partially burned fuel; fuel combustion products, including water; dirt and dust. These contaminants eventually destroy the oil’s capability to function efficiently. Oil should be drained before it reaches this condition. Engines will run better – longer, when the oil is changed as recommended.
How effective are oil filters, and how often should they be changed?
Oil filters should be serviced in accordance with instructions contained in the service manual. When properly serviced, they do an effective job of removing the larger solid particles contaminating the oil, thereby reducing wear and increasing engine life. Oil filters cannot, however, remove the need for changing the oil at proper intervals.
What can cause one oil to become excessively thick as compared to another when both are used at the same operating temperatures and loads?
Excessive thickening of lubricating oil in service is associated with the amount of contaminants it contains and how much the oil has oxidized. For example, solid contaminants such as finely dispersed carbon in diesel engine oils can cause severe thickening. The thickening of crankcase oil in service is generally associated with infrequent oil drain practices.
What causes a crankcase oil to become discoloured?
Many engine oils are naturally dark in colour even before use because of their additive content. Further darkening of engine oils is normal in use. Marked changes in colour are caused by even minor amounts of contaminants. Dispersed carbon (fuel soot) causes diesel oils to become extremely dark very rapidly. Combustion residues from the antiknock additive in gasoline can cause a grey appearance. Water can cause a cloudy or emulsified appearance.
What causes crankcase oils to thin out?
The most common cause of motor oil thinning out is an excessive amount of unburned fuel entering the crankcase. This can be a warning of a mechanical problem unrelated to the lubricant.
What are API Gear Lubricant Service Classifications and what do they mean?
- API Service GL-1 describes a service which can be satisfied with a straight mineral lubricant.
- API Service GL-2 describes a service which can be satisfied with a rear axle worm gear lubricants. (Seldom used in farm equipment)
- API Service GL-3 describes a service which can be satisfied with a mild EP (extreme pressure) lubricant.
- API Service GL-4 describes a service which can be satisfied with a multipurpose-type gear lubricant generally regarded as one meeting the requirements of formed Military Specification MIL-L-2105.
- API Service GL-5 describes a service which can be satisfied with a multipurpose-type gear lubricant generally regarded as one meeting the requirements of Military Specification MIL-L-21058.
What makes hydraulic fluid foam?
Generally, this is caused by contaminants e.g. dirt or water. Also, a common cause is aeration, caused from an air leak into the hydraulic system.
Is the proper storage and handling of fuels and lubricants really as important as some oil company representatives indicate?
Yes! The source of many fuel and oil complaints is right at the fuel storage tank or oil drum, after delivery has been made to the consumer. Great care should be taken to keep water and other contaminants out of fuels and lubricants by storing drums under cover or on their sides to prevent rainwater from entering through the bung, by keeping fuel tanks filled to prevent moisture accumulation from condensation, and by keeping lubricant containers tightly closed when not in use.
Safety must also be considered in handling light petroleum products, fuel oil, diesel fuel, kerosene and gasoline. Mishandling and carelessness in handling these products are fire and explosion hazards. Never allow gasoline to mix with other products because it is a most volatile material. Only a small quantity of gasoline in diesel fuel or kerosene will lower the flash point and cause a serious safety hazard.
Does an oil lose its effectiveness in storage?
No, providing it is properly stored and contamination does not occur.
Diesel and winter
Diesel is not like water, which is a simple mixture which freezes at a single temperature. Some elements in diesel freeze earlier than others and become waxy. These crystals turn the diesel cloudy, block the fuel filter and make it difficult to pump the diesel to the engine. Some companies include an additive to help this.
There are also other steps you can take:
- Make sure the fuel tanks are sheltered or located underground.
- Try to garage vehicles overnight or park them in a sheltered position.
- Ensure that there is no water in your tank; that any remaining summer diesel has been used up before winter starts (order your diesel in time!)
But remember: not all cold starting problems in winter are caused by fuel. Before winter starts, ensure that your fuel filters are clean, and are replaced according to the manufacturer’s schedule. Above all, make sure you are using a winter grade lubricant.
Installing filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems
With pre-cleaners you can extend the life of your air filter by removing up to 90% of the dirt and contaminants before it reaches the filter. The pre-cleaners are designed especially for equipment operating in very heavy dust and debris environments such as agricultural and construction vehicles and mining equipment.
- reduces downtime and resultant loss of production
- reduces component repair and replacement
- reduces fluid replacement and disposal costs
- reduces total cost of ownership
Filtration on bulk oil and diesel systems prevents the ingression of solid particulate matter into equipment when filling or topping up oil or fuel tanks. Over 70% of system failures are the direct result of poor fluid condition or management. In addition to prolonged component life, cleaner diesel gives other benefits, including improved fuel consumption and reduced service costs.
Source: Donaldson Filtration Solutions
International business environment
- www.opec.org – Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Find the Monthly Oil Market Report, OPEC Bulletins and other publications here.
- The fuel price in South Africa is linked to the price of crude oil in international markets and is quoted in US dollars (US$) per barrel. International prices are essentially driven by supply and demand for product in a particular market. Crude oil prices combined with the Rand/Dollar exchange rate therefore have a major impact on fuel prices.
Local business environment
- A crude-oil refinery’s biggest input cost is crude oil. In order for a refinery to make a profit, the price for the product manufactured from crude oil has to be higher than that of the crude oil price. When crude oil prices increase the fuel price has to increase so that crude oil refineries are able to cover their own costs.
- Also incorporated into the retail price for fuel is the contribution to taxes and levies by government and relevant regulatory authorities, like the Fuel Levy, Customs & Excise Duty, Road Accident Fund Levy, Petroleum Products Levy, Transport Recovery Levy and the Demand Side Management Levy.
- The formula for how the pump price of fuel is arrived at can be found on a number of websites including www.energy.gov.za (the Department of Energy), www.sapia.co.za (the South African Petroleum Industry Association) and www.cef.org.za. CEF (Pty) Ltd is responsible for administering the system that sets the petrol price.
- Grain SA compiles a regular Fuel Price Commentary. Find these under “Industry Reports” at www.grainsa.co.za.
The Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP) identifies the increased reliance by South Africa on imported agricultural inputs (chemical fertilisers, diesel, machinery and ingredients for animal feed) as an issue requiring attention.
The government department relevant to this chapter is the Department of Energy. The “Contact Us” link on www.energy.gov.za will give you provincial contact numbers. The national telephone number is 012 406 8000 / 7798.
The National Energy Regulator (NERSA) has a mandate is to regulate the electricity, piped-gas and petroleum pipeline industries in terms of the Petroleum Pipelines Act, 2003 (Act No. 60 of 2003). Visit www.nersa.org.za.
The CEF Group of Companies is a private company, incorporated in terms of the Companies Act, and is governed by the CEF Act. It manages the operation and development of the oil and gas assets and operations of the South African government. Find contact details for and information on the following at www.cef.org.za:
- Petroleum Agency SA (PASA)
- The Strategic Fuel Fund Association (SFF)
- Clean Energy Division (CED)
- African Exploration Mining and Finance Corporation (SOC) Ltd (AEMFC)
South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www.sabs.co.za The diesel standard (specification), SANS 342, like all national standards developed by Standards South Africa – the standards-generating division of the SABS – was developed through consensus by a national technical committee consisting of stakeholders in the field.
- Fuel Retailers Association Tel: 011 886 2664 www.fuelretailers.co.za
- National Petroleum Employers’ Association Tel: 011 498 7683
- NORA – SA (National Oil Recycling Association) Tel: 021 448 7492 www.norasa.co.za
- Paraffin Safety Association Tel: 021 671 5767 www.paraffinsafety.org [Website not working, 13 August 2018]
- ROSE Foundation (Recycling Oil Saves the Environment) Tel: 021 448 7492 www.rosefoundation.org.za
- South African Oil & Gas Alliance (SAOGA) Tel: 021 425 8840 www.saoga.org.za
- The South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) aims to represent the common interests of the petroleum industry. Visit www.sapia.co.za or call 011 783 7664.
- The South African Supplier Diversity Council (SASDC) matches emerging companies in the historically disadvantaged communities with the major oil companies in areas of preferential procurement. Visit www.sasdc.org.za [anti-virus warning, 13 August 2018] or phone them at 011 100 1025.
Training and research
- The Energy Development and Research Centre (EDRC) at the University of Cape Town. Visit www.erc.uct.ac.za.
- The Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) for petroleum companies is EWSETA. Contact them for accredited trainers, or visit www.eseta.org.za.
- Marine, Oil & Gas Academy http://moga.saoga.org.za
- South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) Tel: 031 508 7400 https://sasri.org.za SUSFARMS, the Sustainable Sugarcane Farm Management System, deals with fuel on farms. Contact SASRI for more information.
- University of the Western Cape South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry (SAIAMC) Tel: 021 959 9320 www.uwc.ac.za The PetroSA Synthetic Fuels Innovation Centre (PFSIC), the country’s first academic facility offering research on improving the quality of diesel, is housed here.
Find the link to all South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) members at www.sapia.co.za. These include BP Southern Africa, Chevron South Africa, Engen Petroleum, Shell South Africa and Total South Africa.
- Blue Chip Lubricants Tel: 011 462 1829 www.bcl.co.za
- Bulperd Tel: 082 414 2569 www.bulperd.co.za Diesel carts for the farm
- C&N Petroleum Equipment Tel: 011 397 8416/7 www.candnpetroleum.co.za Farmtank systems and equipment
- Donaldson Filtration Solutions Tel: 011 997 6000 www.donaldson.co.za Bulk fuel filtration solutions that are well suited to African conditions.
- Fluid Controls Trading Tel: 011 472 6710 www.fluidcontrols.co.za Farmtank systems and equipment
- Fuchs Southern Africa Tel: 011 565 9600 www.fuchsoil.co.za Lubricants and greases
- Fuel Energizer South Africa Tel: 083 651 0909 www.fuelenergizer.co.za Save up to 15% on fuel
- GUD Filters www.gud.co.za Details of distributors on the website
- Ictus Equipment Tel: 011 824 2941 www.ictus.co.za Lubrication equipment
- IMDEX Tel: 087 575 3568 www.dieseltesting.co.za Diesel testing
- Innovative Technical Solutions Tel: 031 766 1976 www.dieselguard.co.za Diesel theft and diesel contamination solutions
- Joubert Implements Tel: 021 887 1220 www.joubertimplemente.co.za Diesel carts for transporting fuel on the farm
- Little LogBook, claiming made easy – www.littlelogbook.net
- Lubrication Equipment Tel: 011 864 5785 www.lubrequip.co.za There are links for each of these products on the website: pneumatic & handheld lubrication equipment, hose reels, centralised oiling systems, DC diesel pumps, drip feed lubricators, hoses, quick couplers, grease and oil nipples, toggle clamps, pressure switches, electronic tyre inflators, machine tool protection.
- Maxi Control Tel: 021 762 7576 www.maxicontrol.co.za [Website not loading, 13 August 2018] Suppliers of the Maxifuel fuel management system
- Mega Lube Tel: 011 907 0941 http://megalubeafrica.co.za Agricultural products.
- Meter Systems Tel: 011 451 7000 Fuel management systems
- MiX Telematics Tel: 011 654 8000 www.mixtelematics.co.za Anti-siphon and anti-spill device
- Sasol Tel: 011 441 3111 www.sasol.com
- Spill Tech www.spilltech.co.za Oil pollution control. Branches in Durban, Cape Town and Johannesburg
- Turboformance Tel: 013 753 2885 www.turboformance.co.za Fuel filter funnels, bulk fuel delivery and filtration
- Western Global Tel: 011 626 3607 https://western-global.com A range of standard tanks manufactured and marketed throughout Africa
- Winkelhaak Tel: 017 785 1019 www.winkelhaak.co.za Suppliers of fuel to farmers
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter.
- Various representative bodies in agriculture have items on their websites to do with fuel (fuel prices, fuel rebates etc). Examples include Agbiz, Agri SA, Canning Fruit Producers’ Association, Grain SA and more.
- “Improving the world’s hydrocarbon energy systems” – http://peakoil.com