- The registration of animals maintains the interest in specific breeds, and also leads to a pursuit of excellence – i.e. to get top performance from the animal. There is a vast difference between performances of the two groups within most breeds where registered animals outperform non-registered animals. There is also a vast price difference between them. The breed is thus promoted, and the breeder obtains maximum return on his investment.
- The first objective of the registration of animals is a guarantee to the buyer that the particular animal is authentic in terms of breed, breeding, breeder, performance, breeding values etc. Other objectives include breed improvement and limiting of inbreeding. The farmer who breeds with unregistered animals of a particular breed is not regarded as a bona fide breeder but as a commercial one.
- The breeders’ societies are a vital part of organised agriculture.
- Registered animals around the world are also known as seedstock-, stud-, pedigree- and pure-bred animals. With the infrastructure breed societies have, it is easy and straightforward to register animals.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the placement of sperm into a female reproductive tract by other than natural means. The use of AI is a very cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement because it allows the use of superior male animals to be propagated very easily and quickly.
Cloning uses specialised DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single animal. The first calf was cloned in South Africa in 2003. It is envisaged that cloning will become a cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement as exact replicas of superior animals can be produced.
Embryo transfer is the process of removing embryos from a superior cow and placing them in a surrogate cow where they develop into a calf. Like AI, embryo transfer is a very cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement. In this instance the genetics of a superior female animal can be propagated.
In Genomics, hereditary characteristics are passed down through DNA, the “blueprint” of the organism. Genomics is a branch of genetics which deals specifically with the sequence of chemical bases in DNA. Genomics complements existing technologies like performance testing, and will accelerate genetic improvement.
Laparoscopic-assisted artificial insemination is when, simultaneously to AI, gas is inserted to assist insemination.
Performance recording entails the measuring of traits that affects the profitability of the animal and ultimately the breed. Different breeds measure different attributes based on what is considered important to that breed. Members of cattle breed societies usually measure attributes such as reproduction, growth, carcass and functional efficiency. Merino breeders would for example measure additional traits such as fibre diameter and fleece weight.
Breeds and breeder societies
A Breeders’ Society may be formed if members of a particular breed wish to form such a society. The application forms can be obtained from the registrar at the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD). Breeders’ Societies exist for most breeds of animals. The objectives of most societies are to:
- promote and develop their breed;
- offer various services to their members;
- improve the national herd in the country.
The Animal Improvement Act of 1998 allows societies to issue their own registration certificates if they so wish. These societies act as their own registering authorities. The SA Stud Book is a registration authority providing registration and secretarial services on behalf of many different breed societies. BREEDPLAN fulfils a similar function.
Registration certificates certify that an animal is a “stud” animal and is issued on behalf of the Breeders’ Society. These certificates are intended to be a guarantee that the animal has met certain requirements as laid down by the society and registering authority.
A list of registered Breeders’ Societies with their contact details is given under relevant headings later in this chapter. Lists may also be found at the following websites: www.sastudbook.co.za and www.agribsa.co.za.
For the newcomer
When deciding on a breed, the following points are important:
- Preference and love of the breed is imperative.
- Suitability of the farm for stud breeding, i.e.: situation of property; quality of grazing; supplementary feed production potential and/or availability source of supply; sufficient, well watered camps; good handling, kraaling and, if necessary, shedding facilities.
- Provision for fairly large financial commitments, especially at the outset in order to finance the purchase of good breeding material.
- Stud breeding is a long-term investment with no instant formula for quick results.
- A stud breeder must be prepared to continually broaden his knowledge and keep abreast of modern developments and tendencies.
- The breeder must aim for a breeding programme that recognises the most economic characteristics of the breed – avoid a haphazard breeding policy.
- Use all the modern selection aids to facilitate a stud-breeding venture e.g. keeping of records with one of the Registering Authorities and Performance Testing.
- Prospective stud breeders must have certain managerial qualities, as stud breeding requires sound decision-making, planning and care of the animals.
- Good public relations are essential. Easy communication with people and honesty with yourself and with others play an important role.
- The chosen breed should suit your production system.
Knowing about the relationship between individual animals (i.e. who the father is/was), AND performance measurements are vital for the genetic improvement of farm livestock. Classical pedigrees (which reflect only the name/number of an animal and its ancestor) have a limited value when it comes to livestock improvement. Modern pedigrees are:
- based on scientifically founded recording methods and systems;
- linked to performance.
These are indispensable for optimal genetic progress. A record is kept on these results.
Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) is “a dedicated animal recording scheme for emerging/ smallholder farmers”. For general information, call the ARC at 012 672 9111.
National strategy and government contact
The Directorate Animal Production at the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) is responsible for the evaluation of new breeds and the regulation of the activities of breed societies and registration authorities. Application forms to register for the above can be found at www.dalrrd.gov.za. Regulations pertaining to Animal Improvement are published in the Animal Improvement Act, 1998 (Act 62 of 1998). The Act is administered by the Directorate.
The aim of the Directorate Farm Animal Genetic Resources is to “ensure the conservation and sustainable use of farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR) for food and agriculture”. Find its pages at www.dalrrd.gov.za.
Livestock Registering Federation (LRF) www.lrf.co.za The Livestock Registering Federation is an association of breeders societies and includes many of the larger breed societies in South Africa and the Namibian Stud Breeders Association in their membership. In South Africa these societies administer and issue the registrations for their own breeds of cattle and are known as Independent Registering Authorities (IRA). The principal business and purpose of the Livestock Registering Federation is to unite, promote and protect its members acting as Independent Registration Authorities (Animal Improvement Act 62 of 1998), into an affiliated federation.
SAVSEG (South African Veterinary Semen and Embryo Group) and SASEG (SA Semen and Embryo Group) C/o Dr R de la Rey Tel: 012 250 2359
South African Society for Animal Science (SASAS) www.sasas.co.za
SA Stud Book and Animal Improvement Association Tel: 051 410 0900 www.sastudbook.co.za SA Stud Book is an association of 63 Breeders’ Societies (various breeds and species). The objectives of SA Stud Book are to:
- Assist these Breeder Societies to achieve their respective objectives;
- Safeguard and advance the collective interests of stud breeders and their breeders’ societies;
- Act as a mouthpiece for the stud breeding industry;
- Promote the export of animals with credible pedigrees, registered or recorded with the Association of semen or embryos begotten from animals thus registered or recorded;
- Render technical and advisory services to breeders’ societies and their members;
- Act as a breeders’ society in respect of breeds of animals for which no breeders’ society exists.
Stud Game Breeders www.studgamebreeders.co.za
For details of Breeder Group Societies, see the “Cattle”, “Sheep” etc headings later on this page.
Many on-farm software programs applicable to animal breeding are available for producers. Many combine the functionality of herd management with on-farm recording. Some of the programmes listed have selection decision aids.
- ARC Beef Cattle Improvement Programme www.arc.agric.za The Integrated Registration and Genetic Information System (INTERGIS) is managed by this division on behalf of DALRRD.
- BenguFarm™ www.bengufarm.co.za [Beef, game, pigs, sheep & goats]
- Bovistat https://bovistat.com [cattle]
- Breedplan – see www.lrf.co.za [beef]
- DIMSA www.dimssa.co.za [dairy, feedlot]
- Plan-A-Head www.planahead.co.za [dairy, beef, sheep, pig]
- SA Studbook www.logix.org.za and https://studbook.co.za [dairy, beef, horses, sheep, goats, game, pigs]
- Software Farm www.softwarefarm.co.za [beef, dairy, feedlot]
- Trio Sagteware www.saboer.co.za [dairy, beef]
- Waikato South Africa www.waikatosa.co.za [dairy]
Artificial Insemination/Embryo services
- ABS South Africa www.absglobal.com
- Alliance Genetics www.alliancegenetics.co.za
- ARC Beef Cattle Improvement Programme www.arc.agric.za See the note on Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) under the “For the newcomer” heading.
- BenguelaSoft – see BenguFarm under the “Software Programmes” subheading
- Brakfontein Embryo Centre www.dohnemerino.org/brakfontein
- BREEDPLAN SA – see www.lrf.co.za
- CRV Xseed Genetics http://crvsa.co.za
- DanBred Africa https://danbred.com
- Embryo Plus www.embryoplus.com
- Genimex www.genimex.co.za
- In Vitro Africa https://invitroafrica.com/
- Inqaba Biotec Animal Genetics www.inqababiotec.co.za
- Ramsem www.ramsem.com
- Semex Southern Africa www.semex.com
- Taurus Evolution www.taurus-evolution.co.za
- Vriesit Andrology Laboratories www.vriesit.com
- World Wide Sires South Africa www.wwsires.co.za
There are procedures and protocols applicable here. For further information contact the Registrar of Animal Improvement / Directorate Animal Health.
- Buiatrica Farming SA www.buiatrica.co.za
- Veterinary Import-Export Authority http://vetimportexport.com
Find earlier details for Embryo Plus and Semex Southern Africa.
- Bull’s Eye Consulting http://bullseyeconsulting.co.za Comprehensive herd consultation services focused on animal recording, performance testing, genetic evaluation, selection, breeding and related management
- Farm Electronic Equipment www.draminski.com Pregnancy detectors (sheep, pigs), bull semen analyser
- Ramsay Animal Agriculture Keith Ramsay retired from DALRRD and offers his services as a consultant, focusing on herd selection for functional efficiency and does a bit of training. Write to him at keithrms9 [at] gmail.com.
- Unistel https://unistelmedical.co.za Various DNA based technologies available
- Africa Droughtmaster http://droughtmasterafrica.co.za
- Afrigus Club Tel: 051 447 9849
- Afrikaner Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA www.afrikanerbees.com
- Afrisim (Afrikaner-Simmentaler cross) – see Afrikaner Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA
- Angus Society of SA www.angus.org.za
- Beefmaster Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.beefmastersa.co.za
- Bonsmara Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA www.bonsmara.co.za
- Boran Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.boran.org.za
- Brahman Cattle Breeders Society of SA https://brahmanshop.co.za
- Brangus Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.brangus.org.za Angus-Brahman mix
- Braunvieh SA www.braunviehsa.co.za
- Charolais Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.charolais.co.za
- Chianina www.chianina.co.za
- Dexter Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.dextersa.co.za
- Drakensberger Cattle Breeders Society www.drakensbergers.co.za
- Hugenoot SA www.hugenootsa.co.za
- Limousin Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.limousinsa.co.za
- Nguni Cattle Breeders Society www.nguni.co.za
- Pinzgauer and Pinz2yl Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0955/63 PinZ²yl is a Pinzgauer-Nguni cross
- Red Poll Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 012 673 7492
- Romagnola Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.romagnola.co.za
- SA Braford Cattle Breeders’ Society www.braford.co.za A Brahman-Hereford cross
- SA Gelbvieh Association www.gelbvieh.co.za
- SA Hereford Breeders’ Society www.hereford.co.za
- Sanganers www.afrikanerbees.com/Sanganer.htm
- Santa Gertrudis SA www.santagertrudis.co.za
- Senepol Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA www.senepolsa.co.za
- Shorthorn Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900/58
- Simbra Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA www.simbra.org A Simmentaler-Brahman cross
- Simmentaler Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.simmentaler.org
- South Devon Cattle Breeders Society of SA www.southdevon.co.za
- Sussex Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0955
- Tuli Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA www.tulicattle.co.za
- Wagyu Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA http://wagyu.org.za
- Ayrshire Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA www.ayrshire.co.za
- Jersey SA www.jerseysa.co.za
- SA Dairy Swiss www.dairyswiss.co.za
- SA Guernsey Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 028 542 1426
- SA Holstein www.saholstein.co.za
- Afrino Sheep Breeders’ Society www.afrino.org.za
- Bapedi Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 012 310 2218 / 072 219 2188
- Damara Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA http://damarasheep.co.za
- Dohne Merino Breed Society of SA www.dohnemerino.com
- Dormer Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA www.dormersa.com
- Dorper Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA www.dorpersa.co.za
- Ile de France Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA www.iledefrance.co.za
- Karakoel Club Tel: 054 337 6237
- Letelle Sheep Breeders Association www.letelle.co.za
- Meatmaster Sheep Breeders Society www.meatmastersa.co.za
- Merino Breeders’ Society of SA https://merinosa.co.za
- Merino Landsheep Society of SA http://merinolandskaap.co.za
- SA Mutton Merino Breeders’ Society www.savleismerino.net
- Suffolk Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA www.suffolk.co.za
- Van Rooy Sheep Breeders’ Society www.vanrooysa.co.za
- Vandor Sheep Breeders Society of SA Tel: 053 664 0173
- Appaloosa Horse Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 082 398 5400
- Arab Horse Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0946
- Cape Boerperd Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 082 552 2309
- Friesian Horse Breeders’ Society of SA http://friesperdsa.co.za
- Hackney Horse Breeders’ Society of SA www.hackneyhorse.co.za
- Nooitgedacht Horse Breeders’ Society of SA http://nooitgedachter.co.za
- Percheron Horse Breeders’ Society of SA www.percheronsa.co.za
- Saddlebred Society of SA www.saddlebred.co.za
- SA Boerperd Breeders’ Society www.saboerperd.com
- SA Hackney Pony Breeders’ Society Tel: 021 396 1245
- South African Lipizzaners www.lipizzaners.co.za
- SA Miniature Horse Breeders’ Society www.saminiaturehorse.co.za
- SA Paint and Pinto Club Tel: 082 694 6482
- SA Quarter Horse Association www.saqha.co.za
- SA Sport Horse Federation https://sasporthorse.co.za
- SA Vlaamperd Breeders’ Society www.savlaamperdtelersgenootskap.co.za
- SA Warmblood Horse Society www.sawarmbloodhorses.com
- Standardbred Breeders Association of SA www.facebook.com/spphasa
- Thoroughbred Breeders’ Association of SA www.tba.co.za
- Trotteurs Francais Breeders Association of SA c/o Trotting South Africa Tel: 031 314 1680
- Welsh Pony Society of SA http://wpcs.co.za
- Angora Goats c/o South African Mohair Growers’ Association (SAMGA) www.angoras.co.za
- Savanna Goat Breeders’ Society of SA www.boerboksa.co.za
- SA Boer Goat Breeders’ Society www.boerboksa.co.za
- SA Kalahari Red Club www.facebook.com/Kalahari-Reds-242465412491747/
- SA Milch Goat Breeders’ Society www.milkgoats.co.za
Some other breeds
Training and research
- The African Centre for Gene Technologies (ACGT) is an initiative that involves the Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), the University of Pretoria, the University of the Witwatersrand, the University of Johannesburg and the Agricultural Research Council (ARC). Visit www.acgt.co.za for more information.
- A.I. courses are offered by ARC-Animal Production. Visit www.arc.agric.za or call 012 672 9111 / 153.
- Breed societies themselves do training and manage research done on their breed. The Brangus Cattle Breeders Society, for example, provides a beginners course in Brangus stud breeding, and advanced Brangus stud breeding course and inspector courses for Brangus cattle (junior, senior and breed inspector). Find contact details under the earlier, different livestock headings.
- Enterprises at the University of Pretoria has previously conducted the Introduction to Artificial Insemination in Cattle short course. Visit www.enterprises.up.ac.za.
- Find details of the Universities, the Universities of Technology and the Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. Animal breeding is covered in degrees and diplomas. Some short courses are also offered. The School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences at the Central University of Technology (Bloemfontein), for example, offers the following short courses: (i) Santa Gertrudis Judging Course; (ii) Dorper Judging Course; (iii) Artificial Insemination (Cattle); (iv) Simbra Judging Course; (v) Dohne Merino course. The University of the Free State runs the post graduate school of animal breeding. This is a body that represents the tuition of post graduate studies in Animal Breeding in South Africa. Visit www.ufs.ac.za/animal, website of the university’s Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences. SA Studbook also works closely with the University of Pretoria.
- Provincial Departments of Agriculture also have an involvement in animal breeding. Find contact details on the “Agriculture in the provinces” page.
- Some of the companies involved offer some training as part of their packages e.g. herd management, performance recording, A.I. See the “Companies involved” heading.
- Amongst the training courses offered by Rothmans Livestock Training Services are A.I. (cattle and sheep), pregnancy awareness, and embryo transfer. Visit www.rltsafrica.com.
- Peter Milton offers a cattle stud breeding course. Contact him at 083 630 8868.
- The LRF Stockman’s School is held annually at Aldam resort during the month of October. Leading national and international speakers discuss the very latest production techniques, market trends, management systems and the latest research to produce better and more efficient cattle. Visit www.stockmanschool.co.za.
Technologies impacting on livestock efficiency and profitability for breeding and genetics are:
- Computing power and Data base exploration
- Algorithm developments
- Integrating economics with genetic merit in genetic merit predictions
- Integrating quantitative and molecular genetics
- Genome projects & whole genome sequencing
- Application of bead chip technologies in next generation genetic merit predictions
- Automated recording –intake, product properties
Source: Japie van der Westhuizen (SA Stud Book) in a presentation “The influence of new breeding technologies on profitability in beef cattle”. Find his article "Technology – a resource to drive profit in beef operations" under the "Websites & publications" heading.
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier on this page.
- Many breeders’ societies in South Africa publish an annual journal. Other material is also available in some cases. Visit the respective societies websites or contact them for further information.
- Find the “Farm Animal Breeds” option on www.sasas.co.za, website of the South African Society of Animal Science (SASAS).
- Find the cartoon commissioned by the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) on selective breeding at www.pub.ac.za/cartoons/.
- Find the Info Pak “Livestock improvement terminology” under the Resource Centre option at www.dalrrd.gov.za.
- Ramaphosa, C. 2017. Cattle of Ages. Johannesburg: Jacana. See also the Agribook.Digital blog “Of cattle and men“.
- The International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) website is www.icar.org
- The Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics is a professional organisation based in Australia and New Zealand. Visit www.aaabg.org.
- World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock, www.wcgalp.org
- Cattle International Series, https://cattleinternationalseries.weebly.com/
- Visit the FAO pages “Animal genetics” and “Aquatic Genetic Resources – A valuable and unexplored reserve of biodiversity for food and agriculture” at www.fao.org.
- Kriel G. 2021, June 3. “Genetics drive dairy production profitability”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/genetics-drive-dairy-production-profitability/
- Kriel G. 2020, November 20. “Are top-priced genetics really worth it?”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/are-top-priced-genetics-really-worth-it/
- Reporter. 2020, April 17. “Gene edited cattle: are we there yet?”. The Cattle Site. Available at www.thecattlesite.com/news/55158/gene-edited-cattle-are-we-there-yet/
- Angus L. 2020, January 20. “12 basic principles of scientific livestock breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/12-basic-principles-of-scientific-livestock-breeding/
- Sishuba, S. 2019, July 10. “Better results with a single-breed herd on the Highveld”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/better-results-with-a-single-breed-herd-on-the-highveld/
- Angus, L. 2019, February 11. “Finding value in cattle shows in an era of modern breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/finding-value-in-cattle-shows-in-an-era-of-modern-breeding/
- Nel, C. 2018, October 3. “Scientific selection in beef cattle breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/scientific-selection-beef-cattle-breeding
- Staff Reporter. 2018, September 24. “Learn about beef BLUP basics”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/learn-beef-blup-basics/
- Sishuba, S. 2018, August 9. “No room for favourites – choose cattle breeds carefully”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-business/empowerment/no-room-for-favourites-choose-cattle-breeds-carefully/
- Loubser, A. 2017, December 22. “ARC and SA Stud Book bury the hatchet”. Veeplaas. Available at https://agriorbit.com/arc-sa-stud-book-bury-hatchet
- Coleman, A. 2018, March 5. “Single-step genomics: a game changer for livestock breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/single-step-genomics-game-changer-livestock-breeding/
- Uys, G. 2018, January 10. “Artificial insemination: ideal for communal farmers”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-business/empowerment/artificial-insemination-ideal-communal-farmers/
- Burgess, M. 2017, October 11. “Lack of land hampers top developing farmers”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/lack-land-hampers-top-developing-farmers
- Van der Westhuizen, J. 2016, May 5. “Technology – a resource to drive profit in beef operations”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/technology-a-resource-to-drive-profit-in-beef-operations/
- Zietsman, J. 2013, April 18. “Food for thought”. Land & Livestock International, Inc. Available at https://landandlivestock.wordpress.com/2013/04/18/food-for-thought/
- Reporter. 2012, April 26. “Selecting the right bull”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/selecting-the-right-bull/
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