- The registration of animals maintains the interest in specific breeds, and also leads to a pursuit of excellence – i.e. to get top performance from the animal. There is a vast difference between performances of the two groups within most breeds where registered animals outperform non-registered animals. There is also a vast price difference between them. The breed is thus promoted, and the breeder obtains maximum return on his investment.
- The first objective of the registration of animals is a guarantee to the buyer that the particular animal is authentic in terms of breed, breeding, breeder, performance, breeding values etc. Other objectives include breed improvement and limiting of inbreeding. The farmer who breeds with unregistered animals of a particular breed is not regarded as a bona fide breeder but as a commercial one.
- The breeders’ societies are a vital part of organised agriculture.
- Registered animals around the world are also known as seedstock-, stud-, pedigree- and pure-bred animals. With the infrastructure breed societies have, it is easy and straightforward to register animals.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the placement of sperm into a female reproductive tract by other than natural means. The use of AI is a very cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement because it allows the use of superior male animals to be propagated very easily and quickly.
Cloning uses specialised DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single animal. The first calf was cloned in South Africa in 2003. It is envisaged that cloning will become a cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement as exact replicas of superior animals can be produced.
Embryo transfer is the process of removing embryos from a superior cow and placing them in a surrogate cow where they develop into a calf. Like AI, embryo transfer is a very cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement. In this instance the genetics of a superior female animal can be propagated.
In Genomics, hereditary characteristics are passed down through DNA, the “blueprint” of the organism. Genomics is a branch of genetics which deals specifically with the sequence of chemical bases in DNA. Genomics complements existing technologies like performance testing, and will accelerate genetic improvement.
Laparoscopic-assisted artificial insemination is when, simultaneously to AI, gas is inserted to assist insemination.
Performance recording entails the measuring of traits that affects the profitability of the animal and ultimately the breed. Different breeds measure different attributes based on what is considered important to that breed. Members of cattle breed societies usually measure attributes such as reproduction, growth, carcass and functional efficiency. Merino breeders would for example measure additional traits such as fibre diameter and fleece weight.
Breeds and breeder societies
A Breeders’ Society may be formed if members of a particular breed wish to form such a society. The application forms can be obtained from the registrar at the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (DAFF). Breeders’ Societies exist for most breeds of animals. The objectives of most societies are to:
- promote and develop their breed;
- offer various services to their members;
- improve the national herd in the country.
The Animal Improvement Act of 1998 allows societies to issue their own registration certificates if they so wish. These societies act as their own registering authorities. The SA Stud Book is a registration authority providing registration and secretarial services on behalf of many different breed societies. BREEDPLAN fulfils a similar function.
Registration certificates certify that an animal is a “stud” animal and is issued on behalf of the Breeders’ Society. These certificates are intended to be a guarantee that the animal has met certain requirements as laid down by the society and registering authority.
A list of registered Breeders’ Societies with their contact details is given under relevant headings later in this chapter. Lists may also be found at the following websites: www.sastudbook.co.za and www.agribsa.co.za.
For the newcomer
When deciding on a breed, the following points are important:
- Preference and love of the breed is imperative.
- Suitability of the farm for stud breeding, i.e.: situation of property; quality of grazing; supplementary feed production potential and/or availability source of supply; sufficient, well watered camps; good handling, kraaling and, if necessary, shedding facilities.
- Provision for fairly large financial commitments, especially at the outset in order to finance the purchase of good breeding material.
- Stud breeding is a long-term investment with no instant formula for quick results.
- A stud breeder must be prepared to continually broaden his knowledge and keep abreast of modern developments and tendencies.
- The breeder must aim for a breeding programme that recognises the most economic characteristics of the breed – avoid a haphazard breeding policy.
- Use all the modern selection aids to facilitate a stud-breeding venture e.g. keeping of records with one of the Registering Authorities and Performance Testing.
- Prospective stud breeders must have certain managerial qualities, as stud breeding requires sound decision-making, planning and care of the animals.
- Good public relations are essential. Easy communication with people and honesty with yourself and with others play an important role.
- The chosen breed should suit your production system.
Knowing about the relationship between individual animals (i.e. who the father is/was), AND performance measurements are vital for the genetic improvement of farm livestock. Classical pedigrees (which reflect only the name/number of an animal and its ancestor) have a limited value when it comes to livestock improvement. Modern pedigrees are:
- based on scientifically founded recording methods and systems;
- linked to performance.
These are indispensable for optimal genetic progress. A record is kept on these results.
Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) is “a dedicated animal recording scheme for emerging/ smallholder farmers”. For general information, call the ARC at 012 672 9111.
Provincial contact details are:
- EASTERN CAPE Mr S Nini 012 672 9353/078 590 2114, Mr S Kwada 073 723 1455
- FREE STATE Ms K Lencoe 051 447 5629
- GAUTENG Ms M E Phooko 012 672 9057/060 507 3004
- KWAZULU-NATAL Mr AA Muchunu 033 355 9477/076 334 7432, Mr. TF Dlamini 033 355 9477/079 942 9895
- LIMPOPO Mr J Mulaudzi 012 672 9082/073 268 1327, Mr S Rasebotsa 012 672 9120/082 701 9636
- MPUMALANGA Mr J Mulaudzi 012 672 9082/073 268 1327, Ms D Manyike 012 672 9120/082 701 9636
- NORTH WEST Ms LZ Malete 083 974 1817/053 927 4333, Mr K Ramalepe 073 519 5331/053 927 4333, Ms L Maboa 012 672 9081/079 196 4106
- NORTHERN CAPE Mr C B Sekwadi 053 927 4333/071 969 3681
- WESTERN CAPE Mr E Phaswana 082 880 2165 021 809 3509
National strategy and government contact
The Directorate Animal Production at the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) is responsible for the evaluation of new breeds and the regulation of the activities of breed societies and registration authorities. Application forms to register for the above can be found at www.daff.gov.za. Regulations pertaining to Animal Improvement are published in the Animal Improvement Act, 1998 (Act 62 of 1998). The Act is administered by the Directorate.
- Directorate: Animal Production – 012 319 7493 / 7597
- The Registrar – 012 319 7424 / 34
Livestock Registering Federation (LRF) Tel: 012 667 5258 www.lrf.co.za The Livestock Registering Federation is an association of breeders societies and includes many of the larger breed societies in South Africa and the Namibian Stud Breeders Association in their membership. In South Africa these societies administer and issue the registrations for their own breeds of cattle and are known as Independent Registering Authorities (IRA). The principal business and purpose of the Livestock Registering Federation is to unite, promote and protect its members acting as Independent Registration Authorities (Animal Improvement Act 62 of 1998), into an affiliated federation.
SAVSEG (South African Veterinary Semen and Embryo Group) and SASEG (SA Semen and Embryo Group) C/o Dr R de la Rey Tel: 012 250 2359
South African Society for Animal Science (SASAS) www.sasas.co.za
SA Stud Book and Animal Improvement Association Tel: 051 410 0900 www.sastudbook.co.za SA Stud Book is an association of 63 Breeders’ Societies (various breeds and species). The objectives of SA Stud Book are to:
- Assist these Breeder Societies to achieve their respective objectives;
- Safeguard and advance the collective interests of stud breeders and their breeders’ societies;
- Act as a mouthpiece for the stud breeding industry;
- Promote the export of animals with credible pedigrees, registered or recorded with the Association of semen or embryos begotten from animals thus registered or recorded;
- Render technical and advisory services to breeders’ societies and their members;
- Act as a breeders’ society in respect of breeds of animals for which no breeders’ society exists.
Stud Game Breeders www.studgamebreeders.co.za
For details of Breeder Group Societies, see the “Cattle”, “Sheep” etc headings later in this chapter
Many on-farm software programs applicable to animal breeding are available for producers. Many combine the functionality of herd management with on-farm recording. Some of the programmes listed have selection decision aids.
- ARC Beef Cattle Improvement Programme Tel: 012 672 9085 / 52 www.arc.agric.za The Integrated Registration and Genetic Information System (INTERGIS) is managed by this division on behalf of DAFF.
- BenguFarm™ Cell: 082 801 2026 www.bengufarm.co.za [Beef, game, pigs, sheep & goats]
- Breedplan Tel: 012 667 5258 www.breedplan.co.za [beef]
- DIMSA Tel: 058 852 3607 www.dimssa.co.za [dairy, feedlot]
- Plan-A-Head Tel: 033 342 7888 www.planahead.co.za [dairy, beef, sheep, pig]
- SA Studbook Tel: 051 410 0900 www.logix.org.za and www.sastudbook.co.za [dairy, beef, horses, sheep, goats, game, pigs]
- Software Farm Tel: 012 365 2683 www.softwarefarm.co.za [beef, dairy, feedlot]
- Trio Sagteware Tel: 012 376 4180 www.saboer.co.za [dairy, beef]
Artificial Insemination/Embryo services
- ABS South Africa Tel: 021 975 4191 www.absglobal.com
- Alliance Genetics Tel: 082 809 7488 www.alliancegenetics.co.za
- ARC Beef Cattle Improvement Programme Tel: 012 672 9085 / 52 www.arc.agric.za See the note on Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) under heading 3.
- BenguelaSoft – see BenguFarm under the ‘Software Programmes’ subheading
- Brakfontein Embryo Centre Tel: 046 685 0519 www.dohnemerino.org/brakfontein
- BREEDPLAN SA Tel: 012 667 5258 www.breedplan.co.za
- CRV Xseed Genetics Tel: 051 444 3350 www.xseed.co.za
- Embryo Africa Tel: 021 883 9042 www.embryoafrica.com
- Embryo Plus Tel: 012 250 2359 www.embryoplus.com
- Genimex Tel: 012 666 7342 www.genimex.co.za
- Genestar – see Breedplan
- Inqaba Biotec Animal Genetics Tel: 012 343 5829 www.inqababiotec.co.za
- Ramsem Tel: 051 412 6327 or 082 900 3903/4 www.ramsem.com
- Semex Southern Africa Tel: 021 905 0225 www.semex.com
- Taurus Evolution Tel: 051 430 4515 www.taurus-evolution.co.za
- Vriesit Andrology Laboratories Tel: 012 547 0446 www.vriesit.com
- World Wide Sires South Africa Tel: 021 557 0606 www.wwsires.co.za
There are procedures and protocols applicable here. For further information contact the Registrar of Animal Improvement / Directorate Animal Health.
- Buiatrica Farming SA Tel: 012 667 2548 / 082 572 7233 www.buiatrica.co.za
- Veterinary Import-Export Authority cc Tel: 012 361 3116 http://vetimportexport.com
- Zais International (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 768 4264
Find earlier details for Embryo Plus and Semex Southern Africa.
- Bull’s Eye Consulting Tel: 082 801 2026 http://bullseyeconsulting.co.za Comprehensive herd consultation services focused on animal recording, performance testing, genetic evaluation, selection, breeding and related management
- Farm Electronic Equipment www.draminski.com Pregnancy detectors (sheep, pigs), bull semen analyser
- Ramsay Animal Agriculture Keith Ramsay retired from DAFF and offers his services as a consultant, focusing on herd selection for functional efficiency and does a bit of training. Write to him at keithrms9 [at] gmail.com.
- Unistel Tel: 021 938 9213/4 www.unistelanimalservices.co.za Various DNA based technologies available
- Africa Droughtmaster http://droughtmasterafrica.co.za
- Afrigus Club Tel: 051 447 9849
- Afrikaner Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 447 7405 www.afrikanerbees.com
- Afrisim (Afrikaner-Simmentaler cross) – see Afrikaner Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA
- Angus Society of SA Tel: 051 447 9849 www.angus.org.za
- Beefmaster Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 086 111 31 44 www.beefmastersa.co.za
- Bonsmara Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 448 6084/5 www.bonsmara.co.za
- Boran Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0951 www.boran.org.za
- Brahman Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 444 0172/5 https://brahmanshop.co.za
- Brangus Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 451 2496 www.brangus.org.za Angus-Brahman mix
- Braunvieh SA Tel: 051 410 0967 www.braunviehsa.co.za
- Charolais Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0953 www.charolais.co.za
- Chianina www.chianina.co.za
- Dexter Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900 www.dextersa.co.za
- Drakensberger Cattle Breeders Society Tel: 051 410 0974 www.drakensbergers.co.za
- Hugenoot SA Tel: 014 721 0919 www.hugenootsa.co.za
- Limousin Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 444 5082/3 www.limousinsa.co.za
- Nguni Cattle Breeders Society Tel: 051 448 7302/3 www.ngunicattle.info
- Pinzgauer and Pinz2yl Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0955/63 www.sacattle.co.za PinZ²yl is a Pinzgauer-Nguni cross
- Red Poll Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 012 673 7492 www.redpollsa.co.za
- Romagnola Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900 / 53 www.romagnola.co.za
- SA Braford Cattle Breeders’ Society Tel: 051 446 0580 www.braford.co.za A Brahman-Hereford cross
- SA Gelbvieh Association Tel: 051 410 0955 www.gelbvieh.co.za
- SA Hereford Breeders’ Society Tel: 051 410 0958 www.hereford.co.za
- Sanganers Tel: 051 447 7405 www.afrikanerbees.com/Sanganer.htm
- Santa Gertrudis SA Tel: 051 448 0318 www.santagertrudis.co.za
- Senepol Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900 www.senepolsa.co.za
- Shorthorn Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900/58
- Simbra Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 446 0580/2 www.simbra.org A Simmentaler-Brahman cross
- Simmentaler Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 446 0580 / 2 www.simmentaler.org
- South Devon Cattle Breeders Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900/64 www.southdevon.co.za
- Sussex Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0955/63
- Tuli Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0958 www.tulicattle.co.za
- Wagyu Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 444 2269 / 492 1852 http://wagyu.org.za
- Ayrshire Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 446 3129 www.ayrshire.co.za
- Jersey SA Tel: 051 430 8020 www.jerseysa.co.za
- SA Dairy Swiss Tel: 051 410 0953 www.dairyswiss.co.za
- SA Guernsey Cattle Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 028 542 1426 www.studbook.co.za/Society/guernsey/
- SA Holstein Tel: 051 447 9123 www.saholstein.co.za
- Afrino Sheep Breeders’ Society Tel: 048 887 0017 www.afrino.org.za
- Bapedi Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 012 310 2218 / 072 219 2188
- Damara Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 014 549 2371 http://damarasheep.co.za
- Dohne Merino Breed Society of SA Tel: 043 683 1330 www.dohnemerino.com
- Dormer Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0968 / 072 384 6251 www.dormersa.com
- Dorper Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 049 842 2241 / 071 606 5625 www.dorpersa.co.za
- Ile de France Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0953 www.iledefrance.co.za
- Karakoel Club Tel: 054 337 6237
- Letelle Sheep Breeders Association Tel: 051 401 8200 www.letelle.co.za
- Meatmaster Sheep Breeders Society Tel: 051 410 0955 www.meatmastersa.co.za
- Merino Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 049 892 4148 https://merinosa.co.za
- Merino Landsheep Society of SA Tel/Fax: 056 817 7859 http://merinolandskaap.co.za
- SA Mutton Merino Breeders’ Society Tel: 051 522 6827/8 www.savleismerino.net
- Suffolk Sheep Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0900/3 www.suffolk.co.za
- Van Rooy Sheep Breeders’ Society Tel: 054 431 0832 / 073 310 2225 www.vanrooysa.co.za
- Vandor Sheep Breeders Society of SA Tel: 053 664 0173
Find an extensive list of horse breeds at www.sasas.co.za/about-animal-science
- Appaloosa Horse Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 082 598 8377
- Arab Horse Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0945
- Cape Boerperd Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 042 247 2138 www.capeboerperd.co.za
- Friesian Horse Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0954 http://friesperdsa.co.za
- Hackney Horse Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0974 www.hackneyhorse.co.za
- Nooitgedacht Horse Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 012 654 3119 http://nooitgedachter.co.za
- Percheron Horse Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 076 053 4103 www.percheronsa.co.za
- Saddlebred Society of SA Tel: 051 410 0945 www.saddlebred.co.za
- SA Boerperd Breeders’ Society Tel: 051 410 0952 www.saboerperd.com
- SA Hackney Pony Breeders’ Society Tel: 028 840 1870
- South African Lipizzaners Tel: 079 716 4792 www.lipizzaners.co.za
- SA Miniature Horse Breeders’ Society Tell: 051 410 0945 www.saminiaturehorse.co.za
- SA Paint and Pinto Club Tel: 082 694 6482
- SA Quarter Horse Association Tel: 071 471 3684 www.saqha.co.za
- SA Sport Horse Federation Tel: 082 751 1909
- SA Vlaamperd Breeders’ Society Tel/Fax: 022 481 3614 www.savlaamperdtelersgenootskap.co.za
- SA Warmblood Horse Society Tel: 083 260 6495 www.sawarmbloodhorses.com
- Standardbred Breeders Association of SA Tel: 031 314 1680 www.trotting.co.za
- Thoroughbred Breeders’ Association of SA Tel: 083 640 1155 www.tba.co.za
- Trotteurs Francais Breeders Association of SA c/o Trotting South Africa www.trotting.co.za
- Welsh Pony Society of SA Tel: 022 481 3614 http://wpcs.co.za
- Angora Goats c/o South African Mohair Growers’ Association (SAMGA) www.angoras.co.za
- Savanna Goat Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 051 633 3744 www.boerboksa.co.za
- SA Boer Goat Breeders’ Society Tel: 051 633 3744 www.boerboksa.co.za
- SA Kalahari Red Club Tel: 051 633 3744 www.kalaharired.net
- SA Milch Goat Breeders’ Society Tel: 051 410 0954 www.milkgoats.co.za
Some other breeds
- AfriCanis Society of Southern Africa Tel: 033 343 26 99 www.africanis.co.za
- Federation of Boxer Clubs Tel: 012 664 2156 www.fbcsa.net
- Ostrich Breeders’ Society of SA Tel: 044 272 6077 / 7314
- SA Alpaca Breeders’ Society Tel: 079 895 4121 www.alpacasociety.co.za
- South African Sheep Dog Association (SASDA) www.sasda.za.net
Training and research
- The African Centre for Gene Technologies (ACGT) is an initiative that involves the Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), the University of Pretoria, the University of the Witwatersrand, the University of Johannesburg and the Agricultural Research Council (ARC). Visit www.acgt.co.za for more information.
- A.I. courses are offered by ARC-Animal Production. Visit www.arc.agric.za or call 012 672 9111.
- Breed societies themselves do training and manage research done on their breed. The Brangus Cattle Breeders Society, for example, provides a beginners course in Brangus stud breeding, and advanced Brangus stud breeding course and inspector courses for Brangus cattle (junior, senior and breed inspector). Find contact details under the earlier, different livestock headings.
- Enterprises at the University of Pretoria conducts the Introduction to Artificial Insemination in Cattle short course. Call 012 434 2500 or visit www.enterprises.up.ac.za.
- Find details of the Universities, the Universities of Technology and the Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. Animal breeding is covered in degrees and diplomas. Some short courses are also offered. The School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences at the Central University of Technology (Bloemfontein), for example, offers the following short courses: (i) Santa Gertrudis Judging Course; (ii) Dorper Judging Course; (iii) Artificial Insemination (Cattle); (iv) Simbra Judging Course; (v) Dohne Merino course. The University of the Free State runs the post graduate school of animal breeding. This is a body that represents the tuition of post graduate studies in Animal Breeding in South Africa. Visit www.ufs.ac.za/animal, website of the university’s Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences. SA Studbook also works closely with the University of Pretoria.
- Provincial Departments of Agriculture also have an involvement in animal breeding. Find contact details in the “Agriculture in the provinces” chapter.
- Some of the companies involved offer some training as part of their packages e.g. herd management, performance recording, A.I. See the “Companies involved” heading.
- Amongst the training courses offered by Rothmans Livestock Training Services are A.I. (cattle and sheep), pregnancy awareness, and embryo transfer. Visit www.rltsafrica.com or call 078 546 7985, 082 770 0480 and 082 547 7939.
- Peter Milton offers a cattle stud breeding course. Contact him at 083 630 8868 / 072 924 8588. See his website at www.petermilton.co.za.
- The LRF-BREEDPLAN Stockman’s School is held annually at Aldam resort during the month of October. Leading national and international speakers discuss the very latest production techniques, market trends, management systems and the latest research to produce better and more efficient cattle. Visit www.stockmanschool.co.za.
Technologies impacting on livestock efficiency and profitability for breeding and genetics are:
- Computing power and Data base exploration
- Algorithm developments
- Integrating economics with genetic merit in genetic merit predictions
- Integrating quantitative and molecular genetics
- Genome projects & whole genome sequencing
- Application of bead chip technologies in next generation genetic merit predictions
- Automated recording –intake, product properties
Source: Japie van der Westhuizen (SA Stud Book) in a presentation “The influence of new breeding technologies on profitability in beef cattle”. Find his article "Technology – a resource to drive profit in beef operations" under the "Websites & publications" heading.
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter.
- Many breeders’ societies in South Africa publish an annual journal. Other material is also available in some cases. Visit the respective societies websites or contact them for further information.
- There are extensive lists of animal breeds at www.sasas.co.za/about-animal-science.
- Find the cartoon commissioned by the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) on selective breeding at www.pub.ac.za/cartoons/.
- Find the Info Pak “Livestock improvement terminology” under the Resource Centre option at www.daff.gov.za.
- Ramaphosa, C. 2017. Cattle of Ages. Johannesburg: Jacana. See also the Agribook.Digital blog “Of cattle and men“.
- A National Working Group for Farm Animal Genetic Resources has been established to strengthen the coordination of animal genetic resources. Find the Parliamentary Monitoring Group notes (September 2017) on the DAFF parliamentary committee report back at https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/24951/.
- The International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) website is www.icar.org
- The Association for the Advancement of Animal Breeding and Genetics is a professional organisation based in Australia and New Zealand. Visit www.aaabg.org.
- World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock, www.wcgalp.org
- Cattle International Series, https://cattleinternationalseries.weebly.com/
- Angus, L. 2019, February 11. “Finding value in cattle shows in an era of modern breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/finding-value-in-cattle-shows-in-an-era-of-modern-breeding/
- Nel, C. 2018, October 3. “Scientific selection in beef cattle breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/scientific-selection-beef-cattle-breeding
- Staff Reporter. 2018, September 24. “Learn about beef BLUP basics”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/learn-beef-blup-basics/
- Sishuba, S. 2018, August 9. “No room for favourites – choose cattle breeds carefully”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-business/empowerment/no-room-for-favourites-choose-cattle-breeds-carefully/
- Loubser, A. 2017, December 22. “ARC and SA Stud Book bury the hatchet”. Veeplaas. Available at https://agriorbit.com/arc-sa-stud-book-bury-hatchet
- Coleman, A. 2018, March 5. “Single-step genomics: a game changer for livestock breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/single-step-genomics-game-changer-livestock-breeding/
- Uys, G. 2018, January 10. “Artificial insemination: ideal for communal farmers”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-business/empowerment/artificial-insemination-ideal-communal-farmers/
- Burgess, M. 2017, October 11. “Lack of land hampers top developing farmers”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/lack-land-hampers-top-developing-farmers
- Van der Westhuizen, J. 2016, May 5. “Technology – a resource to drive profit in beef operations”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/technology-a-resource-to-drive-profit-in-beef-operations/
- Zietsman, J. 2013, April 18. “Food for thought”. Land & Livestock International, Inc. Available at https://landandlivestock.wordpress.com/2013/04/18/food-for-thought/
- Reporter. 2012, April 26. “Selecting the right bull”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/selecting-the-right-bull/
Share this article