• The registration of animals maintains the interest in specific breeds, and also leads to a pursuit of excellence – i.e. to get top performance from the animal. There is a vast difference between performances of the two groups within most breeds where registered animals outperform non-registered animals. There is also a vast price difference between them. The breed is thus promoted, and the breeder obtains maximum return on his investment.
  • The first objective of the registration of animals is a guarantee to the buyer that the particular animal is authentic in terms of breed, breeding, breeder, performance, breeding values etc. Other objectives include breed improvement and limiting of inbreeding. The farmer who breeds with unregistered animals of a particular breed is not regarded as a bona fide breeder but as a commercial one.
  • The breeders’ societies are a vital part of organised agriculture.
  • Registered animals around the world are also known as seedstock-, stud-, pedigree- and pure-bred animals. With the infrastructure breed societies have, it is easy and straightforward to register animals.

SOME CONCEPTS:

Artificial insemination (AI) is the placement of sperm into a female reproductive tract by other than natural means. The use of AI is a very cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement because it allows the use of superior male animals to be propagated very easily and quickly.

 

Cloning uses specialised DNA technology to produce multiple, exact copies of a single animal. The first calf was cloned in South Africa in 2003. It is envisaged that cloning will become a cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement as exact replicas of superior animals can be produced.

 

Embryo transfer is the process of removing embryos from a superior cow and placing them in a surrogate cow where they develop into a calf. Like AI, embryo transfer is a very cost effective way to speed up genetic improvement. In this instance the genetics of a superior female animal can be propagated.

 

In Genomics, hereditary characteristics are passed down through DNA, the “blueprint” of the organism. Genomics is a branch of genetics which deals specifically with the sequence of chemical bases in DNA. Genomics complements existing technologies like performance testing, and will accelerate genetic improvement.

 

Laparoscopic-assisted artificial insemination is when, simultaneously to AI, gas is inserted to assist insemination.

 

Performance recording entails the measuring of traits that affects the profitability of the animal and ultimately the breed. Different breeds measure different attributes based on what is considered important to that breed. Members of cattle breed societies usually measure attributes such as reproduction, growth, carcass and functional efficiency. Merino breeders would for example measure additional traits such as fibre diameter and fleece weight.

Breeds and breeder societies

A Breeders’ Society may be formed if members of a particular breed wish to form such a society. The application forms can be obtained from the registrar at the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (DAFF). Breeders’ Societies exist for most breeds of animals. The objectives of most societies are to:

  • promote and develop their breed;
  • offer various services to their members;
  • improve the national herd in the country.

The Animal Improvement Act of 1998 allows societies to issue their own registration certificates if they so wish. These societies act as their own registering authorities. The SA Stud Book is a registration authority providing registration and secretarial services on behalf of many different breed societies. BREEDPLAN fulfils a similar function.

Registration certificates certify that an animal is a “stud” animal and is issued on behalf of the Breeders’ Society. These certificates are intended to be a guarantee that the animal has met certain requirements as laid down by the society and registering authority.

A list of registered Breeders’ Societies with their contact details is given under relevant headings later in this chapter. Lists may also be found at the following websites: www.sastudbook.co.za and www.agribsa.co.za.

For the newcomer

When deciding on a breed, the following points are important:

  • Preference and love of the breed is imperative.
  • Suitability of the farm for stud breeding, i.e.: situation of property; quality of grazing; supplementary feed production potential and/or availability source of supply; sufficient, well watered camps; good handling, kraaling and, if necessary, shedding facilities.
  • Provision for fairly large financial commitments, especially at the outset in order to finance the purchase of good breeding material.
  • Stud breeding is a long-term investment with no instant formula for quick results.
  • A stud breeder must be prepared to continually broaden his knowledge and keep abreast of modern developments and tendencies.
  • The breeder must aim for a breeding programme that recognises the most economic characteristics of the breed – avoid a haphazard breeding policy.
  • Use all the modern selection aids to facilitate a stud-breeding venture e.g. keeping of records with one of the Registering Authorities and Performance Testing.
  • Prospective stud breeders must have certain managerial qualities, as stud breeding requires sound decision-making, planning and care of the animals.
  • Good public relations are essential. Easy communication with people and honesty with yourself and with others play an important role.
  • The chosen breed should suit your production system.

 

Registering Authorities

Knowing about the relationship between individual animals (i.e. who the father is/was), AND performance measurements are vital for the genetic improvement of farm livestock. Classical pedigrees (which reflect only the name/number of an animal and its ancestor) have a limited value when it comes to livestock improvement. Modern pedigrees are:

  • based on scientifically founded recording methods and systems;
  • linked to performance.

These are indispensable for optimal genetic progress. A record is kept on these results.

Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) is “a dedicated animal recording scheme for emerging/ smallholder farmers”. For general information, call the ARC at 012 672 9111.

 

Provincial contact details are:

  • EASTERN CAPE Mr S Nini 012 672 9353/078 590 2114, Mr S Kwada 073 723 1455
  • FREE STATE Ms K Lencoe 051 447 5629
  • GAUTENG Ms M E Phooko 012 672 9057/060 507 3004
  • KWAZULU-NATAL Mr AA Muchunu 033 355 9477/076 334 7432, Mr. TF Dlamini 033 355 9477/079 942 9895
  • LIMPOPO Mr J Mulaudzi 012 672 9082/073 268 1327, Mr S Rasebotsa 012 672 9120/082 701 9636
  • MPUMALANGA Mr J Mulaudzi 012 672 9082/073 268 1327, Ms D Manyike 012 672 9120/082 701 9636
  • NORTH WEST Ms LZ Malete 083 974 1817/053 927 4333, Mr K Ramalepe 073 519 5331/053 927 4333, Ms L Maboa 012 672 9081/079 196 4106
  • NORTHERN CAPE Mr C B Sekwadi 053 927 4333/071 969 3681
  • WESTERN CAPE Mr E Phaswana 082 880 2165 021 809 3509

National strategy and government contact

The Directorate Animal Production at the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) is responsible for the evaluation of new breeds and the regulation of the activities of breed societies and registration authorities. Application forms to register for the above can be found at www.daff.gov.za.  Regulations pertaining to Animal Improvement are published in the Animal Improvement Act, 1998 (Act 62 of 1998). The Act is administered by the Directorate.

  • Directorate: Animal Production – 012 319 7493 / 7597
  • The Registrar – 012 319 7424 / 34

Associations involved

Livestock Registering Federation (LRF) Tel: 012 667 5258 www.lrf.co.za The Livestock Registering Federation is an association of breeders societies and includes many of the larger breed societies in South Africa and the Namibian Stud Breeders Association in their membership. In South Africa these societies administer and issue the registrations for their own breeds of cattle and are known as Independent Registering Authorities (IRA). The principal business and purpose of the Livestock Registering Federation is to unite, promote and protect its members acting as Independent Registration Authorities (Animal Improvement Act 62 of 1998), into an affiliated federation.

SAVSEG (South African Veterinary Semen and Embryo Group) and SASEG (SA Semen and Embryo Group) C/o Dr R de la Rey Tel: 012 250 2359

South African Society for Animal Science (SASAS) www.sasas.co.za

SA Stud Book and Animal Improvement Association Tel: 051 410 0900 www.sastudbook.co.za SA Stud Book is an association of 63 Breeders’ Societies (various breeds and species). The objectives of SA Stud Book are to:

  • Assist these Breeder Societies to achieve their respective objectives;
  • Safeguard and advance the collective interests of stud breeders and their breeders’ societies;
  • Act as a mouthpiece for the stud breeding industry;
  • Promote the export of animals with credible pedigrees, registered or recorded with the Association of semen or embryos begotten from animals thus registered or recorded;
  • Render technical and advisory services to breeders’ societies and their members;
  • Act as a breeders’ society in respect of breeds of animals for which no breeders’ society exists.

Stud Game Breeders www.studgamebreeders.co.za

For details of Breeder Group Societies, see the “Cattle”, “Sheep” etc headings later in this chapter

Companies involved

 

Software Programmes

Many on-farm software programs applicable to animal breeding are available for producers. Many combine the functionality of herd management with on-farm recording. Some of the programmes listed have selection decision aids.

 

Artificial Insemination/Embryo services

 

Exporting/Importing

There are procedures and protocols applicable here. For further information contact the Registrar of Animal Improvement / Directorate Animal Health.

Find earlier details for Embryo Plus and Semex Southern Africa.

 

Others

  • Bull’s Eye Consulting Tel: 082 801 2026 http://bullseyeconsulting.co.za Comprehensive herd consultation services focused on animal recording, performance testing, genetic evaluation, selection, breeding and related management
  • Farm Electronic Equipment www.draminski.com Pregnancy detectors (sheep, pigs), bull semen analyser
  • Ramsay Animal Agriculture Keith Ramsay retired from DAFF and offers his services as a consultant, focusing on herd selection for functional efficiency and does a bit of training. Write to him at keithrms9 [at] gmail.com.
  • Unistel Tel: 021 938 9213/4 www.unistelanimalservices.co.za Various DNA based technologies available

Cattle

 

Beef breeds

 

Dairy Breeds

Sheep

Horses

Find an extensive list of horse breeds at www.sasas.co.za/about-animal-science

Goats

Pigs

Breeds include Chester White, Duroc, Large Black, Large White, Hampshire, QM Hamline, Pietran, Robuster, SA Landrace, Welsh. Contact the Pig Breeders Society of South Africa at 051 410 0958/63. Find further information at www.pigsa.co.za and  www.sastudbook.co.za.

Some other breeds

Consult the “Speciality fibre production” (Alpacas) and “Ostrich” chapters.

Training and research

  • The African Centre for Gene Technologies (ACGT) is an initiative that involves the Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), the University of Pretoria, the University of the Witwatersrand, the University of Johannesburg and the Agricultural Research Council (ARC). Visit www.acgt.co.za for more information.
  • A.I. courses are offered by ARC-Animal Production. Visit www.arc.agric.za or call 012 672 9111.
  • Breed societies themselves do training and manage research done on their breed. The Brangus Cattle Breeders Society, for example, provides a beginners course in Brangus stud breeding, and advanced Brangus stud breeding course and inspector courses for Brangus cattle (junior, senior and breed inspector). Find contact details under the earlier, different livestock headings.
  • Enterprises at the University of Pretoria conducts the Introduction to Artificial Insemination in Cattle short course. Call 012 434 2500 or visit www.enterprises.up.ac.za.
  • Find details of the Universities, the Universities of Technology and the Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter. Animal breeding is covered in degrees and diplomas. Some short courses are also offered. The School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences at the Central University of Technology (Bloemfontein), for example, offers the following short courses: (i) Santa Gertrudis Judging Course; (ii) Dorper Judging Course; (iii) Artificial Insemination (Cattle); (iv) Simbra Judging Course; (v) Dohne Merino course. The University of the Free State runs the post graduate school of animal breeding. This is a body that represents the tuition of post graduate studies in Animal Breeding in South Africa. Visit www.ufs.ac.za/animal, website of the university’s Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences. SA Studbook also works closely with the University of Pretoria.
  • Provincial Departments of Agriculture also have an involvement in animal breeding. Find contact details in the “Agriculture in the provinces” chapter.
  • Some of the companies involved offer some training as part of their packages e.g. herd management, performance recording, A.I. See the “Companies involved” heading.
  • Amongst the training courses offered by Rothmans Livestock Training Services are A.I. (cattle and sheep), pregnancy awareness, and embryo transfer. Visit www.rltsafrica.com or call 078 546 7985, 082 770 0480 and 082 547 7939.
  • Peter Milton offers a cattle stud breeding course. Contact him at 083 630 8868 / 072 924 8588. See his website at www.petermilton.co.za.
  • The LRF-BREEDPLAN Stockman’s School is held annually at Aldam resort during the month of October. Leading national and international speakers discuss the very latest production techniques, market trends, management systems and the latest research to produce better and more efficient cattle. Visit www.stockmanschool.co.za.

Technologies impacting on livestock efficiency and profitability for breeding and genetics are:

 

  • Computing power and Data base exploration
  • Algorithm developments
  • Integrating economics with genetic merit in genetic merit predictions
  • Integrating quantitative and molecular genetics
  • Genome projects & whole genome sequencing
  • Application of bead chip technologies in next generation genetic merit predictions
  • Automated recording –intake, product properties
Source: Japie van der Westhuizen (SA Stud Book) in a presentation “The influence of new breeding technologies on profitability in beef cattle”. Find his article "Technology – a resource to drive profit in beef operations" under the "Websites & publications" heading.

Websites and publications

Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter.

  • Many breeders’ societies in South Africa publish an annual journal. Other material is also available in some cases. Visit the respective societies websites or contact them for further information.
  • There are extensive lists of animal breeds at www.sasas.co.za/about-animal-science.
  • Find the cartoon commissioned by the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) on selective breeding at www.pub.ac.za/cartoons/. 
  • Find the Info Pak “Livestock improvement terminology” under the Resource Centre option at www.daff.gov.za. 
  • Ramaphosa, C. 2017. Cattle of Ages. Johannesburg: Jacana. See also the Agribook.Digital blog “Of cattle and men“.
  • A National Working Group for Farm Animal Genetic Resources has been established to strengthen the coordination of animal genetic resources. Find the Parliamentary Monitoring Group notes (September 2017) on the DAFF parliamentary committee report back at https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/24951/.

 

International

 

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