Honeybee products include honey, bee-collected pollen, royal jelly, wax, and health supplements.
Honey and wax go beyond the food market and are used in large quantities in the manufacture of beauty products, candles, lipstick, medicine, herbal tea and chewing gum. Honey is a natural anti-oxidant and can, for example, be used to extend the shelf life of meat. Other products that can be exploited are pollen, an extremely pure form of protein, propolis (a natural antiseptic), royal jelly (a health and cosmetic product) and bee venom (used medically in the desensitising of allergic people).
Many beekeepers sell their products in bulk to honey packers, or they market their products themselves. Smaller operators often sell from the home, in roadside stalls or to local cafés. The large bee farmers only farm with bees. The smaller ones usually diversify. Beekeeping does not always work on economies of scale (don’t think that a beekeeping operation will only be profitable if you have numerous hives).
Bees are the most important pollinators of agricultural crops, being responsible for about one in every three mouthfuls of food we eat each day.
Source: Mike Allsopp, Dr Connal Eardley (ARC-PPR)
International business environment
There is a worldwide demand for honey and wax. The major exporters of honey are: China, Argentina, New Zealand, Germany and Mexico. The major importers are the USA, Germany, UK, France and Japan.Most countries have strict regulations regarding the importation of honeybee products and these should be obtained from the local trade commissions. Europe, the USA and Canada require further tests against residues of pesticides in honey.The supply and demand, foreign exchange rates, and quality of the product all play important roles in determining the world trade prices of all honeybee products.Some international websites
- Visit the International Bee Research Association pages at www.ibrabee.org.uk.
- The British Beekeepers’ Association – www.bbka.org.uk
- www.friendsofthebees.org – “bee conservation and natural beekeeping”
- www.beesabroad.org.uk – Bees Abroad is a UK-registered charity which support beekeeping projects in developing countries.
- www.dave-cushman.net, a comprehensive beekeeping website
- Hives Save Lives Africa, an initiative to combat poverty – www.hivessavelives.com
- The American Apitherapy Society, www.apitherapy.org
- www.honeyrunapiaries.com, website of Honey Run Apiaries (USA)
- Read about the Pollinator Partnership at www.pollinator.org.
- Bees for Development, www.beesfordevelopment.org
- “A Guide to Bringing Up Bees in Your Own Backyard” at www.homeadvisor.com/r/bringing-up-bees-at-home/
- www.malaikahoney.com, the website of Malaika Honey (Uganda)
- Find the literature on bees at http://bees.library.cornell.edu.
- Wikifarmer Editorial Team. 2017. “Beekeeping for beginners”. Available at https://wikifarmer.com/beekeeping-for-beginners/
- Find Value-added products from beekeeping on the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations website, www.fao.org. This volume is intended to improve the possibilities for diversification in beekeeping activities.
- Find the notes on beekeeping at www.fragrancex.com/Fragrance-Information/beekeeping-adults-kids.html
Find The Ultimate Guide to British Bees: How to Protect Their Declining Population by Clive Harris. The article sets out the importance of bees; provides full-colour photographs of honeybees, bumblebees, common carder bees, Mason bees, Mining bees, and Leafcutter bees. It asks and answers the many questions you may have about bees like what do they eat, the difference between bees and wasps, how they make honey and beeswax etc. It lists the ways in which we can help bees.
Local business environment
The latest chairperson’s report on www.sabio.org.za provides a good overview of what is happening locally.
The article “Are you intending to sell honey and mixtures of bee products in South Africa?” in DAFFNews July 2017, page 7, sets out the procedures involved. Find the publication at http://www.daff.gov.za/docs/agrinews/July%20for%20web.pdf or call the Directorate: Food Import and Export Standards at 012 319 6118
- Bees provide a critical ecosystems service as pollinators, valued at an annual R16 billion. Problems affecting bees include insufficient forage, theft and vandalism, disease, environmental hazards such as pollution and exposure to external factors such as fires and drought.
- The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries currently lists 130 000 managed colonies of bees and 1800 beekeepers on their records. About 70 000 of the colonies are based in the Western Cape. However, the numbers are thought to be much larger, because of unregistered colonies and bee keepers (Winde, 2018).
- South Africa produces around 1 500 tons of honey per year, and is a net importer, importing over 2 000 tons annually. The country does some exporting though, mostly to African countries with neighbours Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho and Mozambique topping the list.
- There are regulations regarding importation of beeswax and honey in order to keep infectious diseases out of the country. All imported honey and bee products need to be irradiated for disease control purposes, and are required to display the radurised sign on these products.
- Importers can often bring honey in more cheaply even with the transport costs, and local production is decreasing.
- Issues of concern include food fraud (imported honey that is a fake honey using sugar and other ingredients) and honey labelling. In the latter case, the vagueness of country of origin (two or more countries are listed) (Sihlobo, 2018). This suggests a lack of compliance with any legal requirements.
Eucalyptus flowers. Photo used courtesy of Mike Allsopp (ARC) and SANBI
The following are measures recommended for beekeepers in the case of an AFB outbreak – or in the case of any honeybee disease outbreak.
- Beekeepers should endeavour to keep all apiaries isolated from each other; that is, do not move honeybee colonies from apiary to apiary.
- Beekeepers should not place their colonies in the near proximity of colonies belonging to other beekeepers.
- Do not move equipment (brood boxes, supers, frames) from apiary to apiary, or from colony to colony.
- Sterilise all beekeeping equipment (hive tools, gloves) with alcohol or boiling water after use, so as not to spread the infection from apiary to apiary or from colony to colony.
- Do not put out wet supers for bees to feed from.
- Do not feed colonies with anything containing honey or pollen.
- Keep robbing to an absolute minimum, and hence, keep beekeeping management to a minimum.
Contact: Mike Allsopp at AllsoppM [at] arc.agric.za
Find the notes on different diseases (including AFB) under the “Honeybees of South Africa” option at www.sabio.org.za.
For the newcomer
Apiculture (bee-farming) is ideal for women, young people and the disabled, people who also have other responsibilities such as housework, school or are physically challenged. When husbands migrate to cities to seek employment, women stay behind with all the responsibilities. Beekeeping offers an opportunity to earn an income while tending to the rest of her agricultural and household responsibilities. It is light labour and not mechanised. It is not suitable for the lazy though.
When honeybees have been established in beehives, the bees will produce the honey and other hive products. The farmers’ job is to pay attention to their bees and manage their hives effectively. Bees are a free workforce that will work for the farmers as long as there are nectar-producing plants in the area.
Honeybees are found all over South Africa and are a free and accessible resource. People do not have to own land but only need permission to place their hives in a safe place. If there are adequate bee plants in an area to allow bees to produce surplus nectar a beekeeping operation could be started.
The success of these sort of programmes depend on the South African honey consumer market knowing about them, and on the beekeepers’ abilities to exploit the spin-offs from hive products.
Tips for Newcomers to the Beekeeping Industry
- Bee colonies have to be protected from the wind. If no natural windbreak is available, erect a temporary wind shelter.
- Colonies should be placed in sunny locations and preferably where the sun shines on the entrances.
- Hives should be kept off the ground with old tyres or concrete blocks as dampness and the lack of ventilation could stress the bees.
- Ensure uncontaminated water is close to the hive.
Source: Brett Falconer, Highveld Honey Farms
Honeybees are also of value in South Africa as vehicles of Empowerment and Rural Development. Small-scale beekeeping has great potential as a means of entrepreneurial development and economic empowerment, particularly among rural communities and especially for women. Collaboration and partnerships between companies like SAPPI and MONDI, government and local communities result in economic development for a large number of communities and individuals in South Africa.
Read about the Beekeeping for Poverty Relief Programme (BPRP) on the ARC website, www.arc.agric.za.
Honeybee forage plants: what you can do to help
The reduction of bee forage sources in the country, caused by, among other things, urban development and overpopulation, is identified in the Western Cape honeybee strategy (2018) as the single largest threat to bees.
A recent study undertaken by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) revealed that gum trees, certain crops, indigenous trees and shrubs, flowering plants in suburban gardens and even roadside wildflowers or weeds are all critically important to South Africa’s indigenous honeybees. Forage availability and accessibility for honey bees are a large constraint to beekeepers in South Africa. A lack of good quality and variety of forage can lead to unhealthy honey bee colonies that are more vulnerable to pests and diseases. This, in turn, can lead to insufficient pollination of our important agricultural crops. A major factor in the decline of honeybees around the world is a lack of good forage plants that provide the nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) sources that bees require for their nutritional health.
|Landscape showing bee forage: eucalyptus and canola. Photo used courtesy of Tlou Masehela and SANBI.|
You can help in any of the following ways:
- Allow beekeepers access to utilise the forage resources on your land, and work with the beekeepers to make sure hive sites are secure and inaccessible to vandals.
- Protect your natural vegetation through incorporating pollinator habitat or forage concerns into agricultural best practice, land-clearing authorisations (i.e. do not unnecessarily clear virgin land), Environmental Impact Assessment processes, and landuse planning policies and tools.
- Adhere to the Alien and Invasive Species Regulations under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 regarding gums (eucalyptus) on your land. Six Eucalyptus spp. are listed as invasive and must be controlled. Other gums may be maintained or planted for bee foraging purposes.
- Consider planting indigenous bee-friendly plants when gardening, planting wind-breaks or when rehabilitating after a development (e.g. dam walls, road berms, etc.) Be sure to plant plants that are appropriate to your specific area. Check with your local nursery for subspecies or varieties that occur locally to avoid invasive problems or hybridisations with veld species in the vicinity.
- Honey bees will visit any flowering crop (especially the very attractive ones like canola, lucerne, sunflowers, citrus) as well as other flowers and weeds. Please take this into account when spraying chemicals – consult the label and adhere to its instructions. Be careful of chemicals when gardening too.
- Encourage public land planting programmes (e.g. under power lines, along road verges, or urban greening programmes) to consider bee-friendly plant species first.
- Consider planting complementary crop plants (such as lavender or basil) or fodder crops (like clovers or vetch), or rotate land with legumes crops, as these are all important honey bee forage.
- Do not unnecessarily spray or remove weeds that are attractive to bees (e.g. wild radish, cosmos, etc.)
Lists of bee-friendly plants are available on www.sanbi.org (search “bee-friendly”). Also find the reference to the publication Beeplants of South Africa under heading 10. For more information, please contact Mbulelo Mswazi on m.mswazi [at] sanbi.org.za.
National strategy and government contact
The legislation option at www.sabio.org.za gives notes on the following with brief implications for the beekeeper:
- Agricultural Pests Act (36/1983), including Control Measure GN R858 15 November 2013 – Control Measure relating to Honeybees. Amongst other things, all beekeepers must register with DAFF on an annual basis. Find the form on the SABIO website.
- Agricultural Product Standards Act (Act 119 of 1990)
- Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (Act 54 of 1972), including Regulation R146
- Health Act, 1977 (Act 63 of 1977), specifically Government Notice R918 of 1999
- Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 1983 (Act 43 of 1983) (CARA)
- National Environmental Management of Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No 10 of 2004), (NEMBA)
- Some municipal by-laws (depending on where you live)
Legislation divides South Africa into a Cape beekeeping region and a Scutellata (African Honeybee) beekeeping region, along the “Siegfried Line”, an estimate of the traditional boundary between the races. Honeybees are not allowed to be moved across the line in either direction except under permit issued by DAFF.
Find information and contact details of the different directorates of Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) at www.daff.gov.za. The subdirectorate Agricultural Product Quality Assurance contact for honey is Niel Erasmus – 012 319 6027, niele [at] daff.gov.za. You can also contact Rofhiwa Nethanani or Mavis Matsho at 012 309 8739 or 012 309 8763. Reach the Directorate: Food Import and Export Standards at 012 319 6118.
The page for beekeepers on the website, which includes the beekeepers registration form, is http://www.daff.gov.za/daffweb3/Branches/Agricultural-Production-Health-Food-Safety/Inspection-Services/Beekeepers.
Find the report “Sustaining the honeybee population and apiculture in the Western Cape” at www.elsenburg.com and news of the release of a new honeybee strategy (4 June 2018).
The new strategy recognises honey production as an agri-processing opportunity, to produce local honey, and honey-related products; and identifies threats and ways to ensure the continued sustainability of the bee population.
South African Bee-Industry Organisation (SABIO) Tel: 053 298 1101 www.sabio.org.za The South African Bee Industry Organisation (SABIO) represents all aspects of the honeybee industry in South Africa, its role also catering for the interests of bottlers and packers of honey and bee products as well as to the manufacturers of bee equipment. It is involved with training of future beekeepers and the implementation of guidelines for food safety and correct packaging of honey. SABIO also ensures that a quarterly bee journal is published, and organises the annual Bee Congress.
- Eastern Highveld Beekeepers’ Association (Eastern Gauteng) Tel: 083 469 4453
- Free State Beekeepers’ Association Tel: 051 433 4663
- KwaZulu-Natal Bee Farmers Association Tel: 084 774 8692 http://kznbeefarmersassociation.co.za
- Mpumalanga Bee Group Tel: 082 608 2008
- Northern Cape Bee Group Tel: 053 441 2341
- Northerns Beekeepers’ Association (Pretoria) Tel: 083 259 4466
- Southerns Beekeeping Association (Gauteng Province and country districts) Tel: 083 262 2047 www.beekeepers.co.za
- Southern Cape Bee Industries Association Tel: 044 871 1935
- Western Cape Bee Industry Association Tel: 021 884 4421 www.wkbv.co.za
Training and research
The Agricultural Colleges, working with Provincial Departments of Agriculture run courses in beekeeping. See the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.
Beekeeping courses are run by:
- ARC-PPR Tel: 012 356 9809 www.arc.agric.za
- Agriskills Transfer Tel : 012 460 9585 www.agriskills.net
- Beequipment SA Tel: 011 476 5626 www.beequip.co.za
- Bee Ware Tel: 012 771 4288 or visit www.beeware.co.za
- Busy Bee Apiaries Tel: 021 971 1022
- Enviro Edu School Outings http://enviroedu.co.za
- Honeybee Foundation and Products 021 511 4567
- Honeywood Farm Tel: 028 722 1823 www.honeywoodfarm.co.za
- Joe Hugill at Saronde Valley Tel: 011 953 4883 / 072 675 3794
- NOSA Agricultural Services Tel: 087 286 9298 www.nosaagri.co.za
- Robert Post Tel: 021 971 1022 crpost [at] telkomsa.net
- SABIO email info [at] sabio.org.za
- Skills For Africa Tel: 012 379 4920 www.skillsafrica.co.za
- SM McGladdery Tel. & Fax: 033 342 4990 www.beekeepingsa.co.za
There are two email discussion groups on Googlegroups:
- BeesSA, moderator Robert Post, crpost [at] telkomsa.net
- Apiculture-SA, co-ordinator Dean Lennox, deanlennox [at] gmail.com
Contacts at the ARC:
- allsoppm [at] arc.agric.za – South Africa’s foremost honeybee researcher
- GoszczynskaT [at] arc.agric.za – bacteriologist doing laboratory analyses
- eardleyc [at] arc.agric.za – bee identifications (taxonomist). Dr Eardley is also vice-chair of the International Commission on Plant Bee Relations (ICPBR).
- LundallME [at] arc.agric.za – honeybee development projects
Bees are the most important group of pollinators (other pollinators include flies, beetles, butterflies, moths, lacewings, birds, rodents and bats, or by wind or water). Within the scope of present research the links between bee systematics and the ecological role of bees as pollinators, their importance in agriculture, and the presence of other pollinators, are recognised. Therefore participation in ecological, pollination, conservation and international policy development projects are important activities. The bee collection of the SA National Collection of Insects comprises over 15 000 database records.
Bees, in general, are very sensitive to disturbance of their habitat, and some land use changes lead directly to their local extinctions. Thus bee biodiversity conservation has become a global concern. Taxonomy is essential for proper bee conservation and management.
Contact: Dr Connal Eardley. E-mail: eardleyc [at] arc.agric.za
|Oudthoorn Research Farm|
Tel: 044 272 6077 (Minnie Abrahams)
Department of Zoology & Entomology
Tel: 046 603 8525
South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI)
Applied Biodiversity Research Division
Tel: 021 799 8870 / 8652
SANBI research projects on the ecosystem services supporting beekeeping, and pollination as an ecosystem service in crop agriculture. Find details at www.sanbi.org.
Department of Food Science
Tel: 021 808 3578 (Prof Marena Manley)
University of Pretoria
Department of Zoology & Entomology
Social Insect Research Group
Tel: 012 420 3233
Find the research notes of people like Prof R Crewe, Dr Christian Pirk and Dr H Human at www.up.ac.za.
University of the Free State
Department of Zoology & Entomology
Tel: 051 401 2566
vdlindet [at] ufs.ac.za
University of the Witwatersrand
Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Tel: 011 717 2175/57
sandy.vanvuuren [at] wits.ac.za
Visit the International Bee Research Association pages at www.ibra.org.uk.
- ARC-AE Tel: 012 842 4000 (a solar wax extractor for small-scale beekeeping entrepreneurs)
- Bee Ware Tel: 012 771 4288 www.beeware.co.za
- Beegin Tel: 076 980 9974 www.beegin.co.za
- Beekeepers World Tel: 082 713 4192 www.beekeepersworld.co.za
- Beequipment SA Tel: 011 476 5626 www.beequip.co.za
- BioAfrica Tel: 073 639 5576 www.bioafrica.co.za
- Cape Honey Factory Tel: 021 865 2050 / 071 241 1411 www.capehoneyfactory.co.za
- Even-Run Apiary Products Tel: 033 345 1016
- Honey Badger Tel: 084 663 9233 www.honeybadger.co.za
- Honeybee Foundation & Products Tel: 021 511 4567
- SM McGladdery Tel/fax: 033 342 4990 www.beekeepingsa.co.za
Honey and honey products
- African Honey Bee Tel: 082 454 1028 www.africanhoneybee.co.za
- Afrikara www.afrikara.co.za
- BioHoney Tel: 073 639 5576 www.bioafrica.co.za
- Cape Honey Factory Tel: 021 865 2050 / 071 241 1411 www.capehoneyfactory.co.za
- Deon’s Honey and Propolis Products Tel: 084 7455 999 www.deonshoneyproducts.co.za
- Douglas Bee Farms Tel: 053 298 1101
- Glendarob Apiaries Tel: 072 337 7175 www.glendarob.co.za
- Gonna Honey Tel: 082 458 4816 www.gonnahoney.co.za
- Hans Steenpoorte Tel: 083 647 6232 http://beemanbeeremovals.co.za
- Heuningpot Beekeeping Co-operative Tel: 083 401 6459 www.organimark.co.za
- Highveld Honey Farms Tel: 011 849 1990 www.highveldhoney.co.za
- Honeybee Foundation & Products Tel: 021 511 4567
- Honeywood Farm Tel: 083 270 4035 www.honeywoodfarm.co.za
- Jourdan Honey Farms Tel: 011 976 2247
- Lulubee Tel: 083 981 2285 https://lulubee.co.za Skin health products
- Makana Meadery Tel: 046 636 1227
- Necta Honey Farm Tel/fax: 011 698 3274
- Nu-Life Beekeepers Tel: 039 433 1140
- Oude Raapkraal Honey Tel: 072 436 3048
- Peel’s Honey Tel: 033 330 3762 www.peelshoney.co.za
- Q-Bee Honey Farmers Tel: 021 875 5034/65 www.qbeehoneyfarmers.co.za
- Quercus Health Tel: 082 786 9745 https://quercushealth.co.za/
- Raw Honey Tel: 083 653 6290 www.rawhoney.biz
- Rivendale Apiculture www.apiculture.co.za
- Rupert’s Honey Tel: 011 647 8092 www.rupertshoney.com
- Simply Bee Tel: 022 723 0569 https://simplybee.co.za
- Slabber Apiculture Tel: 082 852 4392 www.pollination.co.za
- The PEACE Foundation runs several projects that produce honey. See www.peacefoundation.org.za/agriculture
- The Propolis People Tel: 053 831 2705 www.thepropolispeople.co.za
Websites and publications
The South African Bee Journal (SABJ) is a quarterly periodical published by SABIO. Find details on the SABIO website.
Johannsmeier, M.F. 2016. Beeplants of South Africa. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI). To order the book contact bookshop [at] sanbi.org or call 012 843 5000. Find other SANBI material at www.sanbi.org.
Johannsmeier, M.F. (Ed). 2001. Beekeeping in South Africa. 3rd edition. Pretoria: Agricultural Research Council. The “Blue Book” provides information and instruction, caters for hobbyists, beginners and professionals. Call 021 887 4690, email allsoppm [at] arc.agric.za or visit www.arc.agric.za.
Donald, D., Trull, S., Marchand, D., Jacobs, V., Marchand-Mayne, J. & Merrington, M. 2009. The Bee Book – A Guide to Top-Bar Beekeeping in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Juta. This accessibly written and beautifully illustrated practical guide has four main purposes, to provide:
- a text book for adult learning and training in Agriculture in the FET college and ABET contexts
- a practical field guide to top-bar beekeeping for teachers, who are setting up a beekeeping project involving their learners/students in schools and colleges
- a training and development handbook for agricultural extension officers
- a practical guide and reference for communities starting income-generating entrepreneurial ventures
Marchand, D. & Marchand-Mayne, J. 2003. Beekeeping – a practical guide for Southern Africa. Onrus River: Aardvark Press. See www.aardvarkpress.co.za.
Bee Ware supplies a DVD, Practical Beginner Beekeeping training and various beekeeping publications. Visit www.beeware.co.za for details.
Kejafa Knowledge Works has publications on beekeeping. Visit www.kejafa.com for the following:
- Byeboerdery in Suid Afrika Anderson, Buys, Johannsmeier ISBN: 978-0-6204447-7
- Storey’s Guide to Keeping Honey Bees Sanford, Bonney ISBN: 978-1-60342-550-6
Call 012 842 4017 or send an email to stoltze [at] arc.agric.za for the following publication, available from the ARC Agricultural Engineering: Agro-processing of honey products.
Find the publications, some available as a free download, at www.biobees.com.
Find the cartoon commissioned by the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) on iQhilika at www.pub.ac.za/cartoons/.
Wilson, B. 2005. The Hive: The Story of the Honeybee and Us. London: John Murray.
Marchese, C.M. 2009. Honeybee: Lessons from an Accidental Beekeeper. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal.
Eardley, C., Roth, D., Clarke, J., Buchanan, S. & Genmill, B. 2006. Pollinators and pollination: a resource book for policy and practice. Pretoria: Agricultural Research Council (ARC).
The NAMC-DAFF TradeProbe July 2016 looked at the trade profile of South African honey (find it at www.namc.co.za).
Forage zone overlay for google maps:
Use this tool to plot your apiary locations and discovery your honeybees potential foraging zones.
Honey Bee Rescue & Removal
The URL is advertised in a number of magazines and allows end users to request a honey bee removal. The removal is automatically entered into the Apiculture SA honey bee rescue incident system, attended to by beekeepers within SA.
- Noemdoe, D. 2018, December 7. “Queen bee set on giving beekeeping a young and vibrant face”. Food For Mzansi. Available at www.foodformzansi.co.za/queen-bee-set-on-giving-beekeeping-a-young-and-vibrant-face/
- Sihlobo, W. 2018, August 20. “Honey caught my eye again today”. Available at https://wandilesihlobo.com/2018/08/20/honey-caught-my-eye-again-today/
- Sihlobo, W. 2018, June 27. “The Great South African Honey Puzzle”. Available at https://wandilesihlobo.com/2018/06/27/the-great-south-african-honey-puzzle
- Bailes, E. 2018, March 13. “Embattled bees face yet another potential threat – virus-carrying hoverflies”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/358/174735.html
- Find the blog “Eucalypts and other honey bee forage plants – what you can do to help our honey bees” on www.agrihandbook.co.za.
Some international articles
- Tucker, I. 2019, February 10. “Five smart things honeybees can do”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/feb/10/five-smart-things-honeybees-can-do
- Sample, I. 2018, December 4. “Royal jelly research could propel cure for Alzheimer’s, claim scientists”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/science/2018/dec/04/royal-jelly-research-could-propel-cure-for-alzheimers-claim-scientists
- Watts, J. 2018, November 23. “Scientist unveils blueprint to save bees and enrich farmers”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/nov/23/scientist-unveils-blueprint-to-save-bees-and-enrich-farmers
- Warner, B. 2018, October 16. “Invasion of the ‘frankenbees’: the danger of building a better bee”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/oct/16/frankenbees-genetically-modified-pollinators-danger-of-building-a-better-bee
- Reuters. 2018, August 4. “Trump administration lifts ban on pesticides linked to declining bee numbers”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/aug/04/trump-administration-lifts-ban-on-pesticides-linked-to-declining-bee-numbers
- Chow, L. 2018, June 12. “Beekeepers File Legal Complaint Against Bayer Over Glyphosate in Honey”. Ecowatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/glyphosate-honey-bayer-monsanto-2577435405.html
- Chow, L. 2018, April 27. “EU Approves Ban on ‘Bee-Killing’ Neonicotinoids”. EcoWatch. Available at https://www.ecowatch.com/bees-neonicotinoids-ban-europe-2563782231.html
- Corbett, J. 2017, October 7. “75% of World’s Honey Laced With Pesticides”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/honey-pesticides-global-2494057860.html
- http://www.boredpanda.com/honey-on-tap-flow-hive-stuart-cedar-anderson, about a new invention that allows beekeepers to harvest honey without disturbing the bees.
Sources for the chapter: South African Bee-Industry Organisation (SABIO); Mike Allsopp (ARC-PPR); Dr Connal Eardley (ARC-PPR; Brett Falconer (Highveld Honey); South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).
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