More than seven million years ago ostriches migrated across Africa. These birds became a source of food for the San people and a popular theme for their rock paintings. The San were not the only ones who found these birds fascinating: detailed pictures of ostriches have also been found in ancient Egyptian tombs, Roman generals and their wives wore their beautiful plumes during state functions and Arabs hunted the bird for sport.
Today, ostrich meat, leather, feathers, eggs and a great variety of ostrich curios and gifts are available all over the world. Durable feathers are used in feather dusters and the more colourful and attractive ones in stage productions, carnivals, as fashion accessories and for stylish garments. Globally ostrich meat is regarded as high quality red meat due to the fact that it is low in cholesterol and fat, versatile and tasty.
The largest concentration of ostriches in the world is found in Oudtshoorn in the Western Cape.
International business environment
Find information on the World Ostrich Association at http://world-ostrich.org.
- South Africa accounts for around 70 % of the ostriches slaughtered in the world and has a similar stake in the worldwide ostrich population. The country’s climate, experience and expertise are the main factors in its favour.
- Poor economic growth globally has placed a damper on luxury items like ostrich feathers and leather.
- The main competitors are emerging industries in the East and South America, and Australia.
South Africa exports and imports
- The major export destinations for ostrich meat originating from South Africa during 2015 were Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland and France (DAFF, 2016). Owing to an outbreak of avian influenza in June 2017, the export of fresh ostrich meat is currently (December 2017) prohibited. The exporting of pre-cooked meat to the EU continues as normal.
- Imported ostrich meat came mostly from Australia and Namibia (DAFF, 2016).
Source: Ostrich Market Value Chain Profile.
Local business environment
Ostrich products are leather, feathers, meat, tourism, arts & crafts. Find the menu options for each product at www.ostrichsa.co.za.
The industry is expected to recover quickly from the avian influenza confirmed in June 2017. Evidence suggests that ostriches have the genetic ability to develop immunity to the virus, and can re-enter production faster than their poultry counterparts (ABSA, 2017). The current outbreak is considered to be not as bad as what happened in 2011 (ibid.).
The industry has been mainly export orientated because of the international demand for exotic leather products and the trend towards healthier food (like ostrich meat – low in fat and cholestrol). It is mainly influenced by the exchange rate, the international economy, market growth and market stimulation, by supply and demand chain dynamics and animal disease control. Other cost factors which affect this industry include the prices of input supplies (feed, fuel, grain etc.) and production processes. South Africa’s exports for ostrich meat to the world had increased in value by 175% during the period 2014 to 2015 (DAFF, 2016). Prior to 2011, the Ostrich meat, leather and feathers exceed R2,1 billion annually in foreign revenue to the country’s economy. There is still some way to go before this level of success is achieved again, and the developments in June 2017 have not helped!
The industry has necessarily needed to pay more attention to the domestic market, following export bans. Value-add activities like ostrich leather products, and growing the local market for ostrich meat have potential.
- The local market for ostrich meat is slowly being developed. The meat is a niche-market product, aimed at lifestyle-and health-conscious consumers. Processing of meat, such as salami and pastrami are identified as further possibilities.
- There are ten EU approved and registered export abattoirs in South Africa and some 588 export registered ostrich farms. Meeting EU and other international requirements is essential for effective marketing. As a result, the industry adheres to the strict EU-requirements; especially regarding full traceability. Find documents relating to this at www.ostrichsa.co.za.
The close proximity of ostrich farms to each other, which has a notable impact on fresh meat exports, must be addressed. It is also probable that ostrich chicks will, in future, be reared on farms in regions where feed is manufactured, and where farms are more than 10km apart from each other.
Source: ABSA Agricultural Outlook Spring 2017/2018
- The large majority of ostrich feathers are exported to Europe for the manufacturing of dusters, to Brazil for use in carnivals, or to other countries for use in the production of fashion accessories (ABSA, 2017).
The market for ostrich leather comprises two, important industries:
- Ostrich leather is popular in the production of US boots. This is a declining market and the imperative is to find new markets for ostrich leather to offset this (ABSA, 2017)
- Ostrich leather remains in high demand from international fashion brands for the manufacturing of handbags. Countries, such as South Korea, import ostrich leather from South Africa, process it to manufacture handbags, and export these to countries such as Japan, China, Hong Kong and Singapore.
Sources: ABSA Agricultural Outlook Spring 2017/2018; Ostrich Market Value Chain Profile.
For the newcomer
A nutritionally well fed and well cared for high pedigree female ostrich can easily produce 40 offspring per year, but not before the female bird is three years of age. Coupled with a short gestation period of only 42 days to hatch an ostrich egg, it is easy to see why this is an industry worthy of investigation.
In theory, 500 offspring from one high pedigree female bird can bring a long term and worthwhile farming operation. In reality however, mortalities are high (50% plus) in chicks. Ostriches breed well in a warm climate. Heavy rain and thunderstorms will certainly affect the breeding cycle. High humidity can also be a problem – not necessarily for breeding itself, but for young chicks. High humidity means high bacteria and young chicks are susceptible to catching all kinds of diseases when they are young.
A good supply of natural feed, including alfalfa (lucerne), maize, soy and wheat are a definite advantage as these are staple foods for an ostrich. A mature ostrich consumes 2,5 kg of feed per day. An unlimited supply of fresh, clean water is an absolute necessity. Ostriches drink up to 2 gallons (9 litres) of water every day.
The global focus of farming is now truly pointing towards environmentally friendly business operations. With the huge amounts of antibiotics being force fed into chickens, beef, pork and turkeys, together with intensive farming, steroids, growth hormones and all the other unnatural additives, it makes a fresh change to find a farming industry which does not require such techniques. Farming ostriches is environmentally friendly; steroid, hormone and force- feeding free. Ostriches are free roaming livestock and feed off all natural ostrich feed.
Ostriches require little or no handling once they reach four or five months of age. However, they need to be vaccinated against Newcastle Disease three months before slaughter and also need to be treated against ticks and be kept in a quarantine camp (which is free of any vegetation) fourteen days prior to slaughter.
Farming ostriches can be financially rewarding. As with all livestock, there are pitfalls and danger areas to be aware of. Prospective farmers should be aware of the fact that it takes 30 months from hatching before any income is received.
The 2 biggest problems by far are:
- Capital required due to high feeding costs and the amount of land needed to keep ostriches (if ostriches are to be kept on natural veldt the carrying capacity is one ostrich per 22,8 hectares)
- High risk due to the fact that ostrich chicks are being borne without an immune system, leading to high mortalities during the first month.
Advice to new ostrich farmers:
- Make sure you can comply with all the international regulations and requirements.
- Investigate the most suitable marketing arrangement(s), i.e. where to slaughter the birds, methods of payment (entire ostrich or skin and feathers separate from meat, etc).
- Ensure that you do have the financial resources to carry you through the first 30 months.
For more information contact: SAOBC (see heading 6).
Find information about the Ostrich Manual under heading 9.
National strategy and government contact
- Find information on all directorates of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) at www.daff.gov.za.
- Find details of state veterinarians in the “Animal health” chapter.
- National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za
- Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) Export Council Secretariat Tel: 012 394 1433 www.thedti.gov.za The Exotic Leather Research Centre at the University of Pretoria (see heading 7) forms part of the dti’s 2017/18-2019/20 Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP).
Find the ostrich regulations from the Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act 40 of 2000) at www.nda.agric.za/vetweb/Legislation/Meat%20safety/OstrichRegulations.pdf
All ostrich farmers in South Africa are expected to comply with VPN/04/2012-01 (Revision 6.0) Standard for the Requirements, Registration, Maintenance of Registration and Official Control of Ostrich Compartments in South Africa. .
In addition to the Codes of Practice, there is a published South African National Standard, SANS 994-1:2011 Ratite farming Part 1: Ostriches.
- SA Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC) Tel: 044 272 3336 www.ostrichsa.co.za (dated website)
- SA Ostrich Producers Organisation (SAOO) Tel: 044 272 3336
- National Ostrich Processors of SA (NOPSA) Tel: 044 272 3336 www.nopsa.com
The SA Ostrich Producers Organisation (SAOO) and the National Ostrich Processors of SA (NOPSA) are the two main representative bodies and together they form the SA Ostrich Business Chamber (SAOBC). The mission of the SAOBC is to promote a sustainable, economically viable ostrich industry in South Africa through the participation of stake holders.
Ostrich Breeders Society kobusn [at] elsenburg.com
There are Codes of Practice pertaining to the breeding and rearing of ostriches. These Codes apply to anyone keeping ostriches for any reason. Farms and abattoirs are regularly inspected to ensure welfare and compliance with EU standards is maintained to a high standard. Find information on www.ostrichsa.co.za.
Training and research
Research is conducted on all factors influencing commercial farming as well as the welfare of the animals. A formal agreement exists between the SAOBC and the Western Cape Department of Agriculture, which results in research projects. The research results assist farmers with decision-making. Call 021 808 5111.
- Oudtshoorn Research Farm Tel: 044 203 9420 www.elsenburg.com/research-farm/oudtshoorn-research-farm Find publications, presentations and other information on the web pages. Research as well as farmer support and development is carried out.
- Role players like Klein Karoo International undertake their own private research, focusing largely on food safety and animal health.
- The Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences at the University of the Free State is involved with research. Contact Mike Fair at 051 401 9056.
- Stellenbosch University Department of Animal Sciences Prof Lourens Hoffman Tel: 021 808 4747 Prof Schalk Cloete Tel: 021 808 5230 Prof Tertius Brand Tel: 021 808 5224 www.sun.ac.za/animal
- University of Pretoria Exotic Leather Research Centre Tel: 012 529 8386 www.up.ac.za/exotic-leather-research-centre
There are currently no formal training courses for prospective producers: all training is done in-house, on-the-job. The Ostrich Manual contains guidelines for farming with ostriches. Formal qualifications tend to be the B.Sc.Agric. or diplomas in agriculture.
There are training opportunities for processors in this industry (abattoirs and tanning). Employers make use of accredited trainers to ensure that training falls in line with the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).
Lectures on ostrich diseases are included in a wildlife Elective taught at the Veterinary Faculty of the University of Pretoria.
- Camexo SA Ltd Tel: 049 891 0622 www.kleinkaroo.com Meat
- Gondwana Marketing (Pty) Ltd Tel: 010 595 0209 079 871 8231 / 082 305 4107 Meat, leather
- Klein Karoo International Ltd Tel: 044 203 5234 www.kleinkaroomeat.com Meat, leather, feathers
- Mosstrich Tel: 044 606 4400 / 17 Meat
- Ostriswell (Pty) Ltd Tel: 044 203 5163 / 082 900 2980 Leather
- Rancho Las Plumas Tel: 044 203 5800 / 082 492 3445 www.ostrich.com Feathers
- South Cape Ostrich Tanning (SCOT) Tel: 044 606 4400 www.scot.co.za Leather
- Swartland Volstruise Tel: 021 851 2694 / 083 625 5462 Tel: 022 487 4651 Meat, leather
- African Crafts Market africancraftsmarket [at] gmail.com www.africancraftsmarket.com/products/african-ostrich-eggs.html Ostrich egg engraving
- Cango Ostrich Farm Tel: 044 272 4623 www.cangoostrich.co.za Ostrich curios and tourism
- Cape Cobra Leather Tel: 021 415 3440 www.capecobra.co.za Leather products
- Cape Point Ostrich Farm Tel: 021 780 9294 http://capepointostrichfarm.com Ostrich curios and tourism
- Cape Town Ostrich Ranch Tel: 021 972 1955 www.ostrichranch.co.za Ostrich curios and tourism
- Cavalli Ostrich Leather Products Tel: 044 873 5242 www.cavalli.co.za Leather products
- De Denne Tel: 072 703 0488 www.dedenne.com A tourist ostrich farm in Oudtshoorn which also offers accommodation
- DIVAC Tel: 044 874 2720 Ostrich slaughtering and process plants
- Highgate Ostrich Show Farm Tel: 044 272 7115/6 www.highgate.co.za Ostrich tourism
- Leather & Suede Tel: 021 426 2758 www.leatherandsuede.co.za Leather products
- Lorenzi Tel: 011 402 6832 www.lorenzi.co.za Leather products
- Lugro Ostrich Leather Products Tel: 044 272 7012 www.lugro-ostrich.co.za Leather products
- Oasis Tanning Tel: 011 416 2270 www.oasistanning.co.za Leather products
- Orso Leather Garments Tel: 021 551 6661 / 083 250 1260 www.orso.co.za Leather products
- Ostrich Divaz Tel: 044 213 3118 Ostrich farm and self-catering accommodation
- Ostrich International Tel: 044 279 1217 www.ostrichint.co.za Leather products
- Ostrimark SA (Edms) Bpk. Tel: 044 203 3709 www.ostrimark.co.za Leather products
- Rietfontein Ostrich Palace Tel: 044 213 3784 www.rop.co.za Ostrich curios and tourism
- Safari Show Farm Tel: 044 272 7311 http://safariostrich.co.za Ostrich tourism
- Via La Moda Tel: 011 477 8008 www.vialamoda.com Leather products
- Woodheads Tel: 021 461 7185 www.woodheads.co.za Leather products
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier.
- Find the annual Ostrich Market Value Chain Profile document on the Directorate Marketing’s web pages at www.daff.gov.za.
- Find the presentation by Anel Engelbrecht, delivered in March 2017 called “Improving ostrich skin quality” at www.elsenburg. Many other presentations, publications and resources are available from the Oudtshoorn Research Farm (see heading 7.
- Find the publications available from the Western Cape Department of Agriculture at www.elsenburg.com. These include the Ostrich Manual (English version of Volstruishandleiding) and the Research Project Summary – Ostrich 2012/13.
- Find the Nation in Conversation overview of the ostrich industry (Feb 2017) on YouTube www.youtube.com/watch?v=osklZ_kSYAM
- http://world-ostrich.org, website of the World Ostrich Association, has downloads like “The Guide to Purchasing Ostrich Eggs, Day Old Chicks and Breeders”.
- Diseases of ostriches and other ratites. F W Huchzermeyer 1998. Agricultural Research Council – Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute
- Shanawany, M. & Dingle, J. 1999. Ostrich production systems. Rome: Food And Agriculture Organisation. Available at www.fao.org/3/a-x2370e.pdf.
- Contact the SAOBC for other publications.
Sources for the chapter: previous notes from SAOBC; Farmer’s Weekly, 13 January 2017, p24; Ostrich Market Value Chain Profile 2016; the websites listed in the chapter; http://ewn.co.za/2015/08/07/EUs-ban-on-SA-ostrich-meat-lifted.