Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a food dehydrator. Raisins, prunes and dates are examples of popular dried fruits. Other fruits such as apples, apricots, bananas, cranberries, figs, kiwi, mangoes, nectarines, papaya, peaches, pears, persimmons, pineapples, strawberries and tomatoes may also be dried.
Drying preserves fruit, even in the absence of refrigeration, and significantly lengthens its shelf life. When fresh fruit is unavailable, impractical, or out of season, dried fruit can provide an alternative. It is often added to baking mixes and breakfast cereals.
The global increase in health consciousness has benefited the South African raisin industry.
International business environment
Eight countries compete for majority shares of the global raisin market: Australia, Chile, Greece, Iran, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and the United States (USDA, 2021).
South Africa: imports and exports
Europe remains South Africa’s largest foreign market for raisins, accounting for 64% of export market share. Germany is the largest single market for South African raisin exports and accounted for 33% of the total exports in 2020, followed by United Kingdom (10%), Canada (9%), United States (9%), Netherlands (9%), Algeria (8%), France (4%), and Denmark (2%) (USDA, 2021).
Namibia is a traditional exporter of raisins to South Africa since it enjoys duty-free access based on its membership in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU).
Local business environment
- Dried fruit is produced mainly in the Western Cape, the Southwestern Districts, Northern Cape, the Little Karoo, the Olifants River area and the Lower and Upper Orange River area. Apricots are mainly produced in the Little Karoo. Prunes are grown almost exclusively in the Tulbagh district in the Western Cape. Most raisins are produced along the Lower Orange River. Currants come from the Vredendal district. Tree fruit, as opposed to vine fruit, is dried mainly in the Western Cape and the Southwestern districts.
- Dried fruit production is labour-intensive.
- Both the local marketing and exporting of dried fruit are free from government intervention. However, in the case of exports, phytosanitary requirements and quality standards must be adhered to.
Raisins – some facts
- Raisin production in South Africa is concentrated along the Orange River, in the Northern Cape Province, accounting for at least 90 percent of the total annual production. The Western Cape accounts for the remaining 10 percent of production.
- There are some 1 000 raisin growers and 7 raisin processors in South Africa
- The COVID-19 lockdown caused some vineyard owners to divert wine grapes to raisin production.
- Increased local consumption of raisins is atributed to strong demand from the confectionary and baking industry, growth in the health snack food market, the rise in home baking and healthy snacking during the national lockdowns, marketing initiatives by the industry and increased production
Source: Raisin Annual (USDA, 2021)
- Read the US Department of Agriculture‘s update on South Africa’s raisin sector, Raisin Annual (August 2021) on the Internet.
- The Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands study The Current State of Fruit & Vegetable Agro-Processing in South Africa (released February 2019) included a look at dried fruit.
For the newcomer
“South African rural farmers produce a number of different fruits, such as mango, litchi, citrus, banana, avocado, macadamia, apples, peaches, plums and pears and vegetables such as cabbage, spinach, onions, carrots and tomatoes. These products are subjected to postharvest losses or at time of use most of the nutrients have vanished.” Khangelani Mkhathini’s doctoral thesis, which can be downloaded at efwe.ukzn.ac.za/Libraries/ResearchSeminars/Mkhathini_KM.sflb.ashx, includes a look at the use of drying technologies.
Find the document “Postharvest food drying technique using a solar tunnel dryer” by Khangelani Mkhathini and Sandile Zulu (Research & Technology 2015/23) on www.kzndard.gov.za. Environmental conditions do not always allow for open sun drying. A solar tunnel dryer can be constructed “from locally available materials at a relatively low capital cost and there are no fuel costs”.
Find the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) booklet Solar drying of fruit and vegetables at www.nda.agric.za/docs/solar/solardrying.htm. The process of preparing fresh produce, the drying process itself, many recipes and more is looked at.
The benefits of dried fruit production include:
- A prolonged shelf life, and thus a longer marketing period – which extends fruit availability to all year round.
- Reduced storage space required, which lowers transportation costs.
- Low or no refrigeration costs.
- They are peeled, cut and ready for use by the consumer.
- The dehydrated value is higher than fresh produce.
- Good compatibility with other ingredients in dry food mixtures.
- Prices are more stable than fresh produce prices.
- Agri Northern Cape Tel: 053 832 9595 For dried fruit matters, farmers contact Ferdi Botha. Details at http://agrink.co.za/en/commodities/
- Agri Western Cape Tel: 021 860 3800 www.growinggreatness.co.za
- Dried Fruit Technical Services (DFTS) Tel: 021 870 2900 www.hortgro.co.za DFTS is an umbrella association representing the dried deciduous fruit producers and dried fruit packers. Housed within HORTGRO, it co-ordinates research and development in the dried fruit industry.
- Raisins SA Tel: 054 495 0283 http://raisinsa.co.za
National strategy and government contact
In the Agricultural Policy and Action Plan (APAP) document, dried fruit was included in the discussion on the fruit and vegetable value chain.
- Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance Tel: 012 319 7036 DFSQA [at] dalrrd.gov.za
- National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za A statutory levy is payable to Raisins South Africa on dried vine fruit (raisins) produced and imported into South Africa. Find details on the NAMC website.
- Northern Cape Department of Agriculture, Land Reform & Rural Development www.agrinc.gov.za
- The Job Funds www.jobsfund.org.za
- National Development Agency (NDA) www.nda.org.za
Training and research
- ARC-Infruitec/Nietvoorbij Tel: 021 809 3100/58 www.arc.agric.za In addition to research, training courses are given in the drying of fruit.
- ARC-Agricultural Engineering (AE) Tel: 012 842 4017 www.arc.agric.za Small-scale fruit and vegetable drying for smallholder farmers
- Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Tel: 012 841 2911 www.csir.co.za Included in CSIR programmes is training and demonstration in solar drying and sun drying.
- Culvedo Tel: 021 888 3487 www.culdevco.co.za A joint venture between the ARC and the deciduous fruit industry to commercialise ARC-bred varieties
- Department of Agriculture & Rural Development (KwaZulu-Natal) Khangelani Maxwell Mkhathini – 033 343 8090 Khangelani.Mkhathini [at] kzndard.gov.za, Sandile Zulu – 033 355 9690 Sandile.zulu [at] kzndard.gov.za www.kzndard.gov.za
- Dried Fruit Technical Services (DFTS) Tel: 021 870 2900 www.hortgro.co.za Short courses, farmers’ days and technical discussions are frequently organised.
- Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute Tel: 021 808 5111 www.elsenburg.com Dried Fruit is part of the Diploma at Elsenburg Agricultural Training Institute, Stellenbosch. Training covers the whole fruit production process: planting, pruning, irrigation, fertilisation, pest- and disease management, harvesting, and drying of the crop.
- FoodBev Tel: 011 253 7300 www.foodbev.co.za FOODBEV is the Sector Education Training Authority (SETA) responsible for facilitating education and training in the food and beverages manufacturing sector
- Hortgro Science Tel: 021 882 8470 www.hortgro-science.co.za
- South African Plant Improvement Organisation (SAPO) Tel: 021 887 6823 www.saplant.co.za A specialist plant improvement organisation owned by deciduous fruit growers through Hortgro Services, the Canning Fruit Producers Association, the Dried Fruit Technical Services and South African Table Grapes.
- Stellenbosch University Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 www.sun.ac.za/foodsci
- University of Fort Hare Department of Agronomy Tel: 040 602 2131/2069 www.ufh.ac.za
- Neogenesis Tel: 021 300 0077 www.ananeo.co.za
- Dryers for Africa Tel: 013 750 0327 www.dryersforafrica.co.za
- John F Marshall Tel: 011 842 7100 www.johnfmarshall.co.za
Packers / marketers
- At Source (Pty) Ltd Tel: 023 313 3130 www.source.co.za
- Cape Dried Fruit Packers Tel: 023 614 2682 http://capedriedfruit.com
- Carpe Diem Group Tel: 054 332 2901 www.cdgroup.co.za
- Farmers Pride (Owned by Orange River Cellars) https://orangeriverwines.com
- Fruits Du Sud (Pty) Ltd Tel: 054 491 1041 www.fruitsdusud.com
- Jordaam Dried Fruit www.driedfruitsweets.co.za
- Kambrosig Tien Tel: 021 873 2841
- Koelfontein Landgoed Tel: 023 313 3304 / 071 413 3869 http://koelfontein.co.za
- Levubu Dried Fruit Tel: 015 495 0042 www.levubudriedfruit.com
- Little Oaks Dried Fruit Tel: 023 614 3558
- Northern Cape Raisins www.ncraisins.co.za
- Raisins South Africa/RedSun Raisins Tel: 054 461 0025 www.redsun.co.za
- Red Sun Raisins www.redsun.co.za
- Safari Dried Fruit and Nuts Tel: 0860 22 11 02 www.safaridriedfruit.co.za
- The Raisin Company Tel: 054 441 0200 www.theraisincompany.com
- Tierhoek Tel: 023 626 1191 www.tierhoekorganic.com/
- Tulbagh Dried Fruit Tel/fax: 023 230 0960 www.tulbaghdriedfruit.co.za
- Rainbow Fruit c/o Wolfheart Tel/fax: 021 872 8327 www.fruitworks.co.za
- Abba Moosa Wholesalers Tel: 031 209 1125 www.orientaldelight.co.za
- Almans Tel: 011 397 4685 www.almans.co.za
- Ambassador Foods Tel: 013 750 1192 www.ambassadorfoods.co.za
- Bestnut Tel: 011 791 7467 www.acenuts.co.za
- Empire Tel: 011 314 9084 www.empirestatetrading.com
- Hearshaw and Kinnes Analytical Laboratory (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 702 4131 www.hkal.co.za
- JAB Dried Fruit and Nuts Tel: 013 747 2161 http://jabfruit.co.za/
- Komati Foods Tel: 021 448 2130 www.komatifoods.co.za
- Neltropica Tel: 012 323 9200
- Sirkel Trading Tel: 021 876 4891 / 082 824 9022 www.sirkel.co.za
Websites and publications
Visit the websites and publications referred to earlier in the chapter, specifically under the earlier heading “For the newcomer”.
- Find the DALRRD booklet/info pak “Solar drying of fruit and vegetables” at www.nda.agric.za/docs/infopaks/solardrying.pdf.
- Refer to the ARC Agricultural Engineering publications on adding value to fruit e.g. Agro-processing of Deciduous fruit (Apples, apricots, grapes, pears, plums, peaches, figs) and Agro-processing of Subtropical Fruit(Avocado, bananas, figs, guava, kiwifruit, litchi, papaya, passion fruit, pineapple) (see “Agro-processing” chapter). Call 012 842 4017 or email stoltze [at] arc.agric.za.
- Find the notes on drying mangoes at www.mango.co.za.
- Brett, A, Cox, D.R.S., Simmons, R. & Anstee, G. 1996. “Producing Solar Dried Fuit and Vegetables for micro and small-scale Rural Enterprise Development”. Handbook 3: Practical Aspects of Processing. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.
- Van der Walt J. 2020, December 31. “Free State’s first black, female raisin farmer (and she makes wine)”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/crops/fruit-nuts/free-states-first-black-female-raisin-farmer-and-she-makes-wine
- The National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC)‘s Transformation Digest (9th issue) looks at the progress within the raisin industry www.namc.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Transformation-Digest-9-Edited-August.pdf
- Du Preez, J. 2018, November 26. “Vennootskap in droevrugtebedryf laat almal wen”. Landbouweekblad. Available at www.netwerk24.com/landbou/Nuus/vennootskap-in-droevrugtebedryf-laat-almal-wen-20181122-2 [Partnerships in the dried fruit industry create a win-win for everyone]
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