Sunflower seed is primarily used for manufacturing sunflower oil and oilcake. After the hull is removed the seed can be consumed or used for different oil production. Most of the seed produced is marketed locally to expressers, animal feed and for seed.
The greatest importance of sunflower production is the extraction of oil from the seed. Sunflower oil is used on a daily basis in households, restaurants and various food industries. Sunflower is the basic raw material for the preparation of margarine and spreads, used daily by millions of people. Sunflower oil can also be converted to diesel for use in diesel engines as biofuel.
The sunflower seed also produces oil cake, which is widely used for animal feeds (as sunflower oilcake meal) because of its high protein content. Sunflower “whole seed” (fruit) is sold as a snack food, after roasting in ovens, with or without salt added. Sunflowers can be used to make a peanut butter alternative, sunbutter. It can also be mixed with rye flour to make bread (in Germany this is called Sonnenblumenkernbrot – literally: sunflower whole seed bread). It is also sold as food for birds and can be used directly in cooking and salads.
Sunflowers also produce latex and are the subject of experiments to improve their suitability as an alternative crop for producing hypoallergenic rubber.
Source: A Profile of the South African Sunflower Market Value Chain (see heading 7); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunflower
International business environment
Find circulars on the global environment by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) at https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/oilseeds.pdf
- The major global oilseed crop by some distance is soybean. Sunflower comes in third after canola (rapeseed) (USDA, 2017).
- Ukraine, Russian Federation, EU, Argentina and Turkey are the top producers of sunflower (USDA, 2017).
- The top exporters are Ukraine, Russia, Argentina, Turkey and the EU.
- The EU and Turkey are the main importers of sunflower (USDA, 2017).
- South Africa is not a significant role player in the production and trade of oilseeds in the international market. It contributed 850 thousand tons of the global 46.1 million in 2017 (BFAP, 2017), some 2% to the sunflower seed produced in the world.
South Africa: imports and exports
See the monthly bulletin on the South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) website for updated information. See also the Sunflower Seed Market Value Chain Profile by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) which analyses South African imports and exports.
- Major exporters of sunflower seed to South Africa are Romania, Botswana, Bulgaria and Argentina (DAFF, 2017). It makes sense to import from SADC countries like Botswana and Malawi because of the SADC Free Trade Agreement which facilitates flow of commodities among SADC countries at no tariff charges.
- The major importers of sunflower seed originating from South Africa are Sudan, Malawi, Namibia, Swaziland, Thailand and Botswana (DAFF, 2017).
- Because of the uncharacteristic sunflower surplus in 2017, net exports were expected with sunflower prices closer to export parity. After this, for the country to return to being a net importer is expected with prices varying between import and export parity (BFAP, 2017). South Africa is a net exporter of sunflower oil though, even if it is a net importer of vegetable oils overall. Vegetable oils in South Africa are refined for purposes of human consumption (ABSA, 2016).
- With regard to exports, phytosanitary requirements and quality standards must be adhered to and a PPECB certificate must be obtained. The import tariff for sunflower seed is 9.4% of the FOB price.
Local business environment
Find the Grading Regulations for sunflower and requirements for grain exports at http://agbizgrain.co.za.
- The country requires about 880 000 tonnes of sunflower seed annually, which some 720 000 hectares, planted to sunflower, would satisfy (ABSA, 2016).
- The country has seen a general decreasing production of sunflower over the years, after peaking at 828 000 hectares in 1999. This has been attributed to factors like price and improved yield from better cultivars (ABSA, 2016).
- The Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) expects the area planted to sunflower to decrease at an average annual rate of 1.5% to just under 530 thousand hectares in 2026. Interestingly, despite the drop in area planted, the 2017 sunflower yield of over 810 thousand tons was 13% more than in 2016.
- The Free State and North West Province, are the major producers of sunflower seed, followed by Limpopo, Mpumalanga and Gauteng (DAFF, 2017). The area planted with sunflower increased in the drought-affected season of 2016 owing to sunflower performing better in dry conditions and having a late planting window relative to maize (BFAP, 2017). This year saw the area return to its three-year average of 635 thousand hectares.
- Sales of sunflower seed are mostly to the domestic market with very little quantities destined for the export market. This can be due to the fact that our processing capacity in the country is big enough to accommodate most of sunflower seed produced locally. Mostly, South Africa remains a net importer of sunflower seed.
Grain farmers switch from sunflower to maize easily, many planting both as a way of diversifying their farming operations. Advantages of the crop include being able to grow on marginal soils with little fertiliser, being a consistent crop under unfavourable weather conditions, and that historically, it could be planted “as a last resort”. Negatives include Sclerotina, falling over problems, bird damage but also that under ideal conditions, sunflowers “do not provide the same upward potential as crops like maize and soybeans” (BFAP, 2015).
There are five main levels that can be identified in the sunflower seed-to-sunflower oil value chain:
- Sunflower seed producers
- Crushers/expressers of seed (includes animal feed manufacturer)
- Refineries of crude oil (includes imported crude oil)
- Wholesalers and retailers
No statutory levies are applicable and the marketing of oilseeds is free from government intervention. The sunflower marketing season in South Africa commences on 1 March.
Source: A Profile of the South African Sunflower Market Value Chain; BFAP Baseline, Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026; BFAP study for GrainSA in 2015 – see www.grainsa.co.za/the-future-of-sunflower-production-in-south-africa
National strategy and government contact
Find information about Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) under “Branches” at www.daff.gov.za.
The Agri Processing Index (API) developed by the Western Cape Department of Agriculture ranked the potential of some 130 different products, measuring employment potential, production performance and global market growth. Sunflower oil was at number three on the Top 20 products list, showing the potential of backing this product. The table appeared in the BFAP Baseline Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024.
- Agbiz Grain Tel: 012 807 3002 http://agbizgrain.co.za/
- Grain SA Tel: 0860 047 246 www.grainsa.co.za
- Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust Tel: 011 234 3400 www.opot.co.za
- Oilseed Advisory Committee Tel: 011 234 3400 www.opot.co.za
- SA Cereals & Oilseeds Trade Association (SACOTA) c/o AFMA at 012 663 9097 http://sacota.co.za/
- South African Grain Information Service (SAGIS) Tel: 012 941 2050 www.sagis.org.za
- SA Oil Processors Association (SAOPA) Tel: 082 533 0692 Fax: 086 627 7603 bakerjc [at] telkomsa.net
- Sunflower and Soybean Forum Tel: 011 234 3400 This is a forum where all parties with a direct interest in Sunflower production, storage, processing as well as the marketing of Sunflower products can discuss matters of interest.
Training and research
See this heading in the “Grain & Oilseeds” chapter.
- ARC-Grain Crops (ARC-GC) Tel: 018 299 6100 www.arc.agric.za The ARC-GC presents courses on all aspects of Sunflower production. These courses vary from one to four days depending on the requirements specified by the client.
- Grain SA Tel: 0860 047 246 www.grainsa.co.za Grain SA has a Farmer Development Programme that is funded by the grain trusts – Maize, Sorghum, Winter Cereals and Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust. Read more in the emerging farmer support chapter.
- NOSA Agricultural Services Tel: 033 345 8990/9238 www.nosaagri.co.za
- Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust Tel: 011 234 3400 www.opot.co.za
- Protein Research Foundation Tel: 011 803 2579 www.proteinresearch.net
- University of the Free State Department of Plant Sciences Dr Rouxléne van der Merwe Tel: 051 401 2514 / 2818 / 9672 www.ufs.ac.za/plantsci
The Oil and Protein Seeds Development Trust provides funding for research on sunflowers, soybeans and groundnuts that is in the interest of producers, processors and consumers.
- Southern African Grain Laboratory (SAGL) Tel: 012 807 4019 www.sagl.co.za Find the “Sunflower” option on the website.
Find an extensive list on www.sagis.org.za – take the “List of Co-workers” and then “Sunflowers” menu options.
- AFGRI Tel: 011 063 2347 Tel: 015 491 5810 www.afgri.co.za
- Africa Palm Products Tel: 011 974 0922 www.africapalm.co.za
- Africa SunOil Refineries Tel: 031 462 6830 www.africasunoil.com
- AJ Oils Tel: 021 903 2080 www.ajoils.co.za
- Central Edible Oils (CEOCO) Tel: 011 033 0800 http://ceoco.co.za
- Darsot Food Corporation Tel: 011 948 9949/50 www.dursots.com
- Elangeni Oil & Soaps (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 203 5000 www.elangenioil.co.za
- Epic Foods Tel: 011 248 0000 www.epic.co.za
- Epko Oil Seed Crushing (Pty) Ltd Tel: 018 632 1604 A partnership between NWK and Louis Dreyfus Commodities
- FR Waring Holdings (Pty) Ltd Tel : 031 536 3200 www.frwaring.co.za
- Nedan (Pty) Ltd – see AFGRI
- Nola Industries Tel: 011 692 1610 Tel: 031 242 8600 www.rclfoods.com/nola
- Pannar Seed (Pty) Ltd Tel: 033 413 9500 / 9583 www.pannar.com
- Rein Oil Tel: 021 845 5518 www.reinoil.co.za
- Sealake Industries (Pty) Ltd Tel: 033 845 0786 www.sealake.co.za
- Senwes Ltd Tel: 018 464 7800 www.senwes.co.za
- Sime Darby Hudson & Knight Tel : 011 896 9002 http://hudsonandknight.co.za
- Suidwes Landbou (Edms) Bpk Tel: 018 581 1000 www.suidwes.co.za
- Sunola Oil Mills Tel: 039 682 4507 / 5708 www.goldenglo.co.za
- Willowton Oil & Cake Mills Tel: 033 355 7800 www.willowtongroup.com
- Wilmar Continental Edible Oils Tel: 011 278 0300 www.wilmarcontinental.com
- VKB Agriculture Ltd Tel: 058 863 8111 / 268 www.vkb.co.za
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed and already mentioned in this chapter.
- Useful information regarding sunflowers is available on the ARC website www.arc.agric.za. Printed guidelines on Sunflowers production, and other printed information are available at ARC-GC. Phone 018 299 6199 for the following two: (i) Sonneblomproduksie: ‘n Bestuurgids vir die Wenprodusent (ii) Sunflower Diseases and Pests / Sonneblomsiektes en -plae
- Call 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za for the publication Agro-processing of Oil Seeds (Soy beans, sunflower) by ARC-Agricultural Engineering (ARC-AE).
- Find the annual A Profile of the South African Sunflower Market Value Chain publication on the Directorate Marketing web pages at www.daff.gov.za. Grower notes are also available on this website under “Resource centre”, namely Sunflower production guideline.
- Find the Pannar Sunflower Production Guide at www.pannar.com.
- Reporter. 2018, March 15. “When to plant sunflower for optimal yield”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/crops/field-crops/plant-sunflower-optimal-yield/
- www.sunflowernsa.com, website of the National Sunflower Association (USA)