Cotton remains one of the most versatile crops grown by humanity, noted for its appearance, comfort and the many useful products it provides.

  • From the seed: flour and feed, refined oil (salad and cooking), margarine, soap and cosmetics, writing materials, rayon industrial fabrics, yarns, plastics, lamp and candle wicks, twine, rugs, mops, furniture upholstery etc.
  • From the lint: clothes, underwear, linings for canvas, tents, medical bandages, sheets, towels, curtains etc.

International business environment

Find international updates at www.cottonsa.org.za and on the cotton pages of the International Trade Center website, www.intracen.org/itc/sectors/cotton. A further useful resource is the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s Cotton: World Markets and Trade circular.

Local business environment

Visit www.cottonsa.org.za for the latest cotton market reports.

Historical cotton production areas include Limpopo Province (Springbok flats from Bela-Bela to Mokopane and Weipe), North West Province (Taung, Stella, Delareyville, Maratsane), KwaZulu-Natal (Makhathini Flats), Mpumalanga and Northern Cape (lower Orange River, Vaalharts, Douglas, Marydale and Prieska). Hectares planted and yields for the Republic of South Africa (Swaziland excluded) are on the graph that follows:

Marketing Year Hectares Irrigation Hectares Dryland   Total Hectares    Yield Irrigation    Yield Dryland    Average Yield
2007/08 5 979 3 242 9 221 4 067 825 2 927
2008/09 4 849 1 965 6 814 4 327 757 3 299
2009/10 4 151 960 5 111 4 865 712 4 085
2010/11 11 640 1 505 13 145 3 931 715 3 563
2011/12 7 231 2 166 9 397 4 405 541 3 514
2012/13 2 956 3 871 6 827 3 979 687 2 112
2013/14 4 566 2 892 7 458 4 785 687 3 196
2014/15 8 592 6 636 15 228 4 946 1 129 3 283
2015/16 5 843 2 510 8 353 4 563 635 3 383
2016/17 7 301 10 540 17 841 4 411 1 048 2 424
2017/18 19 570 17 646 37 216 4 451 853 2 745

2017/18 figures are an estimate. Yield figures are Kg seed cotton per hectare

Source: Cotton SA

Cotton in South Africa is currently marketed on free-market principles, i.e. there is no intervention or restriction on the buying and selling of cotton and prices are determined by the market.

Farmers market their cotton in one of the following ways:

  • The seed cotton is sold by the grower to a ginner who gins the cotton and sells the cotton lint for his own account to spinners (and seed to processors), either directly or by making use of agents; or
  • The grower does not sell his seed cotton to the ginner but contracts the ginner to gin it on his behalf on payment of a ginning fee (some growers also own their own gins). The cotton lint and seed remain the property of the producer who then either markets it himself or contracts the gin or someone else to market the cotton lint (or seed) on his behalf.
  • The grower can gin their cotton in their own gins. They can then either market the cotton lint and seed themselves or get someone else to do it for them.

Five of the six ginners currently operating in South Africa are farmer-owned.

Challenges to our cotton producers are:

  • Competition from other summer crops.
  • Relative high input costs.
  • High cost of mechanization, i.e. picking costs.
  • Low cotton prices.

Source: Cotton SA

Find the latest Cotton Market Value Chain Profile on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries’ website, www.daff.gov.za.

Small-scale farmer news

Find the latest news and information about small-scale cotton farmer development at www.cottonsa.org.za.

Two of the main objectives of the National Cotton Strategy Plan, developed by Cotton SA and other role players, are to broaden participation enabling small producers to continue increasing their share of the South African crop as well as to raise productivity by training of smallholder cotton growers. Cotton SA’s contribution in achieving this objective is amongst others by way of The Small Scale Cotton Farmers’ Forum (a standing committee of Cotton SA). The main function of the Forum is to co-ordinate and monitor progress with regard to the set objectives and to provide an environment where positive interaction between role-players could lead to increased market access for the small cotton farmer.

Cotton SA is an AgriSETA accredited training institution and its small-scale farmer training programme, now in its 15th year, remains its core transformation initiative. The training of small-scale farmers takes place in collaboration with local government and the agricultural colleges in the small-scale farmer cotton production regions.

This formal skills development program (which involves a certain number of unit standards at NQF level 1) is organised in four 5 day modules, each of which are synchronised with the normal production cycle of the crop and presented over a 12 month period. The subjects covered in the 4 modules are:

  • introduction, soil preparation and planting
  • plant protection, pests, diseases and weeds
  • pre-harvest crop preparation, harvesting and grading
  • financial management

The courses are theoretical as well as practical, the latter making up about 60% of course content. Experts in each field are drawn from various cotton role-players to impart their expertise to the groups in training. Up to the end of 2014, 1043 small-scale farmers have attended these courses (359 from KwaZulu-Natal, 276 from the Limpopo Province, 340 from Mpumalanga, 37 from the Eastern Cape and 31 from the North West Province).

Cotton SA also has a Mentorship Program for small-scale cotton farmers in view of the need for a support system for farmers already trained in cotton production. This initiative is aimed to identify and guide mentors in the different small-holder farmer cotton production regions, who in turn impart their knowledge and practical skills to other small-holder farmers, in order to enable the latter to produce cotton in a sustainable and profitable manner.

Cotton SA annually also disseminates market and other relevant information to small-scale cotton farmers specifically, in the following manner:

  • By way of monthly market reports
  • By way of the bi-annual Cotton SA Katoen magazine, which features a regular section aimed at small-scale farmers specifically. The magazine is mailed to more than 500 small-scale cotton farmers.
  • By convening farmer information days in small-scale farmer production areas.
  • By way of articles in small grower agricultural publications.
  • By way of an illustrated Training Manual for Small-Scale Cotton Growers, in Zulu and English.

Research projects are identified by cotton growers (including small-scale farmers) and other role-players on a continuous basis and are undertaken by ARC-Industrial Crops. Most of the research projects are of benefit to both commercial as well as to small-scale farmers whilst some are specifically aimed at the small grower. Research results are published on a regular basis in the Cotton SA Katoen magazine.

Small Scale Cotton Farmer’s Forum Chairperson: Mr Phenias Gumede

After being closed for about 5 years, the Makhathini Cotton Gin was purchased by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries on behalf of Makhathini cotton farmers and following renovations, ginning operations were resumed. Find the 2015 Vuk’uzenzele and The Mercury reports.

KwaZulu-Natal – “Green Revolution”. Green Revolution is a project undertaken by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and the private sector to quadruple output in the province by the year 2020. Some R100 million has already been earmarked for the development of the Makhatini Flats into a viable cotton-growing area. Hundreds of emerging small-scale farmers stand to benefit. Several other schemes have been mooted which will see the province’s agricultural sector intensifying production of several crops.

National strategy and government contact

Cotton production absorbs labour which appeals to the country’s job creation strategies. There is also a strong emphasis on farmer development, making it important that the industry is given the necessary help it requires to be competitive.

In 2013 the South African Cotton Producers Organisation and Cotton SA initiated the process of linking up with various like-minded textile, apparel and retail sector stakeholders to formulate the concept of establishing a National Cluster. The South African Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) subsequently approved a 5 Year Plan and an initial R200 million grant fund for the establishment of a National Cluster to leapfrog the local industry’s competitiveness capability in global sustainable textile and apparel manufacturing.

The Cluster officially commenced with its operations in April 2014 with the main aim to build and improve the capacity in the South African textile and apparel industry value chain to effectively supply:

  • Local and international consumers with fully traceable sustainable apparel and household textile products;
  • Local Government with fully traceable sustainable textile and apparel products that adheres to the 100% local content designation as stipulated by regulation; and
  • Facilitate the development of sector and/or supply chain specific Sub-National Clusters.

The ABSA Agri Outlook 2017 reports very favourably on the Cluster (ABSA, 2017).

In addition to the dti, other relevant government institutions are the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC). See www.daff.gov.za and www.namc.co.za respectively.

Cotton Sub-Sector Development Strategy and Regional Cotton Textiles Development are Key Action Programmes in the 2018/19-2020/21 Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP). Find the document at www.thedti.gov.za.

Role Players

Cotton SA

Tel: 012 804 1462

www.cottonsa.org.za
 
Cotton SA is a cotton industry service company providing the following functions:

  • the rendering of information services
  • the stimulation of the production and the usage of cotton
  • the co-ordination of research
  • the establishment of quality standards and norms as well as training in this regard

Cotton SA also acts as industry forum and facilitator for the development of the small cotton grower sector. Cotton SA is also the administrator of statutory measures (compulsory submission of monthly returns by processors and imposition of a levy on cotton lint produced to finance its functions). Cotton SA is not in any way involved in the marketing of cotton or cotton products, which are traded on free market principles.
 
The South African Cotton Producers Organisation (SACPO) is a representative national organisation for cotton farmers with the aim of creating wealth for its members through the provision of markets, skills, partnerships and alliances.
 
The SA Cotton Ginners Association (SACGA) is the representative body of cotton ginners. Call the SACGA at 013 261 1621 or find the information at www.cottonsa.org.za.

SA Cotton Textile Manufacturers Association (SACTMA)

Tel: 079 513 1945

This is the representative body of cotton spinners. Find the information about SACTMA at www.texfed.co.za.
 
South African Textile Industry Export Council (SATIEC)

Tel: 021 959 4162 / 082 455 3263

Training and research

Training DVDs on hand picking and machine picking of cotton are available from Cotton SA.

ARC-Industrial Crops (IC) Tel: 014 536 3150 www.arc.agric.za

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Fibres and Textiles Industrial Support Tel: 041 508 3200 / 23 / 89 www.csir.co.za

The Research and Technology Committee of Cotton SA meet on a regular basis with one of the main aims to evaluate research projects identified and prioritised by role players. Research results are obtainable from the Institute and also published on a regular basis in the Cotton SA Katoen magazine.

These Agricultural Colleges have been sanctioned by the industry to run the accredited cotton course developed by Cotton SA:

  1. Lowveld College of Agriculture (Nelspruit) Tel: 013 753 3064
  2. Tompi Seleka College of Agriculture (Limpopo Province) Tel: 013 268 9300/1
  3. Owen Sithole College of Agriculture (KZN) Tel: 035 195 1345 www.kzndard.gov.za

NOSA Agricultural Services Tel: 087 286 9298 www.nosaagri.co.za Training and training materials available

Ginning companies

  • Loskop Cotton Tel: 013 261 1498
  • Makhathini Cotton Gin Tel: 079 733 0422
  • Noord-Kaap Katoenpluismeule Tel: 082 948 2569 / 72
  • GWK Cotton Gin Tel: 053 581 0037
  • Weipe Cotton Gin Tel: 015 533 3021
  • Vaalharts Cotton Tel: 053 474 0115

Other role players

Websites and publications

Find the “Resources” option at www.cottonsa.org.za.

Environmental Needs Of The Cotton Plant by Dr CG Theron. This and other related articles may be downloaded from the Cotton SA website.

Cotton SA – Educational Brochure, with needs of scholars and students in mind, is obtainable free of charge. The brochure contains among others, sections on the history, production, processing and uses of cotton.

The following may be ordered electronically from the Cotton SA website – www.cottonsa.org.za:

  • The Cotton SA Katoen magazine. This is published bi-annually. Its main focus is on the producer but carries information on the whole industry. Cotton SA distributes the magazine free to subscribers in South Africa.
  • Management Guide. This comprehensive bilingual guide was compiled by the ARC-Institute for Industrial Crops and is aimed at the commercial farmer with the aim to broaden his/her knowledge. The publication covers the full spectrum of cotton farming and contains chapters on cultivation guidelines, insect and disease control and the harvesting of cotton.
  • Cotton Guide For The Small-Holder Farmer
  • Company Brochure
  • Core Statistics

Available from the ARC-Agricultural Engineering (ARC-AE) is the booklet Agro-processing of Textile Crops (Cotton, flax, hemp, sisal). Contact 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za.

Find the latest Cotton Market Value Chain Profile on the Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (DAFF) website, www.daff.gov.za, on the Directorate Marketing pages. The “Cotton production guidelines” and a cotton brochure are also available here (under “Resource centre”).

The DAFF-NAMC TradeProbe November 2016 includes a trade profile for cottonseed. Find the document at www.namc.co.za.

The Textile Federation: www.texfed.co.za. Find the database of members and role players e.g. dyers and finishers, knitted fabrics, yarns etc.

Some articles

Our gratitude to Mr Koot Louw of Cotton SA for his support and for, as always, providing input so willingly.

Recent Posts

Start typing and press Enter to search