Our oceans cover nearly three-quarters of the earth’s surface, and produce more than half the oxygen in the atmosphere. Some 97% of our water is here. It is a major influence on weather systems and home of a vast array of marine life – from whales to phytoplankton. Over 3 billion people depend on fish as part of their diet, and one in ten people rely on the fishing industry to make a living (FAO, 2017).
This chapter is in the “Issues” section for a simple reason: our oceans are in crisis. They have been mismanaged, or at best, not been managed at all, having been overfished and altered by pollution.
The 14th of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) initiated by UN member states is to “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development” (UN, 2015).
Measures that will turn the tide, so to speak, include:
- The setting of quotas on the amount of fish caught. Fish stocks are being taken from the oceans at unsustainable levels (Kituyi & Thomson, 2018).
- Adopting measures to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. It reduces fish stocks, lowers local catches and harms the marine environment.
- Establishing networks of marine parks/ocean sanctuaries in which/near which activities like building and mining are prohibited.
- The UN High Seas Treaty coming into effect, hopefully in 2020. (High seas refers to waters between/beyond national boundaries). It would pave the way to protect at least 30% of the world’s ocean by 2030.
Find updates on progress (or lack thereof) in the articles under the “Websites and publications” heading.
Take a minute to think about the oceans
International business environment
- The African Fisheries Expert Network (Afri-Fishnet) is “a network of fisheries experts in Africa who are there to provide knowledge support and evidence-based policy recommendations to policy makers. It is a continental think-tank which uses the NEPAD/CAADP platform to influence policy reform in various African countries”. See www.afri-fishnet.org.
- The Benguela Current Commission is a multi-sectoral inter-governmental initiative of Angola, Namibia and South Africa. See www.benguelacc.org.
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Clean Seas Campaign on Marine Litter www.cleanseas.org
- Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) www.ccamlr.org
- The Committee on Fisheries (COFI) exists as a subsidiary body of the FAO (see below).
- CTA – Find the “Fisheries” option at http://agritrade.cta.int
- Deep Sea Conservation Coalition www.savethehighseas.org
- Find both “Aquaculture” and “Fisheries” under the themes option at www.fao.org, website of the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). http://www.fao.org/fisheries/en/ Download the “State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) 2016” by the FAO at www.fao.org/3/a-i5555e.pdf
- Fishing News International – www.intrafish.com/fisheries/
- GLOBAL DIALOGUE on Seafood Traceability https://traceability-dialogue.org/
- Greenpeace International www.greenpeace.org
- Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) – www.iora.net/en
- International Association of Fish Inspectors (IAFI) – www.iafi.net/
- The International Maritime Organization is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping. See www.imo.org.
- International Ocean Institute – www.ioinst.org
- Marine Stewardship Council www.msc.org Certifying sustainable fishing
- Find information on the Pan-African Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy Framework and Reform Strategy on the internet.
- Read about Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) at https://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/cfp/international/rfmo_en
- The Rockefeller Foundation runs an Oceans & Fisheries initiative. See www.rockefellerfoundation.org/our-work/initiatives/oceans-fisheries/
- South East Atlantic Fisheries Organization (SEAFO) www.seafo.org/
- Find the “One planet one ocean” option at www.unesco.org, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) website
- Find World Economic Forum reports like Ending Illegal Fishing: Data Policy and the Port State Measures Agreement at www.weforum.org..
- WorldFish is an international, nonprofit research organization that harnesses the potential of fisheries and aquaculture to reduce hunger and poverty – www.worldfishcenter.org
Find the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) at www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf. Further information can be read at www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.htm
The UN Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks sets out principles for the conservation and management of those fish stocks and establishes that such management must be based on the precautionary approach and the best available scientific information. The Agreement elaborates on the fundamental principle, established in the Convention, that States should cooperate to ensure conservation and promote the objective of the optimum utilization of fisheries resources both within and beyond the exclusive economic zone. Read more at www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_fish_stocks.htm.
The African Union declared 2015 to 2025 as the Decade of African Seas and Oceans, and the blue economy is now officially referred to as the new frontier of Africa’s Renaissance.
Some articles …
- Donnenfeld Z. 2020, January 7. “Over-exploitation of Africa’s fisheries: Not enough fish in the sea”. Daily Maverick. Available at www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-01-07-over-exploitation-of-africas-fisheries-not-enough-fish-in-the-sea/
- Reuters. 2018, November 27. “African fishing communities face ‘extinction’ as blue economy grows – experts”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/african-fishing-communities-face-extinction-as-blue-economy-grows-experts-2018-11-27
- Jarrett M.B. 2017, June 7. “Millions of Africans depend on fishing. We must stop the plunder of their oceans”. World Economic Forum. Available at www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/06/all-hands-on-deck-why-africa-must-stop-plunder-of-its-fisheries/
- FAO. 2016. “The Value of African Fisheries”. Available at www.fao.org/3/a-i3917e.pdf Earnings could be eight times higher.
- Find the 2016 report by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) “Western Africa’s missing fish: the impacts of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and under-reporting catches by foreign fleets” at www.odi.org.
- Koyana, X. 2015, July 26. “African fishing losing billions to foreign subsidies”. Eye Witness News. Available at http://ewn.co.za/2015/07/26/Global-fishing-subsidies-cause-Africa-to-lose-billions
South Africa: imports and exports
The Fish SA brochure “Fishing for a sustainable and equitable future” at http://fishsa.org provides overviews of this industry’s exports.
Local business environment
The Fish SA brochure “Fishing for a sustainable and equitable future” at http://fishsa.org provides overviews of this industry. It looks at South Africa’s export markets, and then zooms in on squid, hake, Cape horse mackerel, lobster and other species through the lens of the different affiliate associations of Fish SA.
In June 2019, South Africa declared a network of 20 new representative Operation Phakisa: Oceans Economy Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The new MPAs increases the spatial protection of South Africa’s ocean environment from the current 0.4% to 5.4% and provide a measure of protection to 90% of marine habitat types within the South African Exclusive Economic Zone. They represent seamounts, submarine canyons, volcanic pinnacles, and a variety of ecosystem types on the shelf, continental margin, and abyss in both the Indian and Atlantic oceans.
Poaching, specifically of rock lobster and abalone, remains a threat.
Livelihoods and food security in South Africa’s coastal provinces are intimately connected to small-scale fisheries. How does one balance restorative justice for communities discriminated against before 1994, be fair to established fishing companies and keep in mind sustainability levels? The Policy for the Small-Scale Fisheries Sector in South Africa (SSF policy) and the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA) and its Amendment Act provide the framework to achieve transformation whilst looking after the country’s marine resources.
The then Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DALRRD) is also is implementing Aquaculture Development Zones (ADZs) to assist in creating an enabling environment for a small scale aquaculture model and transformation strategy. Authorisations have been received for the first three, at Saldanha Bay in the Western Cape, and Qolora and Coega in the Eastern Cape (SA News, 2019). Amatikulu in KwaZulu-Natal and Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape are included in the plans.
ABALOBI, “small-scale fisher” in isiXhosa, is the name given to the mobile app suite which aims to enable small-scale fishing communities to be incorporated into information and resource networks, which include fishery monitoring, maritime safety, local development and market opportunities. Restaurants source a diversity of fish directly from small-scale fishers through the ABALOBI MARKETPLACE app, and this significantly increases a fairer price for fish sold by small-scale fishers. See http://abalobi.info.
Find the FAO’s International Guidelines on Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries [SSF Guidelines] at www.fao.org/fishery/ssf/guidelines/en and watch “FAO Policy Series: Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries” on YouTube.
Greenpeace Africa. 2019. Gutted - the fight of Kalk Bay fishers.
National strategy and government contacts
Operation Phakisa seeks to contribute about R177 billion to the economy by 2030 (compared to R54billion in 2010) and create up to one million jobs by 2030.
The ocean economy project linked to Operation Phakisa focuses on priority potential growth areas such as marine transport and manufacturing, offshore oil and gas exploration, aquaculture as well as marine protection services and ocean governance. These are deemed to have a significant GDP growth and job creation potential.
- Find the Parliamentary Monitoring Group‘s accounts “Ocean Phakisa Progress: DEFF briefing; with Deputy Minister” (24 November 2020), “Fishing Industry; DEFF response to issues raised by Small-scale and Commercial Fisheries” (27 October 2020), “Commercial Fishing organisations: Fish SA; WWF & AquaCulture” (17 June 2020), “Small-scale fisheries sustainability concerns” (4 June 2020) and “Transformation in the forestry and fisheries sectors; Challenges faced by Forestry and Fisheries branch; with Minister and Deputy Minister” (25 February 2020).
- See www.operationphakisa.gov.za. A YouTube video is available at https://youtu.be/lFjkWIjA5zE
- Find the document “Operation Phakisa: Unlocking the Economic Potential of South Africa’s Oceans” on the website.
Government role players
- Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment (DFFE) www.environment.gov.za Find “Oceans and Coasts” under “Branches” on the website.
Fish South Africa is an umbrella body that includes among its members companies like Premier Fishing, I&J and Ocean Fishing. See www.fishsa.org. Associations affiliated to Fish SA are:
- South African Squid Management Industrial Association (SASMIA) https://sapfia.org.za
- South Coast Rock Lobster Industry Association (SCRLIA)
- West Coast Rock Lobster Association (WCRLA)
- South East Coast Inshore Fishing Association (SECIFA)
- South African Deep-Sea Trawling Industry Association (SADSTIA) www.sadstia.co.za
- South African Hake Longline Association (SAHLLA) www.sahlla.co.za
- South African Midwater Trawl Association (SAMTA)
- South African Tuna Association (SATA)
- Large Pelagic Small Medium & Micro Enterprises Association (LPSMME)
- South Africa Tuna Longline Association (SATLA)
- South African Patagonian Toothfish Industry Association (SAPTIA)
- Endangered Wildlife Trust www.ewt.org.za Included it the EWT activities is the Marine and Coastal Programme (EWT-M&CP)
- Masifundise Development Trust http://masifundise.org Promotes the interests of small-scale fisheries and supporting co-operatives
- South African Association of Seafood Importers and Exporters (SAASIE) Tel: 021 422 3322
- South African Fisheries Development Fund https://fisheriesfund.co.za/en/
- Worldwide Fund for Nature South Africa (WWF SA) The oceans and marine life are a major theme for WWF SA. See information under “What we do” at www.wwf.org.za. Read about WWF-SASSI (Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative) at wwfsassi.co.za.
Training and research
- AgriSETA Tel: 012 301 5600 www.agriseta.co.za Find information on the National Certificate: Fisheries Observation: Inshore and Certificate: Fisheries Observation: Deep Sea on the website.
- Bayworld Centre for Research & Education (BCRE) www.bcre.org.za
- Durban University of Technology (DUT) Department Maritime Studies Tel: 031 373 2694 www.dut.ac.za/faculty/applied_sciences/maritime_studies/
- Nelson Mandela University (NMU) Institute for Coastal and Marine Research Tel: 041 504 2852 http://cmr.mandela.ac.za/
- Rhodes University Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science (DIFS) Tel: 046 603 8415/6 difs [at] ru.ac.za www.ru.ac.za/ichthyology
- The South African Association for Marine Biological Research (SAAMBR) incorporates uShaka Sea World, uShaka Sea World Education and the Oceanographic Research Institute. Contact them at 031 328 8222, or visit www.saambr.org.za.
- The South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB) Tel: 046 603 5800 www.saiab.ac.za SAIAB is a Research Facility of the National Research Foundation (NRF)
- The South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic Research (SANCOR) is a consultative, communicative and advisory body that represents institutions and scientists from different provinces and disciplines. Visit http://sancor.nrf.ac.za.
- The South African Research Chair in the Law of the Sea and Development in Africa is hosted by the Nelson Mandela University, funded by the Department of Science and Technology and managed by the National Research Foundation. See http://lawofthesea.mandela.ac.za.
- University of the Western Cape (UWC) International Ocean Institute Southern Africa Tel: 021 959 2301 www.uwc.ac.za and www.ioinst.org IOI-SA develops and offers capacity building and research programs that improve the sustainable livelihoods of poor and underprivileged people living in coastal areas. It falls under the Biodiversity and Conservation Biology department.
- Abagold www.abagold.com Abalone producers
- African Pioneer Marine https://africanpioneergroup.co.za/african-pioneer-marine-2/
- Alnet www.alnet.co.za Fish nets and other equipment
- AquaEco www.aquaeco.co.za Aquaculture and environmental services: planning, technical guidance, impact assessments, statutory approvals and … sustainability
- AquaFarm 028 312 4513 Seafood Wholesaler
- CapFish www.capfish.co.za International marine monitoring and fisheries consulting group
- Combined Fishing Enterprises www.comfish.co.za A fishing company
- Eastern Cape Development Corporation (ECDC) www.ecdc.co.za Aquaculture is one of the sectors targeted to increase foreign and local direct investment in the Eastern Cape.
- Enviro-fish Africa http://envirofishafrica.co.za.plesk5.glodns.net/index.php?pid=1 Consulting company
- Feike natural resource management advisors www.feike.co.za
- Goldmann Engineering http://afrigol.com Processing and packaging equipment
- Gordon’s Bay Fisheries www.capefreshfish.co.za Fish distributors
- Irvin & Johnson www.ij.co.za A fishing company
- Kaytrad www.kaytrad.co.za Fish merchants
- Marel http://marel.co.za Fish processing equipment and systems
- Oceana Group http://oceana.co.za/
- Path Plastics Co www.pathplastics.co.za Products include a range of fish bins, pallets, insulated bulk bins, containers etc.
- Premier Fishing & Brands http://premierfishing.co.za Fishing company
- Saldanha Foods South Africa Tel: 0861 083 126 www.saldanha.co.za
- Sea Harvest www.seaharvest.co.za Fishing and food business
- TerraSan www.terrasan.co.za Holds investments in the pelagic fishing,
- Umkhonto Development Solutions www.udsol.co.za Help with accessing the different financial incentives from government for Aquaculture Development and Enhancement Programme (ADEP)
- Viking Fishing Group www.vikingfishing.co.za A fishing company
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier on this page.
- African Journal of Marine Science. Find issues at www.tandfonline.com/loi/tams20.
- Find the notes on marine fish at www.aquarium.co.za/species/.
- Call the ARC’s Agricultural Engineering at 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the leaflets “Agro-processing of Marine Foods (Fish products)”.
- Find the WWF SA‘s Oceans facts and futures: Valuing South Africa’s ocean economy and Oceans facts and futures: 2018 Ocean Scorecard at www.wwf.org.za.
- Find the latest WWF-SASSI Retailer/ Supplier Participation Scheme report to ensure a sustainable seafood supply chain at www.wwf.org.za.
- Contact the Environmental Monitoring Group (EMG) for documents and DVDs like “The Sea Gives Me Hope – Artisanal fishers in changing times (2013, 4 min) – A brief look at some of the issues facing small-scale fishers and their concerns about climate change”. See www.emg.org.za.
- Benkenstein, A. 2015. “Achieving an Inclusive Blue Economy for Small-scale Fishers: Recommendations to the South African Parliament”. Governance of Africa’s Resources Programme: Policy Briefing 128. Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs.
- Daniels, A., Gutierrez, M., Fanjul G., Guerena, A., Matheson I. and Watkins, K. 2016. Western Africa’s missing fish: the impacts of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and under-reporting catches by foreign fleets. London: Overseas Development Institute. Available at www.odi.org/publications/10459-western-africas-missing-fish-impacts-illegal-unreported-and-unregulated-fishing-and-under-reporting
- Ocean & Coastal Management journal. See www.journals.elsevier.com/ocean-and-coastal-management
- Find details of the annual Fishing Industry Handbook – South Africa, Namibia & Mozambique, and the Maritime Handbook of Southern Africa Fishing Industry Handbook at www.gwarmanpublications.co.za.
- Find blogs on Agribook.Digital like “June 5: A new marker” and “The value of the African fish”.
- Fisher S. 2021, March 23. “Shell games: Unravelling the complex web around abalone poaching”. Eye Witness News. Available at https://ewn.co.za/2021/03/23/shell-games-unravelling-the-complex-web-around-abalone-poaching
- Burger S. 2021, January 18. “DEFF issues yellow alert for harmful West Coast red tide, partners prepare for red alert”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/deff-issues-yellow-alert-for-harmful-west-coast-red-tide-partners-prepare-for-red-alert-2021-01-18
- Mabuza L. 2020, August 7. “OPINION: To turn SA into a maritime powerhouse will require more women to participate”. Business Report. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/opinion/opinion-to-turn-sa-into-a-maritime-powerhouse-will-require-more-women-to-participate-dc7e7d4c-4b28-461d-943a-26a7c81df1e8
- eNCA. 2019, June 28. “Contaminated fish in the Cape Town sea”. Available at www.youtube.com/watch?v=TUuxOPtSsks&t=68s
- Arnoldi, M. 2019, May 27. “DEA declares 20 marine protected areas”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/dea-declares-20-marine-protected-areas-2019-05-27
- Reporter. 2019, April 9. “SA makes its mark in fisheries economy”. SA News. Available at www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/sa-makes-its-mark-fisheries-economy
- Booysens, J. 2019, March 8. “SA deep-sea trawling companies losing just 10% fishing quota spells catastrophe”. Business Report. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/companies/sa-deep-sea-trawling-companies-losing-just-10-fishing-quota-spells-catastrophe-19736949
- Reporter. 2018, September 28. “History made as SA’s first small-scale fisheries co-ops launched”. SA News. Available at www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/history-made-sa%E2%80%99s-first-small-scale-fisheries-co-ops-launched
- Harvey, K. 2018, July 8. “Community’s dedication helps turtles thrive”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/game-and-wildlife/community-dedication-helps-turtles-thrive
- Molewa E. 2018, June 24. “Healthy oceans mean a healthy marine economy, which SA sorely needs”. Business Day. Available at www.businesslive.co.za/bd/opinion/2018-06-24-edna-molewa-healthy-oceans-mean-a-healthy-marine-economy-which-sa-sorely-needs/
- Find the report “Lots more fish to fry if SA’s exclusive economic zone is extended” at www.businesslive.co.za/fm/features/2017-06-01-lots-more-fish-to-fry-if-sas-exclusive-economic-zone-is-extended/
- Reporter. 2017, April 13. “Keeping track of fish from sea to plate to keep illegally caught fish off store shelves”. BIZCommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/520/160515.html
- Dodds, C. 2017, February 14. “Lobster crash erodes West Coast way of life”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/628/157628.html
- Find The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020 which measures progress in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. SDG 14 is Life below water.
- Read about the Port State Measures, a binding international law and “one of the most efficient – and cost effective – ways to fight IUU fishing”, at www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/417286/icode/.
- The Eco Friendly Ocean Guide: Ways to Sustain Oceans and Sealife – “Here are some of the key things that you need to know about ocean sustainability and how you can help”.
- Read Greenpeace reports like (December 2019) In Hot Water: The Climate Crisis and the Urgent Need for Ocean Protection.
- Watch the FAO video “Take a minute to think about the oceans”.
- See also the earlier “International business environment” heading.
Some articles …
- Duong T. 2021, April 2. “Netflix’s ‘Seaspiracy’: Viewers React to Commercial Fishing Industry Exposé”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/commercial-fishing-netflix-documentary-2651331648.html
- Denny E. 2021, January 14. “100 Companies Dominate the Ocean’s Economy, Study Finds”. EcoWatch. Availabe at www.ecowatch.com/companies-dominating-ocean-economy-2649942383.html
- Nairn C. 2020, December 9. “Global Treaty Needed to Halt Deep Sea Mining, Greenpeace Investigation Concludes”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/deep-sea-mining-greenpeace-2649430652.html
- Climate Nexus. 2020, December 3. “14 Countries Commit to Ocean Sustainability Initiative”. Ecowatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/ocean-sustainability-initiative-2649122791.html
- The Economist. 2020, October 22. “Illicit fishing devastates the seas and abuses crews”. Available at www.economist.com/leaders/2020/10/22/illicit-fishing-devastates-the-seas-and-abuses-crews
- Trethewey L. 2020, June 30. “Earth’s final frontier: the global race to map the entire ocean floor”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/30/earths-final-frontier-the-global-race-to-map-the-entire-ocean-floor
- Volcovici V. 2020, June 5. “Trump opens Atlantic sanctuary to commercial fishing”. Reuters. Available at www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-environment-oceans/trump-plans-to-open-atlantic-sanctuary-to-commercial-fishing-sources-idUSKBN23C26N
- Silver J., Acton L., Campbell L. & Gray N. 2020, June 4. “How a global ocean treaty could protect biodiversity in the high seas”. The Conversation. Available at https://theconversation.com/how-a-global-ocean-treaty-could-protect-biodiversity-in-the-high-seas-139552
- McVeigh K. 2020, April 27. “Silence is golden for whales as lockdown reduces ocean noise”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/27/silence-is-golden-for-whales-as-lockdown-reduces-ocean-noise-coronavirus
- Lombrana L. 2020, April 18. “With fishing fleets tied up, marine life has a chance to recover”. IOL. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/international/with-fishing-fleets-tied-up-marine-life-has-a-chance-to-recover-46840265
- Carrington D. 2020, April 1. “Oceans can be restored to former glory within 30 years, say scientists”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/01/oceans-can-be-restored-to-former-glory-within-30-years-say-scientists
- Evans K. 2020, March 11. “‘We used to be leaders’: the collapse of New Zealand’s landmark ocean park”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/mar/11/we-used-to-be-leaders-the-collapse-of-new-zealands-landmark-ocean-park
- Rosane O. 2020, February 6. “‘A Little Shocking’: Ocean Currents Are Speeding up Significantly, Study Finds”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/ocean-currents-speeding-up-2645050924.html
- McKie R. 2020, January 25. “Race to exploit the world’s seabed set to wreak havoc on marine life”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jan/25/race-for-seabed-threat-to-oceans
- Boffrey D. 2019, October 3. “Ocean cleanup device successfully collects plastic for first time”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/03/ocean-cleanup-device-successfully-collects-plastic-for-first-time
- In Deep Water: The Emerging Threat Of Deep Sea Mining, a report by Greenpeace can be read at www.greenpeace.org/new-zealand/publication/deep-water-the-emerging-threat-of-deep-sea-mining/
- View the beautiful undersea photos by Roger Grace (Greenpeace) at www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2019/jul/23/powerful-undersea-images-photographer-roger-grace-in-pictures
- Smith, H. 2019, June 7. “‘Why replace dolphins with oil drilling?’: the battle for Greece’s marine life”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jun/07/why-replace-dolphins-with-oil-drilling-battle-for-greece-marine-life-hellenic-trench
- Rosane, O. 2019, May 31. “UK Government Adds New Marine Protected Areas Nearly 8x the Size of Greater London”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/uk-government-marine-protected-areas-2638603959.html
- Associated Press. 2019, April 14. “Seychelles president issues underwater plea to protect oceans”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/world/2019/apr/14/seychelles-president-danny-faure-underwater-plea-protect-oceans
- Taylor, M. 2019, April 4. “Campaign to save oceans maps out global network of sanctuaries”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/apr/04/campaign-to-save-oceans-maps-out-global-network-of-sanctuaries
- Carrington, D. 2019, March 4. “Heatwaves sweeping oceans ‘like wildfires’, scientists reveal: Extreme temperatures destroy kelp, seagrass and corals – with alarming impacts for humanity”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/mar/04/heatwaves-sweeping-oceans-like-wildfires-scientists-reveal
- Ocko, I. 2019, February 26. “Record-Warm Oceans: How Worried Should We Be?” EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/oceans-warming-faster-2630061947.html
- Safina, C. 2018, October 30. “Are we wrong to assume fish can’t feel pain?” The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/news/2018/oct/30/are-we-wrong-to-assume-fish-cant-feel-pain
- Carrington, D. 2018, July 26. “Almost all world’s oceans damaged by human impact, study finds”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/26/just-13-of-global-oceans-undamaged-by-humanity-research-reveals
- Kituyi M. & Thomson P. 2018, July 13. “90% of fish stocks are used up – fisheries subsidies must stop emptying the ocean”. World Economic Forum. Available at www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/07/fish-stocks-are-used-up-fisheries-subsidies-must-stop/
- Carrington, D. 2018, July 9. “One in three fish caught never makes it to the plate – UN report”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/09/one-in-three-fish-caught-never-makes-it-to-the-plate-un-report
- The Economist. 2018, July 5. “Can eco-tourism help save the ocean?” The Economist Films. Available at www.woi.economist.com/protectors-misool
- Suzuki, D. 2018, March 28. “We’re Drowning in Seas of Plastic”. EcoWatch. Available at https://www.ecowatch.com/oceans-plastic-pollution-2554131906.html
- Carrington, D. 2018, January 4. “Oceans suffocating as huge dead zones quadruple since 1950, scientists warn”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jan/04/oceans-suffocating-dead-zones-oxygen-starved
- “Precision extinction: AI-piloted drone ships take illegal fishing to new – and even more unsustainable – levels” is one of the “Ten Global Risks in Terms of Likelihood and Impact” of 2018, compiled by the World Economic Forum.
- Find “3 Ways UN Leaders Can Restore the World’s Oceans” at www.ecowatch.com/3-ways-un-leaders-can-restore-the-worlds-oceans-1882101204.html
- Busby, M. 2017, November 25. “Mexico creates vast new ocean reserve to protect ‘Galapagos of North America'”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/25/mexico-creates-vast-new-ocean-reserve-to-protect-galapagos-of-north-america
- Carrington, D. 2017, December 5. “Oceans under greatest threat in history, warns Sir David Attenborough”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/dec/05/oceans-under-greatest-threat-in-history-warns-sir-david-attenborough
- Gruby, R., Campbell, L, Fairbanks and Gray, N. 2017, November 24. “To Succeed, Large Ocean Sanctuaries Need to Benefit Both Sea Life and People”. Ecowatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/ocean-sanctuaries-sea-life-people-2512185926.html
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