The availability of food is the starting point of all life. The main issue around food is whether people can afford it, a nutritious adequate diet that makes for healthy human beings.
The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) defines food security as “A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.
Food insecurity is strongly related to unemployment and poverty. The two are justifiably linked as the first two goals of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): “No poverty” and “No hunger”.
“Food sovereignty” serves as an alternative paradigm to the current global “food security” narrative. “Food security” says nothing about where food comes from, or how and under what conditions it is produced and consumed. Food security offers little in the way of alleviating hunger, and even less for the contradictions of hunger and malnourishment in the global agri-food system.
Source: Busiso Moyo, South Africa’s new food and nutrition policy fails to address constitutional right to food (adapted).
With a child dying every six seconds because of undernourishment-related problems, hunger remains the world’s largest tragedy and scandal.
Source: former FAO Director-General, Jacques Diouf.
This is a new face of hunger. There is food on shelves but people are priced out of the market.
Josette Sheeran, said whilst head of the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP)
Food security doesn’t begin and end on the shop shelf; it starts out in the farmlands and depends on farmers who can produce at a big enough profit to justify their risk and hard work. Once farming confidence goes and younger farmers lose interest and move elsewhere, no amount of social or political engineering will turn the boat around.
Source: Roelof Bezuidenhout, Eastern Cape farmer
We are told of the great advances that have been made in ‘modern’ agriculture in the last 60 years. Yet there are more hungry and malnourished people on our planet today than in the whole history of humanity. While agricultural policies are directed towards cash crops, the income that this generates for rural people rarely covers their food needs.
The world produces more than enough calories to feed everyone, and other important issues are at stake. Social inequity, inequality, inefficiency, waste, environmental degradation and biased global economic policies are but a few. Moreover, feeding the world is not just about ensuring that there are enough calories; the quality and variety of food are equally important. It is time to start looking at food and nutrition from a different perspective: the focus should shift from food security to food sovereignty and nutrition security.
Source: Farming Matters, www.farmingmatters.org (adapted)
International business environment
Article 25.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of him and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care.” How do we improve the current global food system which fails the estimated 800 million people globally who experience food insecurity?
- The African Union (AU)/NEPAD Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Plan (CAADP) sets out Africa’s plan of action to attain food security. See www.au.int and www.un.org/en/africa/osaa/peace/caadp.shtml
- Africare – www.africare.org
- Worldwide AgriCultures Network supports efforts to build up knowledge on small-scale family farming. Visit www.agriculturesnetwork.org.
- Find the Barilla Center for Food & Nutrition (BCFN) Foundation Food Sustainabiity Index at http://foodsustainability.eiu.com/
- The Centre for Global Development (CGD) has looked at how trade affects food security in developing countries. Visit www.cgdev.org.
- Comite Permanent Inter Stat de Lutte Contre la Secheresse au Sahel (Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel – CILSS) – www.cilss.int
- The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) pages are at www.fao.org/cfs/en/. The CFS is “the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all”.
- EAT, a “science-based global platform for food system transformation”, https://eatforum.org.
- The Global Food Security Index (GFSI), developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and sponsored by DuPont, considers the three core pillars of food security-Affordability, Availability, and Quality & Safety-across 109 countries. See http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com.
- The Environmental Working Group (EWG) includes food and farming in its research e.g. see its report Feeding The World.
- Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-NET) – www.fews.net – provides world overviews.
- Development groups like Farm Africa encourage food security activity. Take a look at www.farmafrica.org.uk.
- Find the relevant themes like “Food chain crisis”, “Food loss and food waste” and “Hunger and Malnutrition” at www.fao.org, website of the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). The annual State of Food Insecurity in the World Report is put out by the FAO, and the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) is their responsibility too.
- Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) – www.fanrpan.org
- The Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) is a multilateral mechanism to assist in the implementation of pledges made by the G20 in Pittsburgh in 2009. Find updates at www.gafspfund.org.
- Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) www.gainhealth.org
- The Institute for Food & Development Policy (Food First) – www.foodfirst.org
- International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) – www.ifrc.org – responds to food crises as well as to other disasters.
- International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA) – www.ifama.org – “Your Global Food System Network”
- International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – www.ifpri.org
- Landesa Rural Development Institute – www.landesa.org
- One Acre Fund – www.oneacrefund.org
- The mission of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is “to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world”. Visit www.oecd.org.
- Oxfam GB is a development, relief, and campaigning organisation that works with others “to end extreme poverty”. Find its State of Food Insecurity (SOFI) reports. An Oxfam electronic newsletter is available. See www.oxfam.org.uk.
- ReliefWeb – www.reliefweb.int – is the global hub for time-critical humanitarian information. Updated reports on Food Security issues are included.
- Right to Food – www.righttofood.org – website relating to Jean Ziegler, a previous UN Special Rapporteur.
- The Rockefeller Foundation has run programmes like the Food Waste and Spoilage initiative. Halving post harvest loss would yield food for another one billion people, its YieldWise initiative says. See www.rockefellerfoundation.org.
- Scaling Up Nutrition http://scalingupnutrition.org/
- Sight and Life http://sightandlife.org/
- Southern African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN) – www.sarpn.org
- Wayne Roberts is an international speaker and writer on “sustainable food policy”. Take a look at http://wayneroberts.ca.
- There are regular features on food security (and food prices) at www.worldbank.org, website of the World Bank.
- The website of the World Farmers’ Organisation has information on food security. Find the “Food security” option at www.wfo-oma.com.
- The UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) – www.wfp.org, the “world’s largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger”
Each day, between 800 – 900 million people go hungry. In a world where there was not enough to go around, perhaps this could be understood. But the fact is that we already produce enough food to ensure everybody could have enough to eat. And then we essentially throw one-third of it away. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) work together to reduce food waste and loss, which reaches an astonishing 1.3 billion tonnes per year.
The UN and other international organisations announced a first-ever global standard to measure food loss and waste in 2016. Find the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard at http://flwprotocol.org.
Food waste depletes the natural resource base that underpins food production. As much as 1.4 billion hectares of land is used to produce the total amount of food that is lost and wasted. This translates to more than 100 times the area of tropical rainforest that is being cleared every year (13 million hectares), of which 80 per cent is used for agricultural expansion.
There are many solutions we can implement. Infrastructure and technology can reduce the amount of food that perishes before it reaches the market. Developed nations can support public awareness campaigns and rationalize sell-by dates and other labelling systems. Businesses can revise their criteria for rejecting produce. Consumers can minimize waste by buying only what they need and re-using leftover food.
Read about the Think Eat Save campaign at www.thinkeatsave.org.
Local business environment
Find the Quarterly Food Price Monitor at www.namc.co.za.
The right to food is entrenched in Sections 27, 28 and 35 of the Constitution.
Food security is not easy to quantify and figures differ. Statistics South Africa (Stats SA)‘s 2017 General Household Survey (GHS) sampled 21 225 households. When coming to food security, the report found that the number of households that were vulnerable to hunger decreased from 2002’s 24.2% to 10.4% in 2017. Food access problems were the most common in North West, where 36% of households had inadequate food access.
For South Africa to be food secure, food needs to be available both nationally and locally, and people have to have the means to access it – buying it, producing it or even bartering for it. Knowledge on nutrition also needs to be on-hand so that people can make informed choices about what they eat.
Across the world two billion people live with hidden hunger. In South Africa, 24% of children under the age of 5 show signs of stunting, a sure indicator of hidden hunger. Hidden hunger in children means:
- They eat enough calories to sustain life, but they don’t get enough of the crucial vitamins and minerals essential for optimal physical and mental health.
- Hidden hunger causes some 1.1 million of the 3.1 million child deaths each year.
- Ultimately they will fail at school, will never achieve their income potential, and will remain forever trapped in the poverty cycle.
Source: Bright4Africa. Visit https://twitter.com/Bright4AfricaSA and www.facebook.com/Bright4Africa-South-Africa-1904640343102878/
Food waste in South Africa
Food waste is reputed to cost the South African economy more than R61 billion annually. This is some 2.1% of the country’s GDP. Find the article “Waste to Food: PnP cutting down on food waste through innovative project” (2017, June 8) at www.bizcommunity.com.
South Africa’s agro-food system is generally fairly globally competitive (net exporter of food, earning very valuable foreign exchange), despite low levels of support, as measured by the Price Support Equivalency (PSE) measure of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We need to assess the environment we face correctly, in other words diagnose our ills and strengths properly, or we will be implementing incorrect measures.
We should … focus on enhancing our competitiveness through infrastructure support, research and development, training and skills development, proper extension, access to development finance, safety and security, labour reform and, above all, market development that create far greater access across the spectrum of enterprises in the agro-food system. If we get these right, we will create more globally competitive value chains that will create huge opportunity for new entrants to access, participate profitably and sustainably in, and provide affordable food to South Africa.
If we go the way of ill-conceived protectionist and interventionist measures, these will lead to significant food price hikes and even violent food riots, which will be extremely difficult to control. Government and business will need to find common ground on these issues. We need to debate this as a matter of urgency.
Source: Dr John Purchase, Agbiz
National strategy and government contact
The National Food and Nutrition Security Plan (NFNSP) is made up of six strategic objectives which have to look at:
- establishing a multi-sectoral Food and Nutrition Security Council to oversee alignment of policies, legislation and programmes, and coordination and implementation of programmes and services which address Food and Nutrition Security;
- establishing inclusive local food value chains to support access to nutritious affordable food;
- expanding targeted social protection measures and sustainable livelihood programmes;
- scaling up of high impact nutrition specific interventions targeting nutritionally vulnerable groups across the life cycle;
- developing an integrated communication plan to influence people across the life cycle to make informed food and nutrition decisions; and
- developing a monitoring and evaluation system for Food and Nutrition Security, including an integrated risk management system for monitoring Food and Nutrition Security related risks.
The good food production campaign, Fetsa Tlala, is part of the National Food and Nutrition Security Plan (NFNSP). Read about it in the “Emerging farmer support” chapter.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) www.daff.gov.za
- Directorate: Subsistence Farming Tel: 012 319 7331
- Directorate: Small holder Development Tel: 012 319 8495
DAFF is the Chair and Secretariat of the South African Vulnerability Assessment Committee (SAVAC) aimed at:
- Setting the national livelihoods, food and nutrition security baseline and / or status quo;
- Forecasting the likely impact of hazards and shocks on people’s livelihoods;
- Monitoring information for tracking changes over time;
- Providing guidance on different types of interventions needed in different contexts
The successful production of food cuts across other government department areas too. Some examples follow:
- Department of Rural Development and Land Reform www.drdlr.gov.za. The Recapitalization and Development Programme (RADP) is run with the objective of providing comprehensive farm development support to smallholder farmers and land reform beneficiaries. A number of other initiatives and programmes like the Animal and Veld Management Programme and the forthcoming District Agri-Parks are run with the ultimate aim of boosting food security.
- The Department of Science and Technology-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Food Security www.foodsecurity.ac.za. The CoE is co-hosted by the University of the Western Cape and the University of Pretoria.
- Department of Basic Education www.education.gov.za. The Department of Basic Education runs the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP)
- Department of Social Development www.dsd.gov.za. This is the department in charge of social grants through the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA). Almost 17 million people are reached through social grants. Contact SASSA at 012 400 2000 or visit www.sassa.gov.za. Details of district offices are available on the website.
- Departments of Trade and Industry www.thedti.gov.za. The DTI is involved in several aspects of food security e.g. co-operatives, agro-processing, import and export.
- The Department of Public Works www.publicworks.gov.za. The DPW runs the Expanded Public Works Programme through which household food security is boosted.
- Competition Commission www.compcom.co.za. Theoretically, competition keeps prices down (because the client can go elsewhere if she or he does not like your prices). Price fixing between players in the food industry is bad news for food security.
Find the article “Social protection may be the key to uplifting Africa’s poor” on www.mg.co.za. Far from being a cost, the Unicef director argues, cash grants are an investment.
All the role players in this publication!
|Abadle Abantu Tel: 072 233 1763 www.abadleabantu.co.za Agricultural development projects
ABALIMI Bezekhaya Tel/fax: 021 371 1653 http://abalimibezekhaya.org.za
Rob Small of Abalimi writes: “High-tech agriculture is not readily taken up at community level as it is capital intensive and requires a high level of skill. Based on super-technology, huge crops can be grown quickly. Food Aid organisations can channel market surplus to ensure food security. What happens, though, when there is not enough ‘free’ money to channel market surplus to the hungry?”
ACAT Tel: 033 234 4223 www.acatkzn.co.za
Help rural farmers and families to improve their quality of life – beginning with low cost food.
African Centre for Biodiversity Tel: 011 486 2701 www.acbio.org.za
African Centre for Food Security (ACFS) Tel: 033 260 5792 http://acfs.ukzn.ac.za
|Afrigrow Tel: 010 900 2058 www.afrigrow.org
Smallholder farmers trained and supply chains built for them
Agri Iphepeng Tel: 087 808 3198 / 083 265 6210 www.agristart.co.za
Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) Tel: 012 807 6686 www.agbiz.co.za
Agricultural Colleges working with the Provincial Departments of Agriculture offer basic training courses in food security. Find their details in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.
|Agricultural Research Council (ARC) The need for “sufficient, safe and nutritious food” permeates the strategic imperatives of government and therefore the goals of the ARC. Its core activities are all related to food security in some way. See www.arc.agric.za.
AgriTogo Tel: 084 703 9099 www.agritogo-farminabox.com DIY Mini Farms
Backsaver Farming Equipment Tel: 073 454 4111 www.backsaver.co.za Hand-held planters, sprayers and fertilisers for subsistence or small scale farmers
Biowatch Tel: 031 206 2954 Tel: 035 550 3148 www.biowatch.org.za
Built Environment Support Group Tel: 033 394 4980 www.besg.co.za
Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) www.bfap.co.za.
Find BFAP’s reports on its website. These include studies into the effect of the drought and food inflation expectations. The 2017-2026 Baseline Agricultural Outlook includes a food inflation overview. See pages 111 – 121.
Co-operative and Policy Alternative Centre (COPAC) Tel: 011 447 1013 www.copac.org.za
Find various relevant publications on the COPAC website like Food Sovereignty for the Right to Food: A Grassroots Activist Guide and Discussion Paper: The Right to Food and Food Sovereignty in South Africa: Challenges and Prospects.
A wealth of information on food security, food sovereignty and a challenge for there to be “integrity in the food chain”.
Economic Justice Network is a faith-based network on inter alia food security. Visit www.ejn.org.za.
e’Pap Tel: 011 726 5634 www.epap.co.za
Fighting “hidden hunger” and malnutrition
F & G Trust (Farm and Garden national trust) Tel: 021 801 9677 www.farmgardentrust.org
Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) www.fao.org Contact the South African office at 012 354 8536 or (email) FAO-ZA [at] fao.org
FoodForward South Africa Tel: 021 531 5670 https://foodforwardsa.org
Foodgardens Foundation Tel: 011 880 5956
Gift of the Givers Foundation Tel: 0800 786 911 http://giftofthegivers.org
Growing Healthy Farms Tel: 078 732 4405 https://growinghealthyfarms.org.za
HPSA Tel: 031 777 1374 www.hpsa.org.za
Human Science Research Council (HSRC) Tel: 012 302 2000 www.hsrc.ac.za
The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) released way back in 2013 found that more than half of South Africans were food insecure i.e. did not have access to enough food.
|Lindros Whole Earth Consultants Tel: 082 719 7263 http://lindros.co.za/ Watch this Youtube clip to find out about the Shaft Leadership & Agroecology Programme.
National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Marketing and Economic Research Centre (MERC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za
Find the Quarterly Food Price Monitor and Food Cost reports on the NAMC website.
Nelson Mandela University (NMU)
NMU also hosts a Research Chair in food security. Contact Prof MJ Roberts.
North-West University (NWU) School of Biological Sciences, Morogo Research Programme (MRP) Tel: 018 299 2330 Retha.VanDerWalt [at] nwu.ac.za
Strategies to reduce food-insecurity in rural settings should acknowledge Africa’s indigenous food culture. Enquire from the MRP how African vegetables are nutritionally superior to their Western counterparts.
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN)
Research projects involve individuals from the communities as field workers who are trained, and therefore we create jobs and skills within the community.
Food Security and Safety (FSS) Tel: 018 389 2568 http://natural-sciences.nwu.ac.za/food-security-and-safety/about-us
Operation Hunger Tel: 011 902 4000 www.operationhunger.co.za
Pietermaritzburg Agency for Community Social Agency Tel: 033 342 0052 www.pacsa.org.za
Find the PACSA food price reports on its website. The “Media” option on the website chronicles the latest coverage of food security and food prices.
Provincial Departments of Agriculture – details in the “Agriculture in the Provinces” chapter – have on-going Food Security Projects aimed at providing livelihood means to vulnerable communities particularly in the rural areas. These projects are also aimed at creating sustainable agricultural small-macro-medium enterprises (SMME)
Reel Gardening www.reelgardening.co.za
Siyazisiza Trust https://siyazisiza.co.za
Soil For Life Tel: 021 794 4982 www.soilforlife.co.za
South African Food Lab www.southernafricafoodlab.org
The SAFL is housed by the Food Security Initiative at Stellenbosch University.
|South African Food Sovereignty Campaign
www.safsc.org.za and www.facebook.com/safoodsovereigntySouth African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 www.entrepreneurship.co.zaThe AgriPlanner programme contributes to food availability for schools and communities. The further development of vegetable gardens builds income generation capabilities.Stellenbosch University Tel: 021 938 9098SU runs a research programme, the Food Security InitiativeStudies in Poverty and Inequality Institute (SPII) Tel: 011 832 3085 www.spii.org.zaSustainability Institute Tel: 021 881 3196 www.sustainabilityinstitute.net Thanda Agriculture Development Tel: 039 699 1253 www.thanda.orgTshikululu Social Investments Tel: 011 544 0300 www.tshikululu.org.za Uses Corporate Social Investment (CSI) funds to invest in food securityUmthati Training Project Tel: 046 637 0012 https://umthathi.org
|University of Cape Town
Division of Human Nutrition
Tel: 021 406 6235
www.humannutrition.uct.ac.zaUniversity of the Free State (UFS) Department of Agricultural Economics Tel: 051 401 2824 www.ufs.ac.za/agri-econ Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Rural Development and Extension Tel: 051 401 3765 www.ufs.ac.za/censard Disaster Management, Training and Education Centre for Africa (Dimtec) Tel: 051 401 2721 www.ufs.ac.za/dimtec University of Pretoria Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being Tel: 012 420 6149 www.up.ac.zaUniversity of the Witwatersrand Siyakhana Initiative for Ecological Health and Food Security
www.siyakhana.orgUrban Harvest Tel: 021 300 1766 http://urbanharvest.co.za
If the way to get food is to buy it, problems result when the country has a constant unemployment rate of just over 25%. For this reason, any effort to empower food gardens at home are encouraged. Visit websites of role players like www.operationhunger.co.za and www.reelgardening.co.za.
Websites and publications
The websites mentioned earlier in this chapter.
- International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). 2018. Global Food Policy Report 2018. Available at http://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/132273/filename/132488.pdf
- “A third of all food in South Africa is not consumed, but wasted, while millions of South Africans go to bed hungry every night. Find the report “Food loss and waste: facts and futures” compiled by WWF SA at http://awsassets.wwf.org.za/downloads/WWF_Food_Loss_and_Waste_WEB.pdf
- Neves, M.F. 2017. Future of The Food Business: The FACTS The IMPACTS The ACTS. 2nd Edition. New Jersey: World Scientific. Visit www.favaneves.org.Maziya, M., Mudhara, M. & Chitja, J. 2017. What factors determine household food security among smallholder farmers?: insights from Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Available at www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/8525
- Find the UFS Ideas for community food gardening projects resource at www.ufs.ac.za/supportservices/departments/service-learning-at-our-university-home/links-for-community-projects/food-garden-projects
- Find the comprehensive guide on how to start a straw bale garden in 30 days. It is over 10,000 words and includes many practical tips and advice. It can be read at www.jenreviews.com/straw-bale-garden.
- At www.daff.gov.za, under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find many publications like “Vegetables – Create a peace garden” and “Vegetables – Plan and prepare your garden”.
- Watch the South African Food Lab presentation The Future of Food: 2015-2030 in English, isiXhosa and Afrikaans on Youtube. See also Profiling Smallholder Farmers in South Africa – A Toolkit developed by the SAFL and NAMC.
- Find the latest Agricultural Outlook, done by the FAO and OECD, at www.agri-outlook.org.
- Hear the TED talks on Youtube about food waste. These include “A recipe for cutting food waste” by Peter Lehner and “A war on food waste” by Patrizia La Trecchia.
- The latest State of Food Insecurity in the World (download it at www.fao.org) looks at countries, regions and at the world as a whole.
- Carolan, MS. 2013. Reclaiming Food Security. London: Routledge. Several other publications are available under Routledge’s “Earthscan” series e.g. Competition and Efficiency in International Food Supply Chains and Food Systems Failure.
- Hauter, W. 2012. Foodopoly: The Battle Over the Future of Food and Farming in America. New York: The New Press.
- A book Surviving the global food jungle – Realities, options and strategies for South Africa was published in 2012 in collaboration with the Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz). In it, Prof Marcos Fava Neves explores the global business of food and agriculture in relation to food value chains.
- Department of Basic Education. 2011. Horticulture Manual for Schools: A guide to establish and sustain food gardens. The publication was authored by staff at ARC-VOP.
- Find blogs on www.agrihandbook.co.za that deal with food security. These include “AMCU, FAWU and Numsa to strike again for 1% pay rise”, “Eating” and “What to do about this?”
- Reporter. 2018, August 16. “How the lack of affordable vegetables is creating a billion-dollar obesity epidemic in South Africa”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/650/180630.html
- Reporter. 2018, June 14. “SA university students often go hungry”. The Citizen. Available at https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/1954421/sa-university-students-often-go-hungry/
- Erasmus, D. 2018, April 13. “Will technology end hunger?” Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/opinion/blog/letter-from-the-editor/will-technology-end-hunger/
- Steenkamp, A., Pieterse , D. & Rycroft, J. 2018, February 8. “Meeting food security needs in very poor households in the Eastern Cape: the role of own agricultural production”. Polity. Available at http://www.polity.org.za/article/meeting-food-security-needs-in-very-poor-households-in-the-eastern-cape-the-role-of-own-agricultural-production-2018-02-08
- Find the discussion on what it costs to fed a family in 2017 in the article “The rising cost of food for families in South Africa” (2017, July 19) at www.bizcommunity.com.
- Peters, S. 2017, December 7. “#GlobalFoodSecurity: Food Forward SA turns to digital solution in quest to reduce hunger”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/700/171046.html. The article gives the statistic that one third of all food produced in South Africa is eventually dumped in landfills, “shocking considering more than 14-million people go hungry in this country”.
- Ngumbi, E. 2017, December 30. “More people went hungry in Africa in 2017. But new initiatives also bore fruit”. The Citizen. Available at https://citizen.co.za/talking-point/1768930/more-people-went-hungry-in-africa-in-2017-but-new-initiatives-also-bore-fruit/
- Hodal, K. 2017, October 16. “The true cost of a plate of food: $1 in New York, $320 in South Sudan”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/oct/16/the-true-cost-of-a-plate-of-food-new-york-south-sudan-global-hunger-crisis
- Corbett, J. 2017, Nov 1. “Report: Global Food Chain Increasingly Threatened by Corporate Consolidation”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/corporations-global-food-2504858599.html A situation where the poorest stay hungry despite an oversupply of food is linked to past mergers among major companies in the agrifood sector
- Find the article by Tinashe Kapuya “Minister Zokwana’s strategic grain reserve a costly option” on www.thegreenkeeper.co.za.
- Find the interesting article “What would happen if the world suddenly went vegetarian?” on www.bbc.com.
World overviews of food insecurity are given by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-NET) – visit www.fews.net. See also the the latest annual Global Food Security Index at http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com