The availability of food is the starting point of all life. The main issue around food is whether people can afford it, a nutritious adequate diet that makes for healthy human beings.
The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) defines food security as “A situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.
Food insecurity is strongly related to unemployment and poverty. The two are justifiably linked as the first two goals of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): “No poverty” and “No hunger”.
“Food sovereignty” serves as an alternative paradigm to the current global “food security” narrative. “Food security” says nothing about where food comes from, or how and under what conditions it is produced and consumed. Food security offers little in the way of alleviating hunger, and even less for the contradictions of hunger and malnourishment in the global agri-food system.
Source: Busiso Moyo, South Africa’s new food and nutrition policy fails to address constitutional right to food (adapted).
With a child dying every six seconds because of undernourishment-related problems, hunger remains the world’s largest tragedy and scandal.
Source: former FAO Director-General, Jacques Diouf.
This is a new face of hunger. There is food on shelves but people are priced out of the market.
Josette Sheeran, said whilst head of the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP)
Food security doesn’t begin and end on the shop shelf; it starts out in the farmlands and depends on farmers who can produce at a big enough profit to justify their risk and hard work. Once farming confidence goes and younger farmers lose interest and move elsewhere, no amount of social or political engineering will turn the boat around.
Source: Roelof Bezuidenhout, Eastern Cape farmer
We are told of the great advances that have been made in ‘modern’ agriculture in the last 60 years. Yet there are more hungry and malnourished people on our planet today than in the whole history of humanity. While agricultural policies are directed towards cash crops, the income that this generates for rural people rarely covers their food needs.
The world produces more than enough calories to feed everyone, and other important issues are at stake. Social inequity, inequality, inefficiency, waste, environmental degradation and biased global economic policies are but a few. Moreover, feeding the world is not just about ensuring that there are enough calories; the quality and variety of food are equally important. It is time to start looking at food and nutrition from a different perspective: the focus should shift from food security to food sovereignty and nutrition security.
Source: Farming Matters, www.farmingmatters.org (adapted)
International business environment
Article 25.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of him and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care”, and the second of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is “End hunger”. How do we improve the current global food system which fails the estimated 800 million people globally who experience food insecurity?
- The African Union (AU)/NEPAD Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Plan (CAADP) sets out Africa’s plan of action to attain food security. See www.au.int and www.nepad.org
- AGRA (Alliance for a Green Revolution) https://agra.org
- Agriculture Market Information System www.amis-outlook.org an inter-agency platform to enhance food market transparency and policy response for food security launched in 2011 by the G20 Ministers of Agriculture
- Find the Barilla Center for Food & Nutrition (BCFN) Foundation Food Sustainabiity Index at http://foodsustainability.eiu.com/
- Bread for the World www.bread.org
- The Centre for Global Development (CGD) has looked at how trade affects food security in developing countries. Visit www.cgdev.org.
- Champions 12.3 https://champions123.org The 12th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) is Responsible Consumption and Production. Bullet point 3 calls for halving food waste and reducing food losses worldwide by 2030.
- Comite Permanent Inter Stat de Lutte Contre la Secheresse au Sahel (Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel – CILSS) – www.cilss.int
- The UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) pages are at www.fao.org/cfs/en/. The CFS is “the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all”. It is advised by the High-Level Panel of Experts (HLPE).
- Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is a group of 24 countries that have come together to help fight the world hunger crisis. See www.oecd.org/dac
- EAT, a “science-based global platform for food system transformation”, https://eatforum.org.
- EAT-Lancet Commission https://eatforum.org/eat-lancet-commission/
- The Global Food Security Index (GFSI), developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and sponsored by DuPont, considers the three core pillars of food security-Affordability, Availability, and Quality & Safety-across 109 countries. See http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com.
- The Environmental Working Group (EWG) includes food and farming in its research e.g. see its report Feeding The World.
- Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-NET) – www.fews.net – provides world overviews.
- Find the relevant themes like “Food chain crisis”, “Food loss and food waste” and “Hunger and Malnutrition” at www.fao.org, website of the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). The annual State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World report, the Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) are among the FAO’s offerings.
- Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) – www.fanrpan.org
- Food Sourcing Foundation www.foodsourcingfoundation.org
- The Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) is a multilateral mechanism to assist in the implementation of pledges made by the G20 in Pittsburgh in 2009. Find updates at www.gafspfund.org.
- Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) www.gainhealth.org
- The Institute for Food & Development Policy (Food First) – www.foodfirst.org
- International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) – www.ifrc.org – responds to food crises as well as to other disasters.
- International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA) – www.ifama.org – “Your Global Food System Network”
- International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) – www.ifpri.org
- Landesa Rural Development Institute – www.landesa.org
- Oribi Village www.oribivillage.com
- One Acre Fund – www.oneacrefund.org
- The mission of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is “to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world”. Visit www.oecd.org.
- Oxfam GB is a development, relief, and campaigning organisation that works with others “to end extreme poverty”. Find its State of Food Insecurity (SOFI) reports. An Oxfam electronic newsletter is available. See www.oxfam.org.uk.
- ReliefWeb – www.reliefweb.int – is the global hub for time-critical humanitarian information. Updated reports on Food Security issues are included.
- Right to Food – www.righttofood.org – website relating to Jean Ziegler, a previous UN Special Rapporteur.
- The Rockefeller Foundation has run programmes like the Food Waste and Spoilage initiative. Halving post harvest loss would yield food for another one billion people, its YieldWise initiative says. See www.rockefellerfoundation.org.
- Scaling Up Nutrition http://scalingupnutrition.org
- Sight and Life http://sightandlife.org/
- Solidaridad https://www.solidaridadnetwork.org An international civil society organisation “transforming economies to make them more inclusive and sustainable”
- Southern African Regional Poverty Network (SARPN) – www.sarpn.org
- There are regular features on food security (and food prices) at www.worldbank.org, website of the World Bank.
- The website of the World Farmers’ Organisation has information on food security. Find the “Food security” option at www.wfo-oma.com.
- The UN’s World Food Programme (WFP) – www.wfp.org, the “world’s largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger”
Each day, between 800 – 900 million people go hungry. In a world where there was not enough to go around, perhaps this could be understood. But the fact is that we already produce enough food to ensure everybody could have enough to eat. And then we essentially throw one-third of it away. Food waste and loss reaches an astonishing 1.3 billion tonnes per year.
- Find the Global Report on Food Crises – 2021 at www.wfp.org/publications/global-report-food-crises-2021
- Read T. 2021, April 13. “World Hunger: Key Facts and Statistics”. DeliveryRank. Available at www.deliveryrank.com/blog/world-hunger-facts-statistics
- The UN and other international organisations announced a first-ever global standard to measure food loss and waste in 2016. Find the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard at http://flwprotocol.org
- Find the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) page Technical Platform on the Measurement and Reduction of Food Loss and Waste. Available at www.fao.org/platform-food-loss-waste/en
- USDA. 2020, February 14. “USDA estimates over $161 billion of food goes uneaten annually”. Fresh Plaza. Available at www.freshplaza.com/article/9186796/usda-estimates-over-161-billion-of-food-goes-uneaten-annually/
- The UN and other international organisations announced a first-ever global standard to measure food loss and waste in 2016. Find the Food Loss and Waste Accounting and Reporting Standard at http://flwprotocol.org.
Local business environment
Unfortunately, despite the [agricultural] sector’s successful contribution to food security through the availability of food, overall growth of the economy remains low and the stark reality is that approximately half of the South African population cannot afford a basic healthy diet. Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy, 2021.
Food security is not easy to quantify and figures differ. Statistics South Africa (Stats SA)’s General Household Survey (GHS) is one source. The annual Global Food Security Index, released by The Economist and Corteva, is another. South Africa regressed from 44 (out of 113), to 70th in the food secure rankings in 2021. See https://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com.
For South Africa to be food secure, food needs to be available both nationally and locally, and people have to have the means to access it – buying it, producing it or even bartering for it. Knowledge on nutrition also needs to be on-hand so that people can make informed choices about what they eat.
- Find the Quarterly Food Price Monitor at www.namc.co.za.
- Statistics South Africa (Stats SA)’s most recent General Household Survey (GHS) can be read at www.statssa.gov.za.
- Find the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service report “Rising Food Price Inflation in South Africa Causes Concern For Consumers” for South Africa (May, 2021) on the Internet.
- Sihlobo W. 2021, October 25. “South Africa’s position in the global food security ladder”. Available at https://wandilesihlobo.com/2021/10/25/south-africas-position-in-the-global-food-security-ladder
- Staff Writer. 2021, September 26. “How food prices have changed in South Africa over the last 5 years”. Business Tech. Available at https://businesstech.co.za/news/lifestyle/523844/how-food-prices-have-changed-in-south-africa-over-the-last-5-years
- Reuters. 2021, February 17. “Hunger increases in South Africa despite Covid-19 welfare payments”. Polity. Available at www.polity.org.za/article/hunger-increases-in-south-africa-despite-covid-19-welfare-payments-2021-02-17
Across the world two billion people live with hidden hunger. In South Africa, 24% of children under the age of 5 show signs of stunting, a sure indicator of hidden hunger. Hidden hunger in children means:
- They eat enough calories to sustain life, but they don’t get enough of the crucial vitamins and minerals essential for optimal physical and mental health.
- Hidden hunger causes some 1.1 million of the 3.1 million child deaths each year.
- Ultimately they will fail at school, will never achieve their income potential, and will remain forever trapped in the poverty cycle.
Source: Bright4Africa. Visit https://twitter.com/Bright4AfricaSA and www.facebook.com/Bright4Africa-South-Africa-1904640343102878/
Food waste in South Africa
Food waste is reputed to cost the South African economy more than R61 billion annually. This is some 2.1% of the country’s GDP (CSIR, 2017).
- Majola G. 2022, May 7. “Food waste needs to be tackled systematically”. IOL. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/companies/food-waste-needs-to-be-tackled-systematically-7ce491ec-7110-42c9-a61e-6fddcfd9b38a
- Majola G. 2021, August 11. “45% of available food supply is wasted – CSIR study”. IOL. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/economy/45-of-available-food-supply-is-wasted-csir-study-17721f9c-8d12-4398-84c7-2fadc3f1439e
- Find the CSIR‘s Food Waste Prevention and Management: A Guideline for South Africa on the Internet.
- Reporter. 2020, September 30. “SA retailers commit to curb food waste”. SA News. Available at www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/sa-retailers-commit-curb-food-waste
- Reporter. 2020, September 29. “South African Food Loss and Waste Voluntary Agreement launches”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/457/208767.html
South Africa’s agro-food system is generally fairly globally competitive (net exporter of food, earning very valuable foreign exchange), despite low levels of support, as measured by the Price Support Equivalency (PSE) measure of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We need to assess the environment we face correctly, in other words diagnose our ills and strengths properly, or we will be implementing incorrect measures.
We should … focus on enhancing our competitiveness through infrastructure support, research and development, training and skills development, proper extension, access to development finance, safety and security, labour reform and, above all, market development that create far greater access across the spectrum of enterprises in the agro-food system. If we get these right, we will create more globally competitive value chains that will create huge opportunity for new entrants to access, participate profitably and sustainably in, and provide affordable food to South Africa.
Source: Dr John Purchase, Agbiz
National strategy and government contact
The National Food and Nutrition Security Plan (NFNSP) 2018-2023 is made up of six strategic objectives which have to look at:
- establishing a multi-sectoral Food and Nutrition Security Council to oversee alignment of policies, legislation and programmes, and coordination and implementation of programmes and services which address Food and Nutrition Security;
- establishing inclusive local food value chains to support access to nutritious affordable food;
- expanding targeted social protection measures and sustainable livelihood programmes;
- scaling up of high impact nutrition specific interventions targeting nutritionally vulnerable groups across the life cycle;
- developing an integrated communication plan to influence people across the life cycle to make informed food and nutrition decisions; and
- developing a monitoring and evaluation system for Food and Nutrition Security, including an integrated risk management system for monitoring Food and Nutrition Security related risks.
Source: https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/25488/and www.nutritionsociety.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/National-Food-and-Nutrition-Security-Plan-2018-2023.pdf
The national policy framework also includes the Constitution (sections 27, 28 and 35) and the National Development Plan which identifies food security and nutrition as a consequence of poverty and inequality as well as a cause..
Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) www.dalrrd.gov.za
DALRRD is the Chair and Secretariat of the South African Vulnerability Assessment Committee (SAVAC) aimed at:
- Setting the national livelihoods, food and nutrition security baseline and / or status quo;
- Forecasting the likely impact of hazards and shocks on people’s livelihoods;
- Monitoring information for tracking changes over time;
- Providing guidance on different types of interventions needed in different contexts
The successful production of food cuts across other government department areas too. Some examples follow:
- The Department of Science and Innovation-National Research Foundation Centre of Excellence (CoE) in Food Security www.foodsecurity.ac.za. The CoE is co-hosted by the University of the Western Cape and the University of Pretoria.
- Department of Basic Education www.education.gov.za. The Department of Basic Education runs the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP). Read the article “9 million children in SA depend on school feeding programmes” (2021, June 25) on www.iol.co.za.
- Department of Social Development www.dsd.gov.za. This is the department in charge of social grants through the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA). Almost 17 million people are reached through social grants. Contact SASSA at 012 400 2000 or visit www.sassa.gov.za. Details of district offices are available on the website.
- Department of Trade, Industry and Competition (the dtic) www.thedtic.gov.za. The dtic is involved in several aspects of food security e.g. co-operatives, agro-processing, import and export.
- The Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (DPWI) www.publicworks.gov.za. The DPWI runs the Expanded Public Works Programme through which household food security is boosted.
- Competition Commission www.compcom.co.za. Theoretically, competition keeps prices down (because the client can go elsewhere if she or he does not like your prices). Price fixing between players in the food industry is bad news for food security.
- Jacobs P. & Nyamwanza A. 2020, February 28. “Food for thought: Until policy meets action, hunger and poor nutrition will stalk the land”. Daily Maverick. Available at www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2020-02-28-food-for-thought-until-policy-meets-action-hunger-and-poor-nutrition-will-stalk-the-land/
All the role players on this website!
- ABALIMI Bezekhaya http://abalimibezekhaya.org.za
Rob Small of Abalimi writes: “High-tech agriculture is not readily taken up at community level as it is capital intensive and requires a high level of skill. Based on super-technology, huge crops can be grown quickly. Food Aid organisations can channel market surplus to ensure food security. What happens, though, when there is not enough ‘free’ money to channel market surplus to the hungry?”
- ACAT www.acatkzn.co.za Help rural farmers and families to improve their quality of life – beginning with low cost food.
- African Centre for Biodiversity www.acbio.org.za
- African Centre for Food Security (ACFS) http://acfs.ukzn.ac.za and https://acfs.org.za.
- Afrigrow Tel: 010 900 2058 www.afrigrowholdings.co.za Smallholder farmers trained and supply chains built for them
- Agri Iphepeng www.agristart.co.za
- Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) www.agbiz.co.za
- Agricultural Colleges working with the Provincial Departments of Agriculture offer basic training courses in food security. Find their details on the “Agricultural education and training” page.
- Agricultural Research Council (ARC) The need for “sufficient, safe and nutritious food” permeates the strategic imperatives of government and therefore the goals of the ARC. Its core activities are all related to food security in some way. See www.arc.agric.za.
- ASSET Research https://assetresearch.org.za
- Backsaver Farming Equipment www.backsaver.co.za Hand-held planters, sprayers and fertilisers for subsistence or small scale farmers
- Biowatch www.biowatch.org.za
- Built Environment Support Group www.besg.co.za
- Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) www.bfap.co.za. Find BFAP’s reports on its website. These include studies into the effect of the drought and food inflation expectations.
- Critical Food Studies https://criticalfoodstudiesconference.co.za A collaboration among universities aiming “to drive a field of critical food studies straddling humanities disciplines in SA and continentally”
- Co-operative and Policy Alternative Centre (COPAC) www.copac.org.za Find various relevant publications on the COPAC website like Food Sovereignty for the Right to Food: A Grassroots Activist Guide and Discussion Paper: The Right to Food and Food Sovereignty in South Africa: Challenges and Prospects.
- EarthRise Trust http://earthrisetrust.org.za Find “Tse leshome: the Rustler’s Valley blogs” on the Agri Handbook website.
- EATegrity www.eategrity.co.za A wealth of information on food security, food sovereignty and a challenge for there to be “integrity in the food chain”.
- Economic Justice Network is a faith-based network on inter alia food security. Visit www.ejn.org.za.
- e’Pap www.epap.co.za Fighting “hidden hunger” and malnutrition
- F & G Trust (Farm and Garden national trust) www.farmgardentrust.org
- Feed SA www.feedsa.co.za
- Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) www.fao.org Contact the South African office at 012 354 8536 or (email) FAO-ZA [at] fao.org
- Food Sourcing Foundation www.foodsourcingfoundation.org
- FoodForward South Africa https://foodforwardsa.org
- Foodgardens Foundation Tel: 011 880 5956
- Foundations for Farming www.foundationsforfarming.org
- Gift of the Givers Foundation http://giftofthegivers.org
- HelloChoice [OneFarm Share] www.hellochoice.co.za/onefarm-share/
- Human Science Research Council (HSRC) www.hsrc.ac.za
- Lindros Whole Earth Consultants http://lindros.co.za/ Watch this Youtube clip to find out about the Shaft Leadership & Agroecology Programme.
- Local Village https://localvillagefoods.com Indigenous food
- Millhouse International https://millhouse.africa micronutrient and vitamin blends
- Muslim Association of South Africa http://muslim.org.za
- National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Marketing and Economic Research Centre (MERC) www.namc.co.za Find the Quarterly Food Price Monitor and Food Cost reports on the NAMC website.
- North-West University (NWU) (i) Centre of Excellence for Nutrition (CEN) http://health-sciences.nwu.ac.za/cen Research projects involve individuals from the communities as field workers who are trained, and therefore we create jobs and skills within the community. (ii) NWU Food Security and Safety (FSS) http://natural-sciences.nwu.ac.za/food-security-and-safety/about-us
- Nutrition Society of South Africa www.nutritionsociety.co.za
- Operation Hunger https://operationhunger.org.za
- Peninsula School Feeding Association www.psfa.org.za/
- Pietermaritzburg Agency for Community Social Action – closed
- Pietermaritzburg Economic Justice and Dignity Group https://pmbejd.org.za
- Project Heal – started by Integra Trust and other partners – is a local initiative that aims to feed starving communities in South Africa. See www.integrafood.co.za.
- Provincial Departments of Agriculture – details on the “Agriculture in the Provinces” page – have on-going Food Security Projects aimed at providing livelihood means to vulnerable communities particularly in the rural areas. These projects are also aimed at creating sustainable agricultural small-macro-medium enterprises (SMME)
- Reel Gardening www.reelgardening.co.za
- Rhodes University Environmental Learning Research Centre www.ru.ac.za/elrc
- The aim of SA Harvest is “to eliminate hunger and food waste through education and the redistribution of quality surplus food”. See www.saharvest.org.
- Siyazisiza Trust https://siyazisiza.co.za
- Soil For Life www.soilforlife.co.za
- Solidaridad Southern Africa www.solidaridadnetwork.org
- South African Food Lab www.southernafricafoodlab.org The SAFL is housed by the Food Security Initiative at Stellenbosch University.
- South African Food Sovereignty Campaign
www.safsc.org.za and www.facebook.com/safoodsovereignty
- South African Institute for Entrepreneurship (SAIE) Tel: 021 447 2023 The AgriPlanner programme contributes to food availability for schools and communities. The further development of vegetable gardens builds income generation capabilities.
- Southern Africa Food Lab www.southernafricafoodlab.org
- Southern Lodestar Foundation https://lodestar.org.za
- Stellenbosch University (SU) SU runs a research programme, the Food Security Initiative
- Studies in Poverty and Inequality Institute (SPII) www.spii.org.za
- Sustainability Institute www.sustainabilityinstitute.net
- Thanda Agriculture Development www.thanda.org
- Thembalethu Development www.thembalethudev.org Agriculture And Food Security Programme
- Tshikululu Social Investments www.tshikululu.org.za Uses Corporate Social Investment (CSI) funds to invest in food security
- Umgibe Farming Organics and Training Institute https://umgibe.org
- Umthati Training Project www.umthathi.org
- University of Cape Town (i) Division of Human Nutrition www.humannutrition.uct.ac.za (ii) UCT’s Children Institute publishes the South African Child Gauge report which covers malnutrition amongst SA children who live below the poverty line. Visit www.ci.uct.ac.za.
- University of Fort Hare (UFH) Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute (ARDRI) www.ufh.ac.za/centres/ardri The food security study group initiative aims to help low-income households increase their home garden production, mainly for own consumption.
- University of the Free State (UFS) (i) Department of Agricultural Economics www.ufs.ac.za/agri-econ
- UFS (ii) Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, Rural Development and Extension www.ufs.ac.za/censard
- UFS Disaster Management, Training and Education Centre for Africa (Dimtec) www.ufs.ac.za/dimtec
- University of Pretoria Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being www.up.ac.za
- University of the Witwatersrand Siyakhana Initiative for Ecological Health and Food Security www.siyakhana.org
- Urban Harvest http://urbanharvest.co.za
If the way to get food is to buy it, problems result when the country has a constant unemployment rate of just over 25%. For this reason, any effort to empower food gardens at home are encouraged. Visit websites of role players like www.operationhunger.co.za and www.reelgardening.co.za.
Websites and publications
The websites mentioned earlier on this page.
- Find the latest Global Network against Food Crises reports at www.fightfoodcrises.net.
- Okole, B., Gordon, G., Brown, B., Pillay, B., Schoeman, C. and Godfrey, L. 2022. Improved food security in South Africa through a more circular agricultural sector. CSIR Report Number: CSIR/AAFH/AGRPR/IR/2022/0001/A. CSIR: Pretoria.
- Oribi Village, the Southern Africa Food Labs, and the Wakanda Food Incubator have joined forces in the #BridgingTheGaps challenge, to proactively address and reshape how we produce, distribute, process, and consume food. Visit www.oribivillage.com for more information on the challenge.
- International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). 2021. Global Food Policy Report 2021. Available at http://gfpr.ifpri.info.
- Gassner A, Harris D, Mausch K, Terheggen A, Lopes C, Finlayson RF, Dobie P. 2019. Poverty eradication and food security through agriculture in Africa: Rethinking objectives and entry points. Outlook on Agriculture 21 Nov 2019. https://doi.org/10.1177/0030727019888513.
- Wise TA. 2019. Eating Tomorrow: Agribusiness, Family Farmers, and the Battle for the Future of Food. New York: New Press.
- “A third of all food in South Africa is not consumed, but wasted, while millions of South Africans go to bed hungry every night. Find the report “Food loss and waste: facts and futures” compiled by WWF SA at http://awsassets.wwf.org.za/downloads/WWF_Food_Loss_and_Waste_WEB.pdf
- Hall K., Richter L., Mokomane Z. & Lake L. (eds). 2018. South African Child Gauge 2018. Cape Town: Children’s Institute, University of Cape Town. Available at www.ci.uct.ac.za/ci/child-gauge/2018
- Neves, M.F. 2017. Future of The Food Business: The FACTS The IMPACTS The ACTS. 2nd Edition. New Jersey: World Scientific. Visit www.favaneves.org.
- Maziya, M., Mudhara, M. & Chitja, J. 2017. What factors determine household food security among smallholder farmers?: insights from Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Available at www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/8525
- Find the UFS Ideas for community food gardening projects resource at www.ufs.ac.za/supportservices/departments/service-learning-at-our-university-home/links-for-community-projects/food-garden-projects
- Find the comprehensive guide on how to start a straw bale garden in 30 days. It is over 10,000 words and includes many practical tips and advice. It can be read at www.jenreviews.com/straw-bale-garden.
- Find the Chip Glennon guide to starting a garden at www.chipglennon.com/home-gardening-guide.php
- At www.dalrrd.gov.za, under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find many publications like “Vegetables – Create a peace garden” and “Vegetables – Plan and prepare your garden”.
- Watch the South African Food Lab presentation The Future of Food: 2015-2030 in English, isiXhosa and Afrikaans on Youtube. See also Profiling Smallholder Farmers in South Africa – A Toolkit developed by the SAFL and NAMC.
- Find the latest Agricultural Outlook, done by the FAO and OECD, at www.agri-outlook.org.
- The annual BFAP Baselines include a look at food availability and affordability. Find the document at www.bfap.co.za.
- Hear the TED talks on Youtube about food waste. These include “A recipe for cutting food waste” by Peter Lehner and “A war on food waste” by Patrizia La Trecchia.
- The latest State of Food Insecurity in the World (download it at www.fao.org) looks at countries, regions and at the world as a whole.
- Carolan, MS. 2013. Reclaiming Food Security. London: Routledge. Several other publications are available under Routledge’s “Earthscan” series e.g. Competition and Efficiency in International Food Supply Chains and Food Systems Failure.
- Hauter, W. 2012. Foodopoly: The Battle Over the Future of Food and Farming in America. New York: The New Press.
- A book Surviving the global food jungle – Realities, options and strategies for South Africa was published in 2012 in collaboration with the Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz). In it, Prof Marcos Fava Neves explores the global business of food and agriculture in relation to food value chains.
- Department of Basic Education. 2011. Horticulture Manual for Schools: A guide to establish and sustain food gardens. The publication was authored by staff at ARC-VOP.
- Find the reports and publications at https://champions123.org/publications/
- Find blogs on https://agribook.co.za that deal with food security. These include “AMCU, FAWU and Numsa to strike again for 1% pay rise”, “Eating” and “What to do about this?”
- Burger S. 2022, April 25. “Africa must prepare for inevitable global food crisis – AfDB”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/africa-must-prepare-for-inevitable-global-food-crisis-afdb-2022-04-25
- Lakhani N., Chang A., Liu R. & Witherspoon A. 2022, April 14. “Our food system isn’t ready for the climate crisis “. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/food/ng-interactive/2022/apr/14/climate-crisis-food-systems-not-ready-biodiversity
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- Find the interesting article “What would happen if the world suddenly went vegetarian?” on www.bbc.com.
World overviews of food insecurity are given by the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS-NET) – visit www.fews.net. See also the the latest annual Global Food Security Index at http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com
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