Stock theft is covered on the “Animal husbandry” page.

Seven out of 10 farming units experienced one or other form of crime and 37,2% of farmers experienced theft of infrastructure (Agri SA, 2019). The national farmers’ organisation places the overall agricultural crime related cost at R7, 7 billion. In addition, farmers spend some R1.9 billion on security measures in 2018 (Van Burick, 2019).

Some of the crimes may be opportunistic, but there is also evidence of organisation to the degree that the possibility of syndicates must be acknowledged (Agri SA & FSA, 2018).

The murder rate from farm attacks, in particular, has drawn much attention – or very little – depending on who you are and how you have experienced it. In the past, a farmer group took the matter to The Hague, and drew international censure against farm attacks in South Africa. This year (2019) has seen international coverage as far afield as the USA and Australia.

This is obviously an issue in agricultural circles, and it should be one beyond this. Farmers make a country food secure. It is not in a country’s interest that this sector is exposed to violent threat to the extent that people leave the sector and possible new entrants are discouraged from doing so.

Security Tips

Numerous farm attacks are prevented through early observation and detection of suspicious vehicles/persons moving in rural areas by both workers and farmers (FSA, 2018).

A number of safety tips have been passed on to farmers.

House

  • An electric perimeter fence is a good idea. Failing that, a four-foot fence to keep the dogs around the house.
  • Have security chains on the doors.
  • Don’t sleep in a place where you are visible from the outside. Security gates should be installed at the sleeping quarters inside the house as well as outside. (It goes without saying that you should have burglar-proofing and an effective alarm system).
  • Don’t go outside at night to investigate noises. Call the police or farm watch.
  • A fence, rather than a wall, around the house ensures better visibility.
  • Have a torch or two handy, preferably in a strategic place in the house.
  • Test your sirens and alarm systems regularly.
  • Have a first aid kit; know what is in it.

Dogs

  • Farmers should keep well-trained dogs on the premises, with some kept inside the house at night.
  • Pay attention to their behaviour e.g. if they become inexplicably sick, or if their behaviour is different upon your return to the house (if they are fearful or bark at a particular place).
  • On which part of the yard do they spend most of their time? The other side might well deserve some attention as it makes you vulnerable.

Labour

  • Good relations and communication with farm workers is crucial.
  • Know every person, who his/her family is, where they come from.
  • Have copies of your workers’ identity documents.
  • Depending on your relations with them, they could be included in a farm watch system. Certainly they should be encouraged to be alert on security matters and to report anything unusual – alien motor cars, strangers on the farm etc. Reward your workers for useful hints and information.
  • Be aware of unusual behaviour and activity on their part especially if you have just hired or retrenched somebody e.g. if they vacate their posts without any reason.

Phones

  • Cellphones should have the telephone numbers of the police and farm watch keyed in for easy access during an emergency.

Equipment

  • Keys should be carefully controlled to prevent their duplication. Remove all keys from all vehicles when not in use. Be aware if keys disappear or re-appear without explanation.

Money

  • Pay wages electronically.
  • Selling products for cash to the public on your farm exposes you.
  • As far as possible, avoid keeping large sums of money on the premises.

Strangers

  • Be wary of strangers who wish to buy livestock, certainly if you do not sell livestock as a rule. Or they may be “looking for work”, or making enquiries about somebody who is in your employ.

Communication & Social

  • Have an emergency plan and practice it with your family so that each one of them knows what to do.
  • Let your family know what your movements are.
  • Liaise with your local police station or agricultural union on what the law allows you to do.
  • Be attentive when you hear conversations of unusual events.
  • Encourage a safety consciousness amongst your colleagues.

Farm Layout

  • Don’t plant trees or shrubs near gates. These are hiding places for perpetrators.
  • Be aware of gates that are closed when they ought to be open.

Attitude & Routine

  • Be alert at all times.
  • Vary your routine.If you have two entrances to your farm, you have the advantage.
  • It’s a good idea not going to sleep immediately after switching off the lights. Stay awake for a while.
Sources: www.agrisa.co.za; www.saps.gov.za , Kobus Visser (Agri SA) and Perpetrators of farm attacks: An Offender Profile, D Mistry & JDhlamini, 2001.

Further reading:

National strategy and government contact

Safety and security leads to increased confidence in the economy and social structures.

The National Development Plan (NDP) chapter 12 is “Building safer communities”. It sees the importance of an “integrated approach to make safety and security a reality for all South Africans in 2030”, and sets out practical measures towards this.

The Rural Safety Strategy (RSS) was developed in 2009/10 in collaboration with the South African National Defence Force (SANDF), agricultural unions and the then Department of Agriculture and Land Affairs. The South African Police Services (SAPS) launched it in 2011. The strategy requires sustained buy-in from farmers, farm workers and others living in rural areas. Many communities still run their own security arrangements.

The good partnership approach within the RSS contributes significantly to the success in terms of a pro-active approach on farm attacks. Only 5 producers who are members of organized agriculture were targeted in farm attacks the past financial year in the Free State. It could be deducted that the involvement of farming communities to participate within the RSS, by building and improving relationships with SAPS, neighbors, communities, workers/dwellers on farms; to improve communication networks through safety WhatsApp groups and radio networks; by sharing information on pro-active and preventative measures; and lastly to enable them through training workshops by both organized agriculture and SAPS as to how to act/react in emergency situations, definitely contributes to safer rural areas and farming communities in the Free State (FSA, 2018).

South African Police Services (SAPS)

Tel: 012 393 1000

Department of Justice and Correctional Services

Tel: 012 307 2000

www.justice.gov.za and www.dcs.gov.za

Stats SA

Find crime statistics on the website, www.statssa.gov.za.

Role players

Associations

  • AfriForum Tel: 086 10 200 30 afriforum.co.za and www.afriforum911.co.za
  • Agri SA Centre of Excellence: Rural Safety Tel: 012 643 3400 agrisa.co.zaThe Agri Securitas Trust Fund supports the objective of the rural Safety Strategy i.e. community involvement and participation. It works via organisations like the farmer associations who are members of provincial organisations affiliated to Agri SA. The list of approved projects and some notes on each can be found on the website – take the Agri Securitas option.
  • Business Against Crime (BAC) bac.org.zaProvincial contact details, statistics and reports can be found on the website.
  • Security Association of South Africa (SASA) sasecurity.co.zaThe largest employers association in the security sector
  • Security Industry Alliance (SIA) securityalliance.co.zaSIA is an alliance of security associations in South Africa. Members include electronic manufacturers, locksmiths, in-house security.
  • South African Intruder Detection Services Association (SAIDSA) saidsa.co.za Watchdog of the electronic security industry
  • South African National Security Employers Association (SANSEA)sansea.co.za Represents employers in the guards sector
  • South African Professional Firearm Trainers Council (SAPFTC) https://pftc.co.zaRepresent the professional firearm training industry
  • Southern Africa Agricultural Initiative (SAAI) saai.org AfriForum’s agricultural wing
  • TAU SA Tel: 012 804 8031 tlu.co.za TAU SA conducts training for members during which self-defence, legal matters, first aid and fire fighting receive priority attention and these aspects are integrated to ensure a practical protection plan. Their website has a menu option which provides statistics of farm attacks and stock theft and more. The strategic objectives of this organisation may also be found here.The TAU SA has previously drawn international attention to the unacceptably high murder rate of South African farmers.

Find the link to security associations of South Africa at www.security.co.za/associations/page

Companies

  • AlarmTecTel: 011 954 6293 alarmtec.co.za
  • Aquila Services GroupTel: 041 365 7990 aquilagroup.co.za
  • Beka SchréderTel: 011 238 0000 beka-schreder.co.za Floodlights, emergency lighting and other luminaries. Contact details of branches nationwide can be found on the website.
  • Bernhard AgenciesTel: 011 440 1309 bernhardagencies.co.za Night-vision equipment e.g. binoculars.
  • Cellsecure Holdings Tel: 012 644 1285 cellsecuregroup.com Automate and regulate your security by means of your cell phone e.g. any breach of security sends an SMSs to (up to) five numbers.
  • Defence ConceptsTel: 011 776 9043 defcon1africa.com Reinforcing windows, tyres and windscreens: protection from forced entry, natural disaster, bullet resistant etc
  • Fidelity ADT Tel: 0860 100 911 adt.co.zaFidelity ADT agreed on a partnership with Agri SA in 2019 and is providing training and integrated security systems.
  • Fortis Group Tel: 012 643 1160 fortisgroup.co.zaTraining, equipment and risk assessments done
  • HOTSURETel: 079 798 7241 https://www.facebook.com/selfdoen Monitoring systems for your vehicles, animals, house and other assets
  • Intelligence BureauTel: 010 140 1023 In addition to investigations, electronic surveillance, trip wires and other security equipment is available
  • JLinx Tel: 021 862 1066 jlinx.co.za Sensors, video surveillance and other security solutions
  • Liebenberg & Associateshttp://liebenbergassociates.com Threat and risk assessments, security system design, security awareness training etc
  • MJ Hood & Associates Tel: 011 234 7520 mjhood.co.zaSpecialist practitioners in the field of Firearm Law
  • NWET Tel: 018 065 0000 nwet.co.zaVideo surveillance
  • RTS Midland SA Tel: 061 015 0000 repeater.co.zaRTS Manufacture, Installation & Maintenance of Digital & Analogue Two Way Radio Equipment, Networks Systems, 4×4 Winches and Lattice Towers.
  • Security Hyperstore Tel: 031 207 3114 securityhyperstore.co.za
  • SmartThings smartthings.comSecurity in the home
  • Southern Sky Operations Tel: 031 579 4141 skyops.co.zaFirearms, ammunition & accessories
  • Specialised Exhibitions securex.co.zaSecurex South Africa is “Africa’s leading security and fire trade exhibition”
  • Tactical Distributors SA Tel: 012 663 1185 Self defence, security equipment
  • Uniclox Tel: 011 439 2000 Access & security solutions
  • Veld en Vlei Goeters Tel: 014 533 0810 Night vision equipment
  • WirelessAlert Tel: 021 781 0080 voicealert.co.zaand https://www.wip-tech.co.za Early intruder warning systems.

Find the link to security companies in South Africa at www.security.co.za/companies and security products at www.security.co.za/products.

Training and research

“Traditionally research and the development and building of a distinct theory of crime in rural areas has been the ‘poor [rural] cousin’ of mainstream criminology and largely ignored or neglected” (Prof A. Minnaar, UNISA)

Statutory and other

  • Crime Line SMS to 32211  Your anonymous crime tip-off line
  • CrisisOnCall Tel: 0861 57 4747 A 24-hour countrywide call-centre to deal with any crisis. One feature is the trip monitoring service which provides total peace of mind to farmers and their families when travelling back to their farms.  CrisisOnCall contributes on a monthly base to the Agri Securitas Trust Fund and thus contributes to the safety of people in the country.
  • Die Plaaswag, an App mobilises your community during emergencies and for reporting crime
  • Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority (PSIRA) Tel: 012 337 5500 Regulates the private security industry
  • South African Human Rights Council (SAHRC) Tel: 011 877 3600

Websites and publications

Visit the websites of role players listed earlier in the chapter

  • Agri SA‘s Farm security: A view from the ground draws on experience and analysis by two provincial affiliates, Kwanalu and Free State Agriculture (FSA) and provides for a worthwhile read for anyone looking into the matter.
  • Find crime statistics at www.crimestatssa.co.za.
  • The ISS Crimehub is South Africa’s “most complete source for ready-to-use information, statistics and analysis on crime and safety”. Visit https://issafrica.org/crimehub
  • Roets, E. 2018. Kill the Boer: Government complicity in South Africa’s brutal farm murders. Centurion: Kraal.
  • Kruger T., Lancaster L., Landman, K., Liebermann, S., Louw, A. & Robertshaw, R. 2016. Making South Africa Safe: A Manual for Community-based Crime Prevention.Pretoria: CSIR. Available at csir.co.za/sites/default/files/Documents/Making%20South%20Africa%20Safe.pdf
  • Minnaar, A.2016. Research, theory and a developing criminology for rural crime. Acta Criminologica: Southern African Journal of Criminology29(1). Available at https://journals.co.za/content/crim/29/1/
  • Van Zyl, C. & Hermann, D. 2011. Treurgrond – 20 jaar van plaasaanvalle in Suid-Afrika. Centurion: Kraal. [Available in English as Land of Sorrows]
  • The National Directory on Services for Victims of Violencecan be downloaded at westerncape.gov.za/general-publication/national-directory-services-victims-violence
  • Swart, L. 2003. Oorwin Plaasaanvalle. Cape Town: CLS Publishers. [Available in English as Counteract Farm Attacks]
  • Find the thesis done by Veronica Hornschuh (University of Pretoria) on farm attacks at http://upetd.up.ac.za.
  • Mistry, D. & Dhlamini, J. 2001. Perpetrators of farm attacks: An Offender Profile. Institute for Human Rights and Criminal Justice Studies.

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