- The livestock sector accounts for nearly 50% of the total value of agriculture (BFAP, 2021).
- From a food and income security point of view, animal agriculture is the primary income generator in the majority of rural areas domestically and in the developing world.
- Animal food products are a major contributor to a balanced diet because of the high biological value of their protein and significant quantities of high bioavailable minerals and vitamins.
- Animal fibre products quantitatively contribute significantly to the clothing, leather, housing and decorative industries.
- The natural resources of South Africa are far more suited to livestock farming than to growing crops (only some 11% of our soils are suitable for crops).
- The bulk of increased production and rural development will come from livestock farming.
- Livestock agricultural exports include wool, mohair, dairy products, meat, and live animals. A well-co-ordinated, efficient animal health and identification strategy is central to unlocking the value of the livestock industry (BFAP, 2021).
Source: Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Baseline 2021-2030; “Challenges for the animal science industries and profession – a strategic perspective”, a paper by Dr Heinz Meissner
Statistics for herd composition, slaughterings etc can be found on www.dalrrd.gov.za – take the “Resource Centre” and “Statistical Information” menu options. Also find the latest quarterly economic overview.
Animal husbandry: some issues
The Animal Identification Act (Act No. 6 of 2002) replaced the old Livestock Brands Act (Act No. 87 of 1962).
- It is compulsory to mark all cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.
- Owners apply for a registered identification mark from the registrar of Animal identification.
- A permanent legal mark is the first line of defence against stock theft.
Refer to the “Websites & publications” heading for Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) publications about the identification of animals in terms of Animal Identification Act (Act No. 6 of 2002). These set out information like how to register an identification mark, what is not included as an identification mark, alternative method of identification, parts on which animals must be identified etc. These are available on the Resource Centre web pages at www.dalrrd.gov.za.
Marking operator training courses are run, which cover the theory and techniques of branding, tattooing etc. Contact the Registrar of Animal Identification in this regard.
The reader is referred to the “Companies involved” heading for details of role players who supply radio frequency identity tags (RFID) and other methods of animal identification.
We might adapt the philosopher’s quote to read, “I feel therefore I am”, to increase an awareness of livestock – or living stock. Animals are sentient beings i.e. they are conscious and can feel.
Welfare codes do not negatively influence animals’ performance. In some cases, performance will be even better, giving producers a return on their money.
The producer should not have any problem with Webster’s five freedoms, adopted by professional groups including veterinarians, the World Organisation for Animal Health and animal welfare organisations:
- freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition
- freedom from discomfort
- freedom from pain, injury or disease
- freedom to express normal behaviour
- freedom from fear and distress
How far the science of animal husbandry has evolved has everything to do with how well we blend profitable livestock farming with those listed freedoms.
Codes of Practice and National Standards
Several South African National Standards (SANS) and Codes of Practice setting out the minimum requirements for the relevant sectors (e.g. the poultry, feedlot etc) have been drawn up. These include:
- The South African Code of Practice – Pullet Rearing and Table Egg Production (ii) The South African Code of Practice – Commercial Layers (iii) The South African Code of Practice – Broiler Production (iv) The South African Code of Practice – Breeders and Day Old Chick Production
- Code for Feedlots
- Duties and Functions of the Abattoir Manager regarding the welfare of animals
- A Guideline for the use of Prodders and Stunning Devices in Abattoirs
- SANS 994-1:2011 Ratite farming
- Code of Conduct for the Commercial Production of Ostriches
- Code of Practice for the Transport, Handling and Slaughter of Ostriches
- Code of Practice for the Handling of Livestock at Saleyards and Vending Sites
- SANS 1469:2014: Humane handling and facilities for the protection of livestock at shows, auction sales, vending sites and livestock pounds
- Code of Practice for the Handling and Transport of Livestock
- SANS 1488:2014: Humane transportation of livestock by road
- SANS 1478:2016: Pig welfare
- SANS 1694:2018: The Welfare of Dairy Cattle
Interested parties can purchase copies of national standards from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) at 012 428 6102 or on www.sabs.co.za. Many of the Codes of Practice can be found on websites like those of the NSPCA www.nspca.co.za and Livestock Welfare Co-ordinating Committee, www.lwcc.org.za. Read about codes under development on the LWCC website.
Standards also exist which apply to the microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs, and to stock remedies.
Find separate page in the Issues section.
Refer to the “Wildlife on farms” page.
Relevant legislation here is the Stock Theft Act 1959 (Act no. 57 of 1959) and Stock Theft Amended Act 28 of 1990. Find statistics for stock theft on www.redmeatsa.co.za. Find information and notes at www.stocktheftprevent.co.za and www.rpo.co.za.
Stock-theft hampers the profitability of the stock farmer. It also interferes with the Government’s land reforming process and the empowering of the emerging farmers. For each stock-theft incident at a commercial farm, three similar incidents take place amongst emerging farmers. What makes it worse is that many emerging farmers suffer a total loss of stock – kraals are literally emptied. These farmers have to resort to other means to care for their families and to make a living.
Stock theft has become a business and there are clear indications of syndicate involvement. The days when a sizable portion of stock theft was ascribed to “pot slaughtering” are long gone.
Stock theft has a detrimental effect on the industry and on agriculture in general. Stock theft is estimated to cost around R1.24 billion, more if the estimated unreported cases are taken into account (National Stock Theft Prevention Forum, 2019). Solving the problem will make a huge contribution to the country’s self-sufficiency.
All buyers and traders of livestock should verify ownership and refuse to accept livestock that is not branded or which is without completed Documents of identification and Certificates of Removal.
A comprehensive document, Hints for the Prevention of Stock Theft, is available from the South African Police Service’s National Stock Theft Unit. It will help livestock owners to minimise their vulnerability, and to successfully lay charges against stock thieves. The Manual for the Prevention of Stock Theft is an updated second edition, published on behalf of the National Stock Theft Prevention Forum. Find it at www.agriconnect.co.za/other-publications/ and other websites. A third document, Addendum 3: Combatting stock theft, by the RPO and NERPO, can be found at www.rpo.co.za.
- Several of livestock industry bodies like the Red Meat Producers Organisation (RPO) founded the National Stock Theft Forum. Visit www.stocktheftprevent.co.za.
- Find contact details for the various livestock industry bodies on the relevant Agribook pages.
- The Stock-Theft Unit at the South African Police Service is a role player. Contact the national office at 012 393 1196/7.
- Farmer unions like Free State Agriculture and Kwanalu (consult the “Organised agriculture” page).
- Free State Stock theft helpline: 086 199 9300 vee [at] vslandbou.co.za
Animal husbandry: useful information
Female reproductive data of our main farm animals
|Livestock type||Duration of oestrus cycle||Duration of heat||Timing of ovulation||Duration of gestation|
|Cattle||18 – 24 days||6 – 24 hours||6 – 14 hours after oestrus||278 – 290 days|
|Sheep and goats||16 – 18 days||24 – 48 hours||12 – 24 hours before end of oestrus||144 – 152 days|
|Pigs||19 – 22 days||18 – 48 hours||at end of oestrus||114 – 120 days|
|Horses||18 – 24 days||4 – 9 days||36 – 48 hours before end of oestrus||320 – 370 days|
Source: Dr Reinette Snyman, Cape Peninsular University of Technology
- The better you handle your animals, the more money they’ll earn for you. Move your animals safely and you will prevent injuries and deaths. Minimise stress on them to prevent loss in production and reproduction.
- Before you leave (or when you get to the other side), don’t let animals stand in wet, muddy kraals – they can get all sorts of diseases there, including foot rot.
- Learn how to handle individual animals so that you don’t hurt them or break their legs or horns. Don’t chase them, hit them or crowd them into small places. When loading them and there isn’t a ramp, pick them up carefully (for small stock). If you work well with your animals, they’ll become tame and manageable.
- Don’t load too many animals onto a vehicle (see the “Trailers” page). This is against the law, and you may hurt your animals – breaking bones and bruising their meat. Also, don’t put different sized animals into the same compartment.
- Animals must be able to stand up and breathe without trouble during transport. Place non-slip material on the load area to stop animals from sliding around during the trip.
- Drive carefully, especially around corners or on hills. Never brake suddenly as the animals will move forward and squash one another. Stop every few kilometres to check if the load is still okay.
- The best time to transport stock is early morning or late afternoon. This is especially so in summer. If you have to park somewhere for awhile, do so in the shade as animals get heat-stressed quite easily.
- When herding animals on foot or on horseback, don’t move too fast, especially if there are lambs, calves or pregnant animals in the flock. If you have to move them over a long distance, start early in the day so that you can rest them. Give them water along the way.
Source: The article “Handle your animals gently” by Roelof Bezuidenhout on www.farmersweekly.co.za.
The SABS National Standard Transportation of Livestock by Road and the Animals Protection Act, 71 of 1962 apply when animals are transported. Provisions include points like no animal may be transported for more than 18 hours without being offloaded and rested; and no pregnant animals may be transported. See also the Code of Practice for the Handling and Transport of Livestock.
Estimating the water required for livestock
To estimate the quantity of water required daily per animal, allow:
- 6,5 litres per day per head of sheep
- 45 litres per day per head of cattle or horses
- 90 litres per day per head of dairy cattle
- 9 litres per pig 18 litres per hundred birds (poultry)
Source: Southern Cross Industries
Associations and industry bodies
General livestock associations
Each of our livestock pages gives details of relevant associations and other role players. Associations with an involvement across the livestock spectrum include the ones listed below.
- Livestock Welfare Co-ordinating Committee (LWCC) www.lwcc.org.za
- Ruminant Veterinary Association of South Africa (RuVASA), formerly the Livestock Health and Production Group (LHPG) http://ruvasa.co.za
- The South African Council for Natural Scientific Professions (SACNASP) is sometimes drawn into debates on matters related to livestock. Visit www.sacnasp.org.za.
- South African Society for Animal Science (SASAS) www.sasas.co.za
Animal welfare role players
- Animal Voice www.animalvoice.org
- See reference to LWCC above
- National Council of SPCAs (NSPCA) www.nspca.co.za
Initially formed to ensure the welfare of food animals at the abattoirs in South Africa, the Animal Farm unit at the NSPCA inspects, researches, educates, and promotes the welfare of all animals being farmed. Its extended functions now include:
- Assisting. Practical solutions to assist farmers and at the same time uplifting the welfare of animals.
- Education. Carried out in indigent communities at arranged outreach programmes throughout the country.
- Inspections. Law enforcement – educate and then prosecute.
- Legislation. To promote, research, initiate amendments, or new legislation to enhance animal welfare.
- Reactive. Reacts and deals with accidents involving livestock, or disaster situations.
- Training. Workshops are presented to state departments, and training is given to inspectors at local societies throughout South Africa.
Small Scale Farmers
An increasing number of Government and internationally sponsored small scale individual and co-operative farming projects as well as large commercial projects for previously disadvantaged people are being established in commercial farming areas. The NSPCA has worked reactively and proactively on such projects, trying to establish where they are and visiting to make contact, give guidance and monitor. Poor administration or ignorance can lead to considerable suffering of animals and deaths.
Veterinary Services Back-Up
State Veterinary Services do not exist in certain (usually remote and impoverished) areas and in other areas, they are inadequate to cope. The NSPCA has taken on the role of outreach – to provide a veterinary service back-up. Specific outreach programmes and projects are undertaken, in addition to any reactive or response work that may be required.
The Farm Animal Unit of the National Council of SPCAs performs various workshops and lectures to relevant state departments to remind and enlighten teaching, research or production facilities on current animal welfare trends, legislation, moral and social responsibilities. If other organisations, departments, educational facilities wish to have similar workshops carriedout, please contact the NSPCA via email on nspca [at] nspca.co.za.
National strategy and government contact
The legislative framework that covers stock farming includes:
- Animal Improvement Act, 1998 (Act. No. 62 of 1998)
- Animals Protection Act, 1962 (Act No. 71 of 1962)
- Performing Animals Protection Act, 1935 (Act No. 24 of 1935), amended by Act No. 4 of 2016
- Animal Identification Act (Act No. 6 of 2002)
Several relevant standards and codes exist. See previous heading 2, “Animal husbandry: some issues”. The two general livestock National Standards which apply are:
- SANS 1469:2014 Humane handling and facilities for the protection of livestock at shows, auction sales, vending sites and livestock pounds
- SANS 1488:2014 Humane transportation of livestock by road
The National Livestock Development Strategy (NLDS) aims to enhance the sustainability of animal agriculture in South Africa across the entire production, processing and supply chain. Implementation includes establishing sector working groups, mobilising rural stock owners and keepers towards economic production, and supporting systems for the conservation of veld and livestock resources through sustainable use. Find the Livestock identification and traceability system (LITS) document on www.dalrrd.gov.za. Also available on the website is the publication Livestock Development Strategy for South Africa, (take the “Resource Centre” and “General publications” options).
The Animal and Veld Management Programme (AVMP) focuses on bringing arable and grazing land into production by providing the entire required infrastructure like fencing, boreholes, irrigation systems, cattle handling and dipping facilities, dams etcetera. In addition the AVMP supports re-greening and soil rehabilitation.
Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development
- Directorate: Animal Production
- Directorate: Animal Health
- Import and Export Permits- Animals and Animal Products
Find information about the above directorates and contact details at www.dalrrd.gov.za.
The Agricultural Research Council (ARC) offers support to farmers to improve their herds and participate in the value chain. Read about Kaonafatso ya dikgomo (KyD) and other interventions like the Nguni Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) in the ARC annual report and on its website, www.arc.agric.za.
Training and research
See the “Agricultural education and training” page, as well as the individual livestock pages.
Animal husbandry training is included in the diplomas as well as in short courses offered by Agricultural Colleges. Some of these institutions have a particular focus e.g. Grootfontein concentrates on small stock. Examples of some short courses presented at Cedara in KwaZulu-Natal are: poultry production, dairy production (basic); small-scale dairying; beekeeping (also presented in Zulu); goat production; pig production; and dairy processing. Find details of all Agricultural Colleges in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.
- AgriSETA-accredited training providers do courses in livestock production. An example is Skills for Africa whose courses have included broiler, cattle and small stock production. Find details of this provider and others at www.agriseta.co.za and in the “Agricultural education and training” chapter.
- Find out about AMT research services at www.amtrends.co.za. Speak to Johnny van der Merwe at 073 140 2698.
- Call the ARC-Animal Production at 012 672 9153 for information on training courses. These include: beef cattle management, meat cuts and processing, small stock management, pig artificial insemination, poultry production and pig production. Information can also be found at www.arc.agric.za.
- The Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) produces an annual agricultural outlook, projecting what is likely to happen (given certain assumptions) in the livestock and other agricultural sectors. Visit www.bfap.co.za.
- Read about learnerships in animal production at www.agriseta.co.za (take the “ Skills delivery” option).
- The Red Meat Research and Development Trust (RMRDT) has as CSS (cattle and small stock) focus areas like livestock theft prevention, predation management, animal health and welfare etc. . Read more at www.rmrdsa.co.za.
- Included in the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA)-accredited qualifications are titles like Assess the influence of the environment on sustainable livestock production; Apply standard animal feeding procedures; Recognise defensive behaviour in animals; Harvest animal products; Understand animal nutrition; Identify basic breeding practices for farm animals; Evaluate external animal anatomy and morphology; and Minimise risk in animal management. Find the “Qualifications and Learning Material” option at www.agriseta.co.za.
- The South African Society for Animal Science (SASAS) is an association of animal scientists who “advance animal science and promote viable animal production systems, while sustaining natural resources and the environment”. The website, www.sasas.co.za, contains scientific papers and much more.
Animal Husbandry training is included in training offered by Universities and Universities of Technology. For the complete list, consult the “Agricultural education and training” page.
For anti-predator equipment see the “Wildlife on farms” page. Providers of livestock software are listed in “Animal improvement & breeders”. For livestock weighing scales see “General farm equipment“.
- Abaserve www.abaserve.com Abattoir software
- Accelerate Design Tel: 012 657 1912 Feeders and water troughs
- Agri Shalom www.agrishalom.co.za Livestock handling solutions
- Agri-Alert www.agri-alert.co.za Anti-stock theft and GPS systems
- Agrifeed Systems www.agrifeedsystems.co.za Feed mixers
- Algar www.algar.co.za Livestock handling equipment
- Allflex SA www.allflexsa.com Visual and EID tags, microchips and other identification and monitoring solutions
- Animal Handling & Safety Equipment Services www.animalhandling.co.za Animal control poles, gloves, cages, remote injection equipment
- Antrovet http://antrovet.co.za Animal identification, animal handling and animal health products
- AXXON www.axxon.co.za Milking systems for cattle and small stock. Electronic Weighing and ID systems for all classes of stock
- Bessemer www.bessemer.co.za Poultry houses, bulk feed bins, Brandt mobile agricultural products
- BJP Supplies www.rumax.co.za Manufacturer of feed mixers, pellet machines, hammer mills and electronic scales
- Bonnox Pora-Pen www.bonnox.co.za Mobile coral
- C-Lines South Africa www.c-lines.com Pig, poultry and other farm buildings constructed
- Cango Engineering www.cango-hammermills.co.za
- CattleWatch www.cattlewatch.co.za remote monitoring / IoT solution
- Chemvet www.chemvet.co.za Chicken and pig houses
- Diamond Implements www.diamondimplements.co.za Various animal feeders and other products
- Dicla Farm and Seeds http://dicla.com Poultry equipment
- Drotsky Aktief & Agrifeed Systems www.drotsky.co.za Manufacturers of hammer mills, feed mixers, pelleting machines and other feed processing equipment
- GSI Group Africa (Pty) Ltd www.gsiafrica.co.za A variety of equipment for poultry and pig farming e.g. fans, heaters, electronic climate controls, feeders, watering systems etc.
- Havco www.havco.co.za Animal handling and feeding equipment
- Hekkies http://hekkies.co.za handling equipment for small stock
- Image X www.imagex.co.za Ultrasound scanners – for pregnancies in sheep, cattle, horses and goats
- Jarvis Products Corporation RSA www.jarvissouthafrica.co.za A complete range of equipment for the beef, sheep, pig, poultry and ostrich industry
- Kentmaster www.kentmaster.com Equipment (e.g. carcass cutting tools) for the meat industry
- Mfangano Solutions https://mfangano.co.za Recycling solutions, wood shavings for livestock bedding
- New Quip www.newquip.co.za Pig, poultry and dairy equipment
- NMR Engineering www.nmreng.co.za Animal handling and weighing equipment – scales, movable kraals, animal tilts, feeders, drinking troughs, loading ramps, clamps, portable pens, foot baths, spray dips etc.
- Pennells Tanks http://pennellstanks.co.za Water troughs
- Plantkor Tel: 060 577 8168
- POLTEK www.poltek.co.za Crates, Chicken Feeders, Chicken Drinkers, Poultry Feeders, Poultry Drinkers, Plastic Poultry Equipment, and a general range of products for the poultry industry
- Ratsbrand www.facebook.com/ratsbrand/ Livestock handling equipment
- RAU Easy Farming www.raueasy.com Immobilisers, branding and other cattle equipment
- RFID-Experts Africa www.rfid-experts.co.za
- Richard Keenan SA (Pty) Ltd www.keenansouthafrica.co.za Suppliers of Mixer Wagons and Orbital Spreaders.
- Roff Industries www.roff.co.za Feed mixers and more
- Rolo Voermengers www.rolovoermengers.co.za Feed mixers
- Safe Tag Animal Identification Systems www.safetag.co.za
- Sprayrace Africa Livestock Solutions http://sprayrace.co.za
- TADBIK UHF Animal Tags www.tadbik.com
- TAGEM www.tagem.co.za A range of animal eartags supplied for traceability
- TAL-TEC www.taltec.co.za Manufacturer of cattle and sheep handling equipment
- Technilamp www.technilamp.co.za “Infrared Lamps Key in Profitable Livestock Care”
- Top Canvas www.topcanvas.co.za/cow_jack.aspx “An innovative way to get that ‘down’ cow up in a jiffy”
- Trogtek www.trogtek.co.za Feed and water cribs
- Van Zyl Staalwerke www.vanzylstaal.co.za Feed mixers and feeding troughs
- VentGrow http://ventgrow.co.za/technology/ RFID Readers for livestock management
- Vision Cattlequip www.visioncattlequip.com Animal handling equipment
- W & W Krippe www.krippe.co.za Feed and water troughs, feeding rings
- Whole Concepts www.nosering.co.za NoseRings® for weaning livestock [Neusringe om Lewendehawe te speen]
- Ziehl-Abegg South Africa https://www.ziehl-abegg.com/en-za/market-segments/food-chain Fans and control engineering products
- Zoological Live Animal Suppliers www.zoosupplies.co.za Surgical tools and equipment (medical and veterinary), animal handling and other specialised equipment
Find the numerous livestock publications under “Resource centre” at www.dalrrd.gov.za. These are referred to in the individual livestock pages on this website. Some Info Paks that refer to livestock generally include:
- A number of livestock publications are available from Kejafa Knowledge Works. These include Du Pisani’s Smart Drought Management for Livestock Farmers (2019). Visit www.kejafa.com.
- Visit www.ufs.ac.za/censard and www.ufs.ac.za/animal to find University of the Free State publications and articles like The role of livestock in developing communities: enhancing multifunctionality by Prof Frans Swanepoel and Prof Aldo Stroebel.
- The South African Journal of Animal Science is the official journal of the South African Society for Animal Science. Find out more at www.sasas.co.za.
- Find Guidelines for Livestock Farming and other publications on www.nwga.co.za, website of the National Wool Growers Association.
- Find the twice-monthly ABSA Livestock report at www.absa.co.za/business/sector-solutions/agribusiness/agri-smart-insights/
- Agri Orbit puts out livestock-related magazines like VEEPLAAS and STOCKFARM. Visit www.agriorbit.com for more information.
- Find the presentation “Practical Guidelines for Integrating Conventional and Technological Methods of Combating Stock theft in South Africa” by Dr Witness Maluleke of the University of KwaZulu-Natal on stock theft (2017, September).
- Find Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) themes like “Livestock Systems” and “Livestock and the environment” at www.fao.org.
- Find information on NSF International‘s Global Animal Wellness Standards at www.nsf.org/services/by-industry/food-safety-quality/animal-feed-welfare/animal-welfare
- World Association for Animal Production (WAAP) – www.waap.it
- The African Union InterAfrican Bureau for Animal Resources – www.au-ibar.org
- The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) publications site offers detailed bibliographic data of their latest publications. Topics included are crop-livestock systems, ruminant genetics, health and feed resources, and strengthening collaboration with national agricultural research systems. www.ilri.cgiar.org.
- The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between governments designed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Visit https://cites.org.
- Compassion in World Farming, see www.ciwf.com and www.ciwf.org.uk/farmageddon/
- World Animal Protection, www.worldanimalprotection.org and www.worldanimalprotection.or.ke
- Marais S. 2021, August 6. “Decline in stock theft prevents R100 million in losses”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-news/south-africa/decline-in-stock-theft-prevents-r100-million-in-losses/
- Hans B. 2021, February 26. “Farmers sleep with one eye open as stock theft costs SA R1.4bn annually”. Business Report. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/economy/farmers-sleep-with-one-eye-open-as-stock-theft-costs-sa-r14bn-annually-29972e20-5e9d-4aed-a90c-0bed356ebd61
- Stock theft in Africa. Read the February 2020 article “Cattle rustling: from cultural practice to deadly organised crime” by the Institute of Security Studies (ISS).
- Chelin R. 2019, November 19. “Organised crime moves in on South Africa’s livestock industry”. Institute for Security Studies. Available at www.polity.org.za/article/organised-crime-moves-in-on-south-africas-livestock-industry-2019-11-19
- Dean S. 2019, November 1. “Feeding cattle during and after a drought”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/cattle/feeding-cattle-during-and-after-a-drought/
- Raats, J. 2019, May 13. “So vang jy ‘n veediefstalsindikaat” [This is how you catch a stock theft syndicate]. Landbouweekblad. Available at www.netwerk24.com/landbou/Nuus/so-vang-jy-n-veediefstalsindikaat-20190513
- Matlala, A. 2019, February 21. “R103m stock theft a year hurts Limpopo’s economy”. The Citizen. Available at https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/crime/2087632/r103m-stock-theft-a-year-hurts-limpopos-economy/
- Phillips, L. 2018, July 25. “Make more money with your livestock”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-business/agribusinesses/make-money-livestock/
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