The poultry and chicken farming industry consists of three separate sectors: (i) The day-old chick supply industry (ii) The broiler industry, and (iii) The egg industry.
Broiler chickens are raised for meat i.e. fresh, frozen or value added (e.g. chicken fingers, saucy steaklets or polony). Egg layers or dual-purpose chickens are used for the production of eggs (they are lighter in weight than broilers, and so fattening cockerels from this second category with balanced feed bought in a bag is not as economically viable as doing the same with broilers).
International business environment
The biggest chicken meat producing countries are the USA, China and Brazil. Brazil and the USA are the two biggest exporters of chicken, together accounting for about two-thirds of global chicken exports.
Sources for international information include:
- For international projections and statistics find the latest OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook document at www.agri-outlook.org.
- Find the current world production, market and trade reports at www.fas.usda.gov, the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the US Department of Agriculture. The poultry circular is at https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_poultry.pdf
- USA Poultry and Egg Export Council (USAPEEC) – www.usapeec.org
- US Poultry in South Africa http://usapoultry-rsa.co.za
- The Brazilian Poultry Association (UBABEF) and Brazilian Meat Producers and Exporters Association (ABIPECS) merged to form the Brazilian Association of Animal Protein (ABPA). Poultry is marketed under the concept “Brazilian chicken”. Find the website at www.brazilianchicken.com.br/en.
- www.thepoultrysite.com, www.poultryworld.net and the Poultry International pages at http://wattagnet.com
- The International Egg Foundation (IEC) – www.internationaleggfoundation.com
- International Poultry Council – www.internationalpoultrycouncil.org
- World Poultry Foundation – www.worldpoultryfoundation.org
- World Poultry Science Association – www.wpsa.com
South Africa: imports and exports
Poultry imports in 2018 were the highest in history at 50 000t/m (SAPA, 2019). Imports came mostly from Brazil, the USA, Argentina, Ireland and Denmark (SAPA, 2019).
Over the next decade, the Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) expects the share of imports in total consumption to continue increasing, albeit at a much slower rate than the recent past (BFAP, 2018).
African business environment
Africa, which imports nearly 83% of the food it consumes, has a real chicken and egg problem. The continent is caught between pressure from imports in some countries and an inability to meet demand in others.
Africa’s chicken crisis is an expression of overall weaknesses in its agricultural system. If Africa cannot raise its grain production it cannot expect to do well in increasing its chicken output.
The solution to Africa’s chicken crisis lies in upgrading agricultural systems overall. Here are the major limitations:
- Low-cost, high-quality feed. Expanding feed production involves investing in grain production, especially corn and soya. Research to increase efficiency and expand the range of feed sources will go a long way in helping to upgrade overall system.
- The lack of starter stock (chicks and broilers bred specifically for meat production). Improvements in this area will require better breeding and extension programs akin to those needed for crops. Nearly 84% of chicken in Kenya is based on local breeds that have low levels of efficiency in converting feed into meat.
- Disease control. Disease control is a problem for both crop and livestock producers and requires more investment.
- Poor infrastructure (especially energy, transportation and water supply systems) is a major barrier to the expansion of chicken production, especially in rural areas. A lack of cold storage facilities forces farmers to keep feeding their chickens instead of slaughtering and refrigerating them. They generally transport live chickens to markets, which raises logistical costs and increases concerns over disease transmission.
- The lack of credit for producers. Countries that provide credit for crop producers to purchase seed and farm input have the opportunity to extend their incentives to chicken production. Most African countries lack such systems and it is unlikely that they will introduce them for poultry farming if they do not have them for crop production.
So far Africa can hardly feed its people. But even worse, it cannot feed its chickens so that it can feed its people. The chicken crisis is yet another reason why Africa must focus on getting its agricultural act together. The crisis is a warning to African leaders: they need to wake up with the chickens and act in time.
Source: excerpts from a piece written by Calestous Juma, professor of the Practice of International Development, Harvard University, at http://ewn.co.za/2016/09/21/OPINION-If-Africa-learnt-to-feed-its-chickens-it-could-feed-its-people
The SADC Secretariat and German Development Corporation‘s Profiling of the Regional Agro-Processing Value Chains in the SADC Region (March 2019) includes a look at poultry.
Local business environment
The website of the South African Poultry Association (SAPA), www.sapoultry.co.za, is a first-stop about what is happening in the country. Industry profile, statistics and other information is available.
The poultry industry, with a total value of R46 billion, is the biggest agricultural sector in South Africa (SAPA, 2018).
In addition to its contribution to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product, the South African poultry industry remains an important contributor to job creation and employment opportunities, both in the formal and informal sector, with in excess of 80% of the industry consisting of SMMEs (Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises). Chicken also remains the most affordable source of protein. How to balance the imperatives of producer and job creator vs more affordable food?
Poultry producers in South Africa have been squeezed over the past few years. Energy and feed costs, and inexpensive imports have seen producer ranks thinned. South African producers compete well on a technical basis, but fall short when costs are included, a study by BFAP and Wageningen University in the Netherlands found (BFAP, 2018). Competitors like the USA, Brazil and Argentina are net exporters of key feed materials like maize and protein meal and so have a significant advantage in the cost of feed (BFAP, 2018).
Over the next decade (2018-2027), BFAP expects prices to increase “by an annual average of just over 4%, marginally below general inflation and therefore reflecting a modest decline in real terms” (BFAP, 2018).
In 2017 an AI outbreak in the second half of the year decimated the South African layer flock. In the Western Cape, where the outbreak was most severe, more than 70% of the layer flock was culled and at aggregate national level, almost 20%.
Egg prices are projected to increase at an annual average of 5.1% over the 10-year period and to remain high relative to historic levels.
South African producers’ ability to compete with imported cuts will depend on the extent to which they are able to maximise carcass value going forward. Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) pieces represent the bulk of the domestic market, but imports of bone-in portions are likely to continue and strategies that reduce exposure in the IQF market will reduce the impact of such imports on profitability. The industry is also exploring the possibility of growing exports, a strategy that has been very successful for beef producers in recent years. In order to do so, competitiveness in the global context is critical. Source: BFAP BASELINE | Agricultural Outlook 2018-2027 pages 66, 67
- The Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Baseline 2018-2027 looks at poultry under the “Outlook for Animal Products” section. Find the document at www.bfap.co.za. BFAP has done studies like evaluating the competitiveness of the South African broiler value chain (2017), research into South Africa’s “technical and economic efficiency in the global context” (together with Wageningen University in the Netherlands) (2016) and a study into the potential impact of AGOA related concessions on US anti-dumping duties (2015).
- Find the South African Poultry Association parliamentary briefing (February 2018) at http://pmg.org.za/files/180213SAPA.pptx. It looks at issues like production, pricing, trade and the cost of the 2017 avian influenza.
- Subscribe to the newsletter from The Poultry Information Centre, which carries news, tips and technical information. Find out more at www.poultryinfo.co.za.
- Find details of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) value chain profiles, statistics and economic analyses under the “Websites and publications” heading towards the end of this chapter.
- Fairplay. 2019, April 29. “SA consumer watchdog ‘serves Brazilian chicken interests'”. Business Report. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/opinion/sa-consumer-watchdog-serves-brazilian-chicken-interests-22171402
- Van Rensburg, D & Brown, J. 2019, April 22. “Black importers join chicken fight”. City Press. Available at https://city-press.news24.com/Business/black-importers-join-chicken-fight-20190422
- Baird, F. 2019, April 10. “OPINION: Brazilian chicken producers are running scared”. Business Report. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/opinion/opinion-brazilian-chicken-producers-are-running-scared-20893039
- Lubinga, M., Nyhodo, B. & Ngqangweni, S. 2018, November. “The impact of anti-dumping duty on consumer prices of frozen bone-in chicken portion imports from the European Union”. The Trumpet. Available at www.namc.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/The-Trumpet-Issue-4-30-November-2018.pdf
- Reporter. 2018, November 9. “Agricultural safeguard levy will boost the local industry, says FairPlay”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/641/184116.html
- Reporter. 2018, August 28. “South Africa and its poultry industry boosted by landmark deal”. The Poultry Site. Available at www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/40351/south-africa-and-its-poultry-industry-boosted-by-landmark-deal/
- Kapuya, T. 2018, July 30. “Its time for Minister Rob Davies to withdraw the AGOA Poultry Rebate, and here’s the reason why…”. Available at https://tinashekapuya.com/2018/07/30/its-time-for-minister-rob-davies-to-withdraw-the-agoa-poultry-rebate-and-heres-the-reason-why/
- Sihlobo, W. 2018, July 29. “South Africa Officially Opened Its Market to Imports of American Eggs”. Available at https://wandilesihlobo.com/2018/07/29/south-africa-officially-opened-its-market-to-imports-of-american-eggs/
- Reporter. 2018, January 23. “Murky world of the imported meat industry exposed”. Bizcommunity. Available at www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/306/172556.html [Chicken from Brazil and elsewhere should not be repackaged here].
- Coombes, C. 2017, May 30. Protection of poultry industry is key to short-term survival, but not the long-term answer. Bizcommunity. Available at: www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/358/162570.html
Emerging farmer points of interest
- It is difficult for small farmers to enter into the retail supply chain, since it is looking for suppliers who can guarantee the demand at an acceptable price and quality. While some smaller producers can match the price and quality criteria, they are too small to supply the needed quantities.
- At present, emerging farmers sell their eggs to black-owned shops, spaza shops, butchers, hawkers, restaurants, hotels and to a small extent to white traders (e.g. cafes).
Future Market Growth:
- The African population represents the best market opportunities for emerging farmers.
- Distribution channels to the low-income groups need to improve and are doing so. The distribution of eggs to township spazas and door-to-door sales must be promoted.
- Catering companies, hawkers buying in bulk from producers, co-operatives, contracting and government tenders all represent possible markets.
- Many farmers do not adhere to the grading requirements as stipulated by legislation. For small-scale farmers to penetrate other markets it is important to begin following the regulations. Training in grading and packaging can open new markets for small-scale producers, especially on government tenders.
- Black-owned co-operatives could be a vehicle for penetrating the formal marketing channels in South Africa.
- Through co-operatives, the produce of farmers can ensure larger supply of quantities, create a brand name, and have “muscle” to negotiate prices on behalf of farmers. The function of the co-operative can be to look for markets for members and also assist in preparing the produce (grading and packaging) and marketing it.
- Contracting: Small-scale farmers can enter into a contract with a processing or a packaging plant, or an integrated company to supply a stipulated number of eggs or chickens at a time. This provides a steady market for the small-scale farmer.
- Supply to Consumers: Consumers can buy chickens or eggs at the farm stalls. The farmer can employ a door-to-door sales representative to take orders in the township.
- Supply to Hawkers: Eggs can be sold to hawkers on a regular basis. Since most hawkers have a transport problem, the farmer can entice them by delivering the eggs at their sheds.
- Supply to Hospitality Trade: Supply to hotels, restaurants, caterers, township bed & breakfast, guest houses and shebeens. There are many tourist initiatives and developments in the townships that need to be catered for.
- Supply to Township Cold Storage Distributors: some entrepreneurs have positioned themselves in the townships and other former black areas to distribute eggs. The concept here is “to bring the product to the consumer”, to reduce the transport constraint. Small-scale farmers can supply these distribution centres.
- Supply Through Tendering: Every year tenders from the government departments (e.g. correctional services, hospitals, etc.) are published for the supply of chickens and eggs. Small-scale farmers stand a change because of the system designed for the previously disadvantaged individuals, provided they can meet the price, quality and quantity requirements.
- Supply Mining Houses: Mines have kitchens and hospitals that are serviced by caterers (in-house or as an outsourced service. Some of these mines are now owned by black empowerment groups who can be lobbied to empower small-scale farmers. Before starting a chicken or poultry venture, check on any applicable regulations/legal considerations with your local authority or through associations listed in this chapter.
Source: the Agricultural Marketing Extension Training Paper 9 at www.daff.gov.za
Before starting a chicken or poultry venture, check on any applicable regulations/legal considerations with your local municipal authority. Similarly, anyone wishing to start a poultry abattoir should know that there are legal, health and safety requirements to meet. Find the necessary checklists on www.daff.gov.za (under the “Branches” and “Food safety and Quality Assurance” options).
For the newcomer
Find the many guides and articles for beginners under the “Websites & publications” heading.
To make money with poultry, be prepared to work hard! Chickens must be checked, fed and given water every day. If you are farming with layers, you must collect eggs regularly.
1) Do you want to produce eggs or meat?
- Profit margins on eggs are small, but it can work if you have a good marketing strategy.
- Adding value to your eggs is one plan e.g. sell boiled eggs at a taxi rank.
- Layers will provide eggs almost every day, and after a year you can sell them for replacements
- For meat, the three ways to market are: contract growing (produce chickens for large companies), live chicken sales, and frozen chicken sales. With the last one, you will need special facilities beyond the budget of most beginners, but if you can secure a contract, then this will be worth it.
2) Where is your market? Who are the customers?
3) At what price can you sell and still make a profit?
4) Can you produce enough to secure a contract?
5) Do you have all the information you need?
- Do the premises meet your municipality’s zoning specifications?
- Do you have access to fresh water and electricity?
- Do your neighbours mind having a chicken business next door?
- Do you have space on the premises for future growth?
- Make sure any training you go for is practical
- Buy day-old chicks (rather than breeding them) and grow them up for slaughter
- Don’t raise your own chickens if you are producing eggs; it will be cheaper to buy hens that are near the stage of laying.
- Breeding day-old chicks for sale can be done if you have a large market, but otherwise leave this to the large companies who specialise in this.
- Big producers use specially selected breeds to produce on a large scale, and this is done in strictly controlled facilities that cost millions of rand. Far more suitable for smaller producers are indigenous breeds (e.g. Boschvelder) or old standard breeds like the Australorp, Potchefstroom Koekoek, Rhode Island Red or New Hampshire. These are hardier and more disease resistant. They are also ideal for the informal market and the live-chicken market.
- Feed for your chickens will be the most expensive running cost. If you buy feed along with other farmers you can negotiate a better price.
Sources: A series of articles for beginners in the April 2011 editions of Farmer’s Weekly.
One surprise in a previous BFAP Baseline was that in a time of great challenge for commercial poultry producers, small-scale production in rural areas was found to be “quite profitable whilst playing an important role in the market” (BFAP 2016, p 12). The Baseline also included the discussion “Small-scale poultry production – how small is big enough” (page 89). The document can be downloaded at www.bfap.co.za.
Samuel and Zoleka Joka run one of the successful small-scale broiler operation in Bumbane village, on the outskirts of Keiskammahoek. Below are some of the points included in the advice given by the Jokas and Fumanekile Ngqokweni, the extension officer:
- Success is linked to the ability to access start-up capital and skill to grow broilers successfully.
- The new farmer has to renovate or build adequate facilities, buy equipment (e.g. heaters, self-feeders, drinking pans, sawdust), feed and chicks. This is quite a capital outlay before you get anything back.
- Samuel stressed the importance of training
- He advises beginners to start small – say 50 chicks – and build volume with experience, thereby minimising the risk of initial failure
- Disease control is vital. Growers can radically decrease the probability of disease through correct management e.g. ensure clean water and watch the general cleanliness of production areas (disease can spread through contaminated drinking water, food and chicken waste).
- Before a new batch of chickens is introduced to the pen, clean it thoroughly and rest it for at least ten days.
- The temperature should be kept at about 30oC in the first two weeks.
- There must be significant air circulation during hot periods. During cold times, heat should be generated using heaters and infrared lamps.
- Wood shavings should be evenly distributed in the pens: this ensures cleanliness and the retention of heat. The Jokas have two structures: a large rondavel with large windows where they rear their chicks up to four weeks, after which they are transferred to a large wooden shed fitted with canvas flaps (that can be lifted) and ceiling fans to ensure circulation.
Source: Adapted from the article “Broilers transform Keiskammahoek” at www.farmersweekly.co.za.
National strategy and government contacts
- Find the list of state vets on www.sapoultry.co.za (take the “Downloads” option) or refer to the “Animal health” chapter in this book.
- Find notes on the various laws affecting poultry production at www.poultrydiseases.co.za/downloads
In the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) 2018/19 – 2020/21, poultry features in the Key Action Programmes. The intention is “to work with stakeholders and investors to unlock constraints in the poultry value chain that currently inhibit new investments, deeper localisation and inclusive growth”. Find the document at www.thedti.gov.za.
The “Poultry/Soybeans/Maize Integrated Value Chain” is the first of the ten interventions set out in the Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP). Poultry production is the largest agricultural sector. The sector is identified as one having import substitution value.
- The price of animal feeds and energy are identified as challenges, dumping and/or oversupply of imports is another. Problems around smallholder participation are identified, such as abattoirs and hatcheries not being well located for these farmers.
- The “most important intervention” is to support the domestic soybean and yellow maize industries with the aim of lowering animal feed costs. Suggestions include poultry producers receiving discounts on electricity usage, and that start-up capital incentives for solar energy be prioritised for smallholder producers.
- Outputs envisaged by APAP for the near future include: (1) A National Poultry Research and Development Programme to “design and develop alternative energy efficient poultry production systems”. (2) A National Management Plan to “develop integrated national surveillance and monitoring programmes for poultry diseases of importance (e.g. Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease)” (3) A National Poultry Training Programme involved in capacity building for rural youth in poultry production and processing; and for extension officers, state veterinarians and para-veterinarians to support newly established poultry producers.
For contact details and information on the different Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) directorates, find the “Branches” option at www.daff.gov.za. The document “Guidelines on key requirements for governments markets – bread, eggs and dairy products” can be found on the Directorate Marketing’s web pages on the DALRRD website or click here.
- International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) Tel: 012 394 3688 www.itac.org.za
- National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za
Poultry welfare is addressed by a new National Standard through the South African Bureau of Standards, set to replace the 2012 SAPA Code of Practice. In the meantime, the Animals Protection Act No 71 of 1962 applies.
- South African Poultry Association (SAPA) Tel: 011 795 9920 www.sapoultry.co.za Find the downloads for the Broiler Organisation, the Chick Producer Organisation and the Egg Organisation on the SAPA website.
- The Developing Poultry Farmer’s Organisation can be contacted at the SAPA office.
- The Poultry Disease Management Agency (PDMA) is tasked with the disease monitoring, surveillance, management, control and communication on behalf of the Poultry Producers. This agency is funded by the statutory levy paid by all the producers. See www.poultrydiseases.co.za or call 012 529 8298.
- On www.saspo.org.za find contact details of clubs/associations affiliated to the South African Show Poultry Organisation.
Training and research
- The Agricultural Colleges working with Provincial Departments of Agriculture, offer poultry courses.
- Many AgriSETA-accredited training providers offer poultry courses. Find the list at www.agriseta.co.za (under “Skills delivery” option). On the same website, read about learnerships and apprenticeships, a combination of on-the-job learning along with some theoretical training. The major part of the training can be offered on the farm.
- Agriskills Transfer Tel: 012 460 9585 www.agriskills.net AgriSETA-accredited training.
- ARC – Animal Production Institute Annetjie Loubser – 012 672 9153 / 111 www.arc.agric.za The poultry unit offers excellent training opportunities to students from tertiary institutions and those wanting to start poultry farming. It also offers facilities for research to all stakeholders in the poultry industry.
- Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Tel: 012 841 2911 www.csir.co.za A research team led by its bioscientists successfully developed a novel pasteurisation system.
- Dicla Training & Projects Tel: 083 427 1148 www.diclaprojects.com
- Dumela Poultry Solutions Jan Grobbelaar Tel: 084 567 8975 jan [at] reveal.co.za
- KwaZulu-Natal Poultry Institute (KZNPI) Tel: 064 860 0130 www.kznpi.co.za National Certificate: Poultry Production (NQF 3) – accredited with AgriSETA. Shorter poultry production courses are run in conjunction with SAPA and the KZN Department of Agriculture. Other training courses can be offered by arrangement.
- Mpofu Small Stock Training Centre Tel: 040 864 9064 A training centre in the Eastern Cape which has been instrumental in providing poultry farming skills
- NOSA Agricultural Services Tel: 087 286 9298 www.nosaagri.co.za Training and training materials.
- Poultry Information Centre Rod Simpson – 082 853 5701 www.poultryinfo.co.za An accredited facilitator and assessor with AgriSETA providing short courses on poultry
- Project Literacy runs an introduction to poultry farming for small-scale farmers. See www.projectliteracy.org.za.
- SAPA arranges training courses. These include broiler flock management, broiler breeder flock management, commercial layer management and hatchery management. Contact SAPA in connection with these. Call 011 795 9920 or find the “Training” option at www.sapoultry.co.za.
- Skills for Africa Tel: 012 379 4920 / 082 770 4262 www.skillsafrica.co.za AgriSETA accredited training.
- Stellenbosch University Department: Animal Science Tel: 021 808 4916 www.sun.ac.za/animal
- University of the Free State (UFS) Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology Tel: 051 401 2676 braggrr [at] ufs.ac.za, HugoA [at] ufs.ac.za
- UFS Department of Animal, Wildlife and Grassland Sciences Tel: 051 401 2211
- UFS Paradys Experimental Farm Tel: 051 443 9011
- University of KwaZulu-Natal (PMB) Animal & Poultry Sciences Tel: 033 260 5808 www.ukzn.ac.za
- University of Pretoria (UP) Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development Tel: 012 420 3251
- UP Animal and Wildlife Sciences Tel: 012 420 4018
- UP Production Animal Studies: Poultry Reference Centre Tel: 012 529 8224 Contract and academic research is done on poultry diseases. Small-scale farmer projects are run.
- UP Faculty of Veterinary Science Department of Production Animal Studies Tel: 012 529 8013 www.veterinary.up.ac.za The Research Chair in Poultry Health and Production is housed here.
Equipment and inputs
- Afri Foam Tel: 082 452 5800 www.polyurethane.co.za
- Agri Bio Equipment and Solutions Tel: 021 979 3180 www.agribio.co.za
- Avimune Edms Bpk Tel: 0860 222 284 http://avimune.co.za
- Avipharm Tel: 033 342 7041/ 2 http://avipharm.co.za
- Bessemer Tel: 011 762 5341/2 www.bessemer.co.za
- Big Dutchman SA Pty Ltd Tel: 011 452 1154 www.bigdutchman.co.za
- Biomin Animal Nutrition Tel: 018 468 1455 www.biomin.net
- Bupo Animal Health Tel: 012 803 4376 www.bupo.co.za
- Chemvet Tel: 011 437 9000 www.chemvet.co.za
- Chicken Shack Agencies Tel: 012 669 9908 www.chickenshack.co.za
- Combustion Technology Tel: 021 715 3171 www.combustiontechnology.co.za
- De Heus Feed (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 785 1575 www.deheus.co.za
- Dicla Broiler Production Unit Tel: 011 662 1363/71 www.dicla.com
- DIVAC Tel: 044 874 2720 Poultry processing equipment
- Dorna Distributors Tel: 033 346 0774 dorna [at] premieronline.co.za
- Dynamic Automation Tel: 031 736 2071 www.dynamicautomation.co.za
- Easyhatch Incubators Tel: 011 051 9386 www.easyhatch.co.za Incubators
- Echo Coldrooms Tel: 012 803 9490 www.echocoldrooms.co.za
- Eskom supplies a Small Scale Broiler Production Unit and also offer an energy advisory service. Find contact details in the “Energy” chapter.
- GSI Group Africa (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 794 4455 www.gsiafrica.co.za
- JF Equipment Machinery Tel: 011 760 3494 www.jfequipment.com
- John F Marshall Tel: 011 842 7100 www.johnfmarshall.co.za
- KDC Trading Tel: 045 857 0405 www.kdctrading.co.za
- Kemklean Hygiene Systems Tel: 021 691 2211 www.kemklean.co.za/poultry.html
- Kiki Agri Tel: 083 280 8851 www.kikiagri.co.za
- Marel South Africa Tel: 011 823 6940 www.marel.co.za
- Meadow Feeds Tel: 011 991 6000 www.meadowfeeds.co.za
- New Quip Tel: 011 472 2201 www.newquip.co.za
- Peninsular Poultry Appliances Tel: 021 987 4831 www.ppa.co.za
- Plant Health Products Tel: 033 266 6130 www.plant-health.co.za The natural additive, Eco-BTI, kills fly larvae
- Pleysier Incubators Tel: 011 659 8041 www.pleysier.co.za
- Poltek Tel: 011 866 1240/2 www.poltek.co.za
- Rhino Plastics Tel: 041 451 3197 www.rhinogroupsa.co.za
- Ross Agri Services Tel: 013 665 1999 www.rossgro.co.za Consults on all aspects of the poultry industry
- Seemorelux Tel: 011 462 8730 www.seemorelux.co.za poultry lighting systems
- Sernick Tel: 056 631 0120 www.sernick.co.za
- Shavewood Tel: 084 582 6093 www.shavewood.com Wood shavings for poultry house floors
- Staalboer Tel: 082 210 0999 www.staalboer.co.za
- Super Agri Science www.superagriscience.co.za
- Surehatch Egg Incubators Tel: 021 981 9106 www.surehatch.co.za
- Diagnostic services, advice etc. is available from the Universities e.g. the Poultry Reference Centre at the University of Pretoria. The contact number there is 012 529 8224.
- Windmeul Ingenieurswerke Tel: 021 873 2427 www.windmeul.co.za
Some suppliers of chicks and breeding stock
- Abilene Poultry Tel: 082 569 1519 www.abilenepoultry.co.za
- ALFA CHICKS Tel: 012 561 1205 www.alfachicks.co.za
- Alfarming Poultry and Livestock Tel: 067 181 0969 http://alfarmpoutryandlivestock.co.za
- Boschveld Tel: 087 940 3632 www.boschveld.co.za (indigenous chickens)
- Eagles Pride Hatchery Tel: 012 808 9930 www.eaglespride.co.za
- Finchley Broiler Breeders Tel: 079 493 6785 finchley [at] nitrosoft.co.za
- Grootvlei Kuikens Tel: 056 212 7212 / 083 629 8182 www.grootvleikuikenssa.co.za
- Lufafa Hatchery Tel: 082 889 7669 / 082 908 4152 www.lufafahatchery.co.za (Limpopo)
- Kwena Chicks National Chicks Tel: 031 785 9100 www.natchix.co.za
- Opti Chicks Tel: 018 632 0336 www.optichicks.co.za
Producers and processors
Find the list of Halaal poultry dealers at www.sanha.co.za
- AFGRI Poultry – see Daybreak and Midway Chix
- Alzu Depots (Pty) Ltd Tel: 013 249 8900/1 www.alzu.co.za
- Anca Chix Tel: 043 683 1774 www.ancafoods.co.za
- Astral Operations Ltd [brands include Goldi Chicken, County Fair, Festive, Mountain Valley and Supa Star] visit www.astralpoultry.co.za.
- Boschveld Tel: 087 940 3632 www.boschveld.co.za (indigenous chickens)
- Chick Tech CC, a consultant A. Saunders
- Chubby Chick Tel: 018 293 0202 / 0035
- Cobb South Africa Tel: 031 242 8500
- Cocorico Tel: 031 785 1337
- Cold Storage Group (CSG) – see Sovereign Foods
- Country Bird Holdings is the holding company for several brands including Supreme Chicken, Spring Chicken, Sublime Chicken, Ross Africa and Nutri Feeds. Visit www.cbh.co.za and www.rclfoods.com.
- Country Fair – see Astral Operations Ltd.
- Daybreak Farms Tel: 013 661 1063 www.daybreakfarms.co.za
- Early Bird Farm Tel: 011 206 0600 www.earlybirdfarm.co.za
- Eden Rock Poultry Farm Tel: 039 835 0062 / 031 765 3281
- Eggbert Eggs Tel: 080 947 0121 www.eggberteggs.co.za
- Eikenhof Poultry Farms (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 975 0150
- Elgin Free Range Chickens Tel: 021 859 2795 www.freerangechickens.co.za
- Elite Breeding Farms – see Astral Operations
- Elkana Poultry Farm Tel: 021 874 1223
- Fair Acres Poultry Farm Tel: 011 540 6300 / 013 649 9000
- Fourie’s Poultry Farm Tel: 018 293 0202
- Free Range Chicken Co Tel: 021 975 0150 www.thefreerangechickenco.com
- Grain Field Chickens Tel: 087 940 5100 www.grainfieldchickens.co.za
- Happy Land Farm Tel: 083 495 6532 http://happylandfarm.co.za
- Heidel Eggs Tel: 013 751 3897/8 www.heideleggs.co.za
- Highveld Cooperative Tel: 018 293 0694 www.toplay.co.za
- Hyline Hatchery Tel: 011 318 2355
- Kuipers Group – see Eagles Rock Feed Mill, WW Barlet Eggs, Wolma Poultry Farm, Eggbert Eggs, and Eagles Milling
- Midway Chix Pty Ltd see AFGRI Mikon Farming Tel: 013 733 4133 http://mikonfarming.co.za
- Midlands Eggs Tel: 033 320 1003 www.midandseggs.com
- Mockford Farms Tel: 015 225 7097
- Nulaid Tel: 021 864 8600 www.nulaid.co.za Part of Quantum Foods
- Paardeberg Eiers Tel: 021 869 8414
- Quantum Foods Tel: 021 864 8600 www.quantumfoods.co.za
- Rainbow Farms (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 242 8500 www.rclfoods.com
- Rocklands Poultry – see Sovereign Foods
- Rosendal Poultry Farm Tel: 021 862 3100
- Rossgro Poultry Holdings Tel: 013 665 1999 www.rossgro.co.za
- Safe Eggs www.safeeggs.co.za – see Nulaid
- Sangiro Chickens Tel: 087 941 6474 / 012 205 1035
- Sovereign Foods Tel: 041 995 1700 www.sovereignfoods.co.za
- Supreme Poultry – see Country Bird Holdings
- Top Lay Tel: 018 293 0694 www.toplay.co.za
- Tydstroom Poultry Tel: 012 371 2961 www.tydstroom.co.za Part of Quantum Foods
- Weldhagen Eggs Tel: 012 819 8000 www.weldhagen.co.za
- Wolma Poultry Farm Tel: 013 245 4379 / 013 245 2070
- WW Bartlet Poultry Farm (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 952 9903
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter.
- Pluimvee/Poultry Bulletin – a monthly magazine issued by SAPA. Previous copies are available on their website as pdfs.
- Wethli, E., Berold, R. 2002. The Southern African Chicken Book. Juta. Available from KwaZulu-Natal Poultry Institute – 033 346 0049.
- Find the “Training” and “Resources” options at www.sapoultry.co.za for list of DVDs, publications etc.
- A Guide for Beginner Poultry Farmers – available from the ARC. Call 012 672 9153 or visit www.arc.agric.za. Numerous pamphlets for producers are also available from the ARC in Irene.
- The Free Range Chicken Farming Manual-South Africa is a farming companion for the South African farmer that wants to venture into healthy and ethical free range poultry farming in the country.Visit http://freerangechickenmanual.co.za and http://freerangechickenfarming.co.za.
- Visit www.kejafa.com for the DVD entitled “Successful Broiler Production”. A number of publications are also stocked, including: (i) Raising poultry Leonard S Mercia (ii) Raising Chickens Gail Damerow (ii) Hoenderproduksie – Braaikuikens and Chicken Production (Broilers) Dr Jean A Cilliers
- Order the A6 production Guide to Poultry Production from Landbouweekblad. Call 021 406 4962 or write to lbw [at] media24.com.
- Dicla training provides the DVD “Care for commercial layers”. Visit www.diclatraining.com.
- Several publications are available on the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development website, www.daff.gov.za. (1) Find the annual Broiler Market Value Chain Profile and Egg Market Value Chain Profile on the Directorate Marketing web pages. Take the “Annual publications” option. (2) Read reports on the poultry and egg markets under the “Branches”, “Administration” and “Statistics and economic analysis” options. (3) The excellent Training Paper on broilers and eggs is under “Resource Centre”, the “General publications” and “Agricultural Marketing Extension Training Papers” options. (4) A number of producer booklets can be found under the “InfoPaks” option: (i) Poultry – A guide to the most important poultry diseases and their management (ii) Poultry – Are my chickens healthy (iii) Poultry – Chicken care (iv) Poultry – Disease prevention in chickens (Afrikaans) (v) Poultry – Disease prevention in chickens (vi) Poultry – External parasites on chickens (vii) Poultry – Feather, skin and leg conditions (Afrikaans) (viii) Poultry – Feather, skin and leg conditions (ix) Poultry – Gut conditions in poultry (x) Poultry – Marking of poultry meat (xi) Poultry – Nervous conditions in chickens (Afrikaans) (xii) Poultry – Nervous conditions in chickens (xiii) Poultry – Newcastle disease (xiv) Poultry – Respiratory diseases in chickens (Afrikaans) (xv) Poultry – Small-scale egg production (xvi) Poultry – Diseases.
- Anyone wishing to start a poultry abattoir should know that there are legal, health and safety requirements to meet. Find the necessary checklists on www.daff.gov.za (under the “Branches” and “Agricultural production, health & food safety” and “Food safety and Quality Assurance” options).
- Find the Nation in Conversation overview of the poultry industry (Feb 2017) on YouTube www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jh4oJZniS_0
- Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the following publications, available from the ARC in Silverton: (i) Small-scale broiler house (also available in Afrikaans) (ii) Heating of broilers and broiler housing (also available in Afrikaans) (iii) Small-scale poultry housing in South Africa (iv) Agro-processingof Poultry (Chicken & Turkey).
- www.backyardchickens.com is a useful website for information on how to keep chickens.
- Subscribe to the Poultry Information Centre newsletter. Write to rod [at] poultryinfo.co.za
- Available from the SPCA: Chicken Care Booklet. Try your local branch of contact the National SPCA 011 907 3590/1/2
- Find the PDF document Keeping broiler houses tight saves money at www.eskom.co.za/sites/idm/Documents/agriculture%20poultry.pdf
- Find the Broiler Management Guide and Layer Management Guide PDFs at www.rossgro.co.za, under the Rossgro Agri Services option.
- Mnbengwa, V.. Khoza, T.M., Sotsha, K. 2018. “Value chain analysis for poultry and piggery in Gauteng Province; A case of smallholder farmers”. The Trumpet, Issue 3. Available at www.namc.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/The-Trumpet-Issue-3-24-July-2018.pdf
- Kleyn, R. 2013. Chicken Nutrition: A guide for nutritionists and poultry professionals. Santa Rosa: Context Publications.
- Bell, D. 2002. Commercial Chicken Meat and Egg Production. 5th ed. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- The monthly magazine Poultry Focus Africa. Visit www.targetmedia.co.za.
- Find the “Chickens” option at https://wikifarmer.com.
- Find the Meadow Feeds technical articles for layers, broilers and breeders at www.meadowfeeds.co.za.
- Network Reporter. 2019, May 26. “Small-scale poultry farmers graduate”. The Mercury. Available at www.iol.co.za/mercury/news/small-scale-poultry-farmers-graduate-23731745
- Wang, P. 2019, February 15. “28 Cheap And Clever DIYs For Anyone Who Raises Chicken”. Buzzfeed. Available at www.buzzfeed.com/peggy/diys-for-anyone-who-raises-chickens
- Uys, G. 2018, December 12. “Free-range chickens: Part-time farmer’s success on rented land”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/poultry/free-range-chickens-part-time-farmers-success-rented-land
- Kriel, G. 2018, November 16. “A healthy profit from pasture-raised eggs”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/poultry/healthy-profit-pasture-raised-eggs
- Reporter. 2018, October 11. “Labour to plough R800m into agriculture”. SA News. Available at www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/labour-plough-r800m-agriculture
- Dean, S. 2018, July 27. “New Chinese hatchery to produce 60 million chicks annually”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-news/world/new-chinese-hatchery-produce-60-million-chicks-annually/
- Den Hartigh, W. 2018, July 26. “Tips for better chicken house heating and ventilation”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/poultry/tips-for-better-chicken-house-heating-ventilation/
- Torsius, M. 2018, May 21. “How to handle 240 000 eggs a day”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-business/agribusinesses/handle-240-000-eggs-day/
- Nel, C. 2017, October 7. “Free-range eggs add value for commercial producer”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/poultry/free-range-eggs-add-value-commercial-producer/
- Reporter. 2017, January 26. “Securing a market for your chickens”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/poultry/securing-a-market-for-your-chickens/
- Find “Farming eggs for family and profit” at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/eggs-for-family-and-profit/
- Phillips, L. 2014, October 6. “Expert advice on feeding layer hens”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/poultry/expert-advice-on-feeding-layer-hens/
- Surehatch. 2013, July 8. “ How to start your own poultry business”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-livestock/start-your-own-poultry-business/
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