Introduction

Farmers in the 21st Century are greatly influenced by international commodity markets, the exchange rates, and the flow of produce between countries. The domestic price of commodities in most countries is very close to import parity (the landed price of an imported product) as farmers compete with each other for markets.

A growth in exports will be crucial to this country meeting its job creation goals and balancing its trade deficit (when we import more than we export).

As long as the global economic system creates countries that are better able to produce products more efficiently (and cheaper) than others, the world trade system – and exporting – will continue unabated.

Local business environment

a) The following are included in the trade agreements to which South Africa is party:

Find information on the trade agreements on websites like www.thedti.gov.za,  www.sars.gov.za, www.sacu.int and www.agbiz.co.za.

According to the UN, it is estimated that the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) will boost intra Africa trade by 53% by eliminating import duties and non-tariff barriers. This agreement is potentially poised to create an African market of more than 1.2 billion people with an economy worth US$2.5 trillion (Baker McKenzie, 2018).

 

South Africa: imports and exports

 

General

Namibia and Botswana are amongst South Africa’s most important global trading partners. When looking at intra-Africa trade, it is notable that more than 50% of that intra-trade takes place within SACU, and more than 60% takes place among the member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). South Africa is a clear driver of intra-Africa trade.

Over the past two decades, an important structural shift in South Africa’s trade relations has taken place – China has come into the picture as (now) South Africa’s most important export destination and import source (looking at individual countries rather than trade blocs such as the European Union, which remains most important).

TRALAC Newsletter, Issue 9, February 2019.

 

Agricultural

In 2018, South Africa’s agricultural exports grew by 7% y/y to US$10.6bn, a record level in a dataset starting from 2001. This was underpinned by increased exports of oranges, grapes, wine, maize, apples, wool, lemons, mandarins and pears, amongst other products.

Over the same period, imports increased marginally to US$6.7bn. The key imported products were rice, wheat, offal, palm oil, whiskey, live cattle and oilcakes for animal feed. But overall, this subsequently led to a 21% y/y increase in South Africa’s agricultural trade balance to a record US$3.9bn

From a destination point of view, the African continent (39%) and Europe (27%) continued to be the largest markets for South Africa’s agricultural exports, measured in value terms.

Asia is also an important market for South Africa’s agricultural exports, demanding a 25% export share in 2018. Wool, fruit, grains, beverages, vegetables and meat were the leading products exported to this particular region.

The Americas and the rest of the world accounted for 5% and 4% shares. Exports to these regions were also dominated by fruits, beverages, vegetables, tea, sugar and grains.

One key thing to note is that South Africa has an import substitution objective through its Industrial Policy Action Plan, but the substitution of some of the key imported agricultural products is unlikely in the foreseeable future, as South Africa does not have favourable agroecological conditions, specifically for the production of palm oil and rice.

About 23% of the overall 2018 agricultural imports were rice, wheat, offal, and palm oil.

Source: https://m.fin24.com/Opinion/wandile-sihlobo-a-record-year-for-sas-agricultural-exports-20190212-3

 

Trade data is given on www.sars.gov.za (see the “Customs and Excise” menu option). Included are overviews on the country’s trade agreements. See also www.thedti.gov.za and the web pages of the Directorate International Trade at www.daff.gov.za.

Trade terms (Incoterms)

Incoterms are standard trade definitions most commonly used in international sales contracts. Devised and published by the International Chamber of Commerce, they are at the heart of world trade.

Incoterms include:

CIFCost, Insurance and Freight
CPTCarriage paid to
DDUDelivered Duty Unpaid
EXWEx Works
FOBFree On Board

Visit the website of the International Chamber of Commerce for more information – www.iccwbo.org/incoterms.

Export tips

Avoid not having a written contract in place – whether it is with a supplier or receiver. This contract is to state the payment and delivery terms.

To avoid fraud and being tricked out of money, when you are pursuing a new deal it is vital for you to:

  • Check the credentials of the company – in most countries, businesses must register and be licensed before they can operate. You can check with the companies’ registry in the relevant country. Check that the contact details exist and belong to the relevant company.
  • Consider shipping your goods only after receiving money in your account, especially for new deals. Check the authenticity of bank documents. If payment is by Letter of Credit, request confirmation from your bank.
  • Avoid sending too much of stock as samples. For high-value products, request payment for samples and/or payment of shipping costs. Invest in a proper and detailed brochure as a substitute for samples.
  • Ask your potential clients as many questions as possible; their registration, licence number, physical address, banker, their affiliation to any trade body or association in their country. A serious buyer usually doesn’t mind answering such questions.
Source: Advice from the Africa Desk at Wesgro (the official trade and investment promotion agency of the Western Cape).

South African Revenue Service (SARS)

All importers and exporters in South Africa are required to register with the Commissioner of the South African Revenue Service (SARS). Form DA 185 (plus the relevant annexures) for importers and exporters, as well as clearing agents and warehouse licensees, must be completed and submitted to SARS.

Forms are to be submitted to the SARS office closest to the area in which the applicant’s head office is situated. Upon registration, applicants are issued with a unique customs code number. The registration process normally takes about two to three weeks.

Find notes on the legislative framework (the Customs and Excise Act, 1964 (Act 91 of 1964), at www.sars.gov.za.

Contact details of head office, Revenue Branch Offices (provincial), Customs Offices and more are on the website, www.sars.gov.za.

The Department of Trade and Industry (the dti)

The Department of Trade & Industry (the dti) has played a critical role in the promotion of economic development and in increasing exports in selected target markets.  In partnership with the Provincial Investment Promotion Agencies (PIPAs) (see “Providers of financial services” chapter), it undertakes export promotion activities, specifically in markets that are aligned to South Africa’s international relations and co-operation agreements.

Find the “Trade, exports and investment” menu option on the website, www.thedti.gov.za.

The Export Promotion Directorate is responsible for developing and promoting South African goods and services including specific technical interventions in terms of EMIA financial support, matchmaking, market intelligence, trade lead facilitation and in-market support. Find more information at www.thedti.gov.za.

 

International Trade Administration Commission (ITAC)
Tariff investigations: 012 394 3720 / 695
Trade remedies: 012 394 3570 / 394
Import-export control: 012 394 3590/1
www.itac.org.za

Find export application forms on the website.

 

Trade and Investment South Africa (TISA)

Tel: 012 394 1021

 

International Trade Division:

  • World Trade Organisation (WTO)
  • Tel: 012 394 3070
    Asia East Region
  • Tel: 012 394 1529
    Free Trade Agreements – Americas/MERCUSOR
  • Tel: 012 394 3020
    Free Trade Agreements – Europe
  • Tel: 012 394 3018
    Free Trade Agreements – SADC
  • Tel: 012 394 3050

The Export Help Desk provides South African firms – small, medium and large enterprises – with export information and advice. The objective of the help desk is to respond to client enquiries within 24 hours. It offers the following services:

  • Export Information and advice;
  • Export-readiness assessments;
  • Sector reports;
  • Trade lead bulletins;
  • Export enquiries;
  • Trade opportunities;
  • Information on export incentives;
  • Statistics on trade between South Africa and other countries;
  • Guides on doing business with other countries;
  • Calendar of export-awareness seminars;
  • Global Exporter Passport Programme training, international trade missions and national pavilions
  • Linking South African exporters with importers

For more information, contact the help desk at 0861 843 384 or email exporthelpdesk [at] thedti.gov.za.

The dti provides financial assistance to registered exporters which meet certain performance criteria. Promoted under the banner of EMIA (the Export Marketing and Investment Assistance Scheme) partial compensation is available to exporters in respect of costs incurred, development export markets.

Read about the Integrated National Export Strategy (INES) and the National Exporter Development Programme (NEDP) on the dti website.

The Team Export South Africa (TESA) workshop is an annual event targeting Export Councils, government and stakeholders in the export value chain. It is hosted by the dti.

 For more information please visit www.thedti.gov.za or phone 012 394 1014 / 1029 or 1146.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)

For various notes on exports, look under the “Import and export services” option on www.daff.gov.za. For notes on the different directorates, click on “Branches”.

 

In terms of the regulations and the principal Act (the Agricultural Produce Standards Act, 1990), approval must first be sought and obtained before agricultural produce can be exported from South Africa.

The regulations set out:

  • The approval process that must be followed in order to obtain necessary consent for export
  • Details pertaining to the pre-export inspection, including the inspection procedure and laboratory testing requirements
  • The fees relating to inspection and analysis
  • The appeals process offences and penalties

Directorate: International Trade Tel: 012 319 8451/2 DITR [at] daff.gov.za
The directorate works closely with the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti). It is responsible for agricultural, forestry & fisheries input into the trade policy. It participates in trade negotiations and implementation of trade agreements, trade research and trade intelligence. The directorate also puts out various publications (like the Step-by-step Export Manual for the South African Fruit Industry) to help people enquiring about exporting.

 

Directorate: Animal Health

  • Tel: 012 319 7456 Mpho.Maja [at] daff.gov.zza
  • Animals and Animal Products Tel: 012 319 7414 / 7476 VetPermits [at] daff.gov.za

This Directorate controls and certifies the health status of animals/animal products for import or export, including the provision of quarantine facilities. It also negotiates protocols on the import and export of animals/animal products.

 

Directorate: Plant Health

  • Tel: 012 319 6091 / 309 8702 KgaboMa [at] daff.gov.za
  • Plants and Plant Products Tel: 012 319 6102/6130 / 6207 PlantHealthPermits [at] daff.gov.za

This Directorate ensures compliance with international plant health obligations and responsibilities, thereby creating an environment for safe imports and exports. Find the Import and export notes under the Plant health option at www.daff.gov.za.

 

Directorate: Marketing Tel: 012 319 8455 MogalaM [at] daff.gov.za

 

Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance

  • Tel: 012 319 6023 BillyM [at] daff.gov.za
  • Liquor Products Tel: 011 971 5138 / 012 319 6137 SiboneloN [at] daff.gov.za, ThysL [at] daff.gov.za

Find the various Export certification procedures under the Food Safety and Quality Assurance option at www.daff.gov.za.

 

Directorate: Food Import and Export Standards Tel: 012 319 6118

All food business operators (FBOs) of legislated agricultural products of plant origin intended for export are required to register with DAFF. The purpose of these registrations is to ensure that producers, packers, processors and freight forwarders are in line with the internationally set traceability requirements. Visit http://fbo.daff.gov.za.

The Agricultural Trade Forum (ATF), established by the National Department of Agriculture, facilitates the entire agricultural industry with regard to international trade. It is housed under the Chief Directorate: Economic Development, Trade and Marketing. Call 012 319 6910 or email LouwrensTh [at] daff.gov.za.

Look for the government gazette notices under the “Resource Centre” and “Publications” options at www.daff.gov.za.

“On the international front, the changing global environment and increasing standards on food safety excludes smaller farmers to play a critical role in international market access. Over and above this is the cost to access foreign markets. Stringent sanitary and phytosanitary, private standards, labelling and other technical requirements have gone beyond compliance capacity of many smallholders. Lack of market access could constrain growth and the targeted jobs that the sector intend to create” [Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP), p 116].

 

APAP recognises that exports orientated programmes should be integrated at early stage of production. Interventions should include:

 

  • Direct assistance for smallholders, like providing training and a technological upgrade in terms of standards for production, quality, packaging and delivery (to enable smallholder farmers to meet export market requirements).
  • A focus on business networking events, including trade shows, business to business and direct buyer’s engagements.
  • The trade strategy developed by DAFF should further guide the integration of smallholder farmers into global markets.

 

The APAP document sets out several steps involved, identifying lead departments/agencies and those who are to support them.

Other government departments and state bodies

  • National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) Tel: 012 341 1115 www.namc.co.za The NAMC is involved in several ways here, from export promotion activities to supporting new agribusinesses in their endeavours to export their products. Read about the different divisions on the website.
  • Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 www.ppecb.com The PPECB provides a comprehensive service to exporters, which includes the inspection and approval of equipment such as containers, specialised reefer vessels and cold stores; monitoring loading processes and the en-route temperature management of produce. The PPECB was the implementing agent for the South African Pesticide Initiative Programme (SA PIP) and SA PIP 2. Smallholder farmers were trained on responsible pesticide use, food safety, agricultural practices and legislation. This was to introduce these producers to expectations of exporting to the EU. They constitute only a small percentage of those who export fruit and vegetables and so there is huge potential here.
  • Some provincial departments of agriculture work to identify export markets for agricultural produce in the province. In the Western Cape, for example, Louw Pienaar has identified African markets (and associated risks) in a report. Write to him at louwpp [at] elsenburg.com.
  • Reserve Bank www.resbank.co.za Several relevant contact details are available on the website
  • South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Tel: 012 428 7911 www.sabs.co.za

Other role players

Associations and NGOs

  • Many Agricultural Business Chamber (Agbiz) members are agricultural exporters. Find useful information on trade relations, trade agreements etc. at www.agbiz.co.za. Several documents specifically look at agricultural exports.
  • Agbiz is a member of Business Unity South Africa (BUSA). See its website at www.busa.org.za or phone 011 784 8000.
  • Some Chambers are geared towards trade between two countries e.g. the French South African Chamber – www.fsacci.co.za; the Southern African German Chamber of Commerce – www.germanchamber.co.za; Southern Africa-Switzerland – www.scsa.ch; South African-Netherlands – www.sanec.co.za etc.
  • The Fairtrade movement aims “to enhance trading conditions for small scale businesses, improve labour conditions for employees and empower communities through ethical and sustainable trade”. Read about Fairtrade South Africa at www.fairtrade.org.za.
  • Find a list of fruit exporters at http://fpef.co.za, or call the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) at 021 526 0474.
  • NEDLAC Tel: 011 328 4200 www.nedlac.org.za
  • The Farm Animal Unit of the National Council of SPCAs monitors the export of live animals from East London and Durban harbours. Visit www.nspca.co.za.
  • Responsible Packaging Management Association (RPMASA) Tel: 032 947 1145 http://rpmasa.org.za

South African Association of Freight Forwarders (SAAFF)

Tel: 011 455 1726
www.saaff.org.za

 

The role of the freight forwarder, alternatively called the ‘shipping and forwarding’ or ‘clearing and forwarding’ agent, is to ensure that cargo is transported across international boundaries in the most efficient and economical way.

 

The agent should be able to advise the exporter on the following aspects:

  • the best mode of transport for the goods, whether by sea, air, rail, road or a combination of these;
  • schedule and transit times of the various transport services;
  • the most suitable packing; rates and insurance premiums;
  • freight rates; costing for export; compliance with maritime and other statutory obligations;
  • marking of cargo; and
  • all technical aspects of international forwarding.

Agents also handle customs clearance, including related documentation needs and exchange control requirements, and any other permits required by law. Most agents have an international network of branch offices or associates, which enables them to give advice on the importing country’s regulations.

  • South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SACCI) Tel: 011 446 3800 www.sacci.org.za
  • Find “Export advice & info” at www.saflec.co.za, website of the South African Footware & Leather Export Council (SAFLEC).
  • The Middle East and in particular the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, which import 80% of their food requirements, represents the greatest potential market for South African Halal Certified products. Another market is European countries with large Muslim communities (e.g. UK, France and Germany). Find the 2018/19-2020/21 Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) which targets the halal market on www.thedti.gov.za, and the WESGRO document “Halal FAQ’s for F&B Exporters July 2017” which includes contact details of halal certifying bodies. Also read about the Halal Industrial Park on the website of the Western Cape Department of Agriculture, www.elsenburg.com/content/halal-industrial-park.

 

Export councils

In partnership with the dti, Export Councils have been given a forum to address all obstacles and proposals that may affect their ability to export successfully. This takes the form of a National Export Advisory Council, chaired by the Minister. The export council’s database may be found on www.thedti.gov.za. Included are organisations like the Fresh Produce Exporters’ ForumFarmed Abalone Export CouncilSouth African Flower Export CouncilWines of South Africa (WOSA)South African Ostrich Business Chamber and the SA Fruit and Vegetable Exporters’ Council.

Various industry associations and Joint Action Groups are also involved. Find all contact details on www.thedti.gov.za.

 

Finance

Commercial banks assist with export credits, guarantees and letters of credit. The Credit Guarantee Insurance Corporation of South Africa administers an export credit insurance scheme on behalf of the dti.

African Renaissance and International Cooperation Fund
c/o Department of International Relations and Co-operation
www.dirco.gov.za

 

Coface
www.cofaceza.com

Credit insurance products

 

Credit Guarantee
www.creditguarantee.co.za

Find the export credit insurance under the “Products and services” menu. The purpose of the scheme is to finance small to medium-sized businesses which lack the financial resources to execute export orders. The scheme enables the prospective exporter to obtain finance from a number of participating banks.

 

The Export Credit Insurance Corporation of South Africa Limited (ECIC) located within the Department of Trade and Industry
www.ecic.co.za

A project can qualify for 85% finance if a South African content of at least 50% of the total project value is achieved.

 

Industrial Development Corporation (IDC)
www.idc.co.za

 

JSE Limited
www.jse.co.za

If you are an exporter, foreign exchange is one of your top risks. A rand futures market exists allowing agribusinesses and farmers to hedge themselves against negative movements in the exchange rate, reducing risks and uncertainty.

 

Lombard Insurance Group
www.lombardins.com

Credit insurance products

 

Prestige Credit Insurance Consultants
www.prestigecredit.co.za

Credit insurance for protection on your dealings with exports debtors

 

Santam Marine
www.associatemarine.co.za/index.html

 

SASFIN Bank
www.sasfin.com

Import/export trade finance experts

 

Logistics and transport

 

Training and research

AgriAcademy SA Tel: 021 880 1276 www.agriacademy.co.za The export readiness training course is an agriculture-focused distance learning course for the producer who plans to start exporting.

Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) facilitates training workshops for SMMEs interested in exporting. Visit www.busa.org.za or phone 011 784 8000.

The chamber movement addresses all issues affecting the business community, including exporting. Find out how your nearest Chamber of Commerce can help you. We list some of these below:

Customs Services (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 397 5370 www.customsservices.co.za

The Department of Trade & Industry (the dti) runs the Global Export Passport Initiative, a training programme for companies and small exporters. To find out more, contact 0861 843 384 or email geps [at] thedti.gov.za.

Freight Training (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 450 4140 www.freighttraining.co.za

Top of the Class (TOC) is a well-known training programme for the fruit industry, initiated by the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF) more than ten years ago. Find details on www.fpef.co.za.

Global Maritime Legal Solutions (GMLS) Tel: 044 813 0052/011 425 1840  www.gmls.co.za Training and consulting in exporting

Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC) BRICS Research Centre Tel: 012 302 2000 www.hsrc.ac.za/en/departments/brics-research-centre

International Trade Institute of South Africa (ITRISA) Tel: 011 807 5317 www.itrisa.co.za Short courses and distance education: Certificate in International Trade, Advance Certificate in International Trade as well as National Diploma in Export/Import Management.

Maritime, Ports, Transport and Logistics Academy (MPTLA) www.sun.ac.za/english/faculty/economy/logistics/Pages/MPTL%20Academy/MPTL-Academy.aspx Offers short courses and management development programmes

North-West University School of Economics Tel: 018 299 1438 Ilza.havenga [at] nwu.ac.za http://commerce.nwu.ac.za  

Offering:

  • B Com – majoring in Economics and International Trade, which specialises in imports and exports
  • Hons B Com in International Trade
  • M Com in International Trade
  • PhD in International Trade

Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management Ernst Idsardi – 018 299 2484 Ernst.Isardi [at] nwu.ac.za

The Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) is involved in programmes to build capacity. The Agri Export Technologist Programme is one of these. Find more at https://ppecb.com.

Skills Development Specialists Tel: 086 1111 3987 www.sdstraining.co.za

The South African Board of Standards (SABS) offers training courses for GlobalG.A.P. Find contact details under “Other government departments and state bodies” heading.

South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) Tel: 011 339 2021 www.saiia.org.za

TIPS Tel: 012 433 9340 www.tips.org.za

TMS Training Services Tel: 011 853 2777 www.hochfeld.co.za Training courses include Ships Chartering, Trade Finance and Forex for better Business.

Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (TRALAC) Tel: 021 880 2010 www.tralac.org “Building capacity to help Africa trade better”

TRADE Research Advisory (Trade and Development) Wilma.viviers [at] nwu.ac.za Research niche areas – focusing research on export promotion and identifying South Africa’s export opportunities. See here.

The University of Cape Town runs an “Import and Export Management” short course. Take a look at www.getsmarter.co.za or call 021 447 7565 for more information.

University of South Africa (UNISA) Centre for Business Management Tel: 012 429 4376 www.unisa.ac.za/cbm A 12-month, distance education certificate course in exporting is offered.

 

Consultants and other services

The various umbrella bodies like the South African Table Grapes Industry offer exporters information and services.
 
  • AgriBusiness Systems international (ABSi) www.absi.co.za
  • Agrihub provides real time shipping information for the fruit industry. See www.agrihub.co.za.
  • The Agricultural and Industrial Marketing Company secures trade and finance instruments from banks, finds logistics solutions for communities, does project management and more. Visit www.theaimco.com.
  • Bamic Enterprises provides covers and equipment for containers. See http://bamicenterprises.com/
  • Christopher Richards Consultancy consults to the local and international freight industry. Take a look at www.dunkeld.co.za.
  • Customs Services (Pty) Ltd www.customsservices.co.za
  • DFM Technologies Tel: 021 904 1154 https://dfmtechnologies.co.za (For software that allows the user to create chemical and fertiliser instructions required for GLOBALG.A.P., Nature’s Choice and the export market).
  • Expand Into Africa Tel: 021 786 3005 www.expandintoafrica.com
  • Hilton Lambert www.hiltonlambert.com Trade law specialists
  • The Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) offers various services to exporters. Find contact details under “Other government departments and state bodies” heading.
  • TRADE (Trade and Development) Wilma.viviers [at] nwu.ac.za (research niche areas – focusing research on export promotion and identifying South Africa’s export opportunities). The World Trade Organisation (WTO) in Geneva awarded one of its prestigious Chairs in 2014 to Prof. Wilma Viviers.
  • Veterinary Import-Export Authority (VIEA) helps solve “all your issues relating to [agricultural products]”. See http://vetimportexport.com.

 

Provincial Government support

All provinces have trade and investment promotion agencies. Find their details in the “Providers of financial services” chapter.
 

The Western Cape Investment and Trade Promotion Agency (Wesgro) launched a web-based trade portal in 2012 that allows Western Cape businesses to register their companies and products and to engage with foreign importers. It also runs workshops in the use of incoterms and participating in the international environment. Visit www.wesgro.co.za/home_wesgro

 

International trade organisations

Publications

Websites

Visit websites of role players mentioned in the chapter.

  • Care to find out how countries fare in the competitive rankings? Two reports are the World Competitiveness Report (produced by the IMD Business School in Switzerland), and the Global Competitiveness Report (produced by the World Economic Forum in Switzerland). Visit www.imd.org and www.weforum.org.
  • Find the trade briefs, working papers etc at www.tralac.org (Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa). Download the latest weekly customs, excise, tariff and trade remedy summary notification.
  • Read the information on www.agbiz.co.za on trade relations.
  • www.cbi.eu – the Centre for the Promotion of Imports from Developing Countries (CBI) provides market information, export promotion, matching, advice on import enquiries, and environmental information for exporters from developing countries.
  • www.bilaterals.org – read about “everything that is not happening at the WTO”
  • FreshPlaza: global fresh produce news, www.freshplaza.com
  • FTW Online “for import/export decision makers” – www.ftwonline.co.za
  • The CTA’s monthly news update on agricultural trade issues – subscribe at http://agritrade.cta.int
  • www.exporthelp.co.za – “Your online export helpdesk”
  • www.fas.usda.gov – Foreign Agricultural Service (the United States Department of Agriculture)
  • International Air Transport Association (IATA) www.iata.org
  • International Trade Centre (ITC), the “Development partner for export success” – www.intracen.org
  • www.trademap.org – International Trade Centre website for “trade statistics for international business development”
  • www.macmap.org – Market Access Map, “making import tariffs and market access barriers transparent”
  • www.mbendi.co.za – the global information resource for business and travel.
  • www.thefoodworld.com – this website lists companies worldwide who supply food.
  • World Bank www.worldbank.org
  • World Customs Organisation – www.wcoomd.org

 

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