Farmers are urged to make certain that fire-fighting equipment is easily accessible and in working condition, create firebreaks, participate in local fire protection association activities
A fire management plan for a property should identify:
- the fire hazards on different parts of a property
- the best position for fire breaks
- areas where controlled burns should be carried out
- a time table for carrying out controlled burns and for burning fire breaks
Burning your veld
In Africa, where lightning is common and people have used veld fires for thousands of years to improve the quality of their grazing, veld fires have a long history. Veld fires are also a controversial issue, however, and have been banned totally in some countries. The truth is that veld fires can be a useful veld management practice, but under the wrong conditions can also cause great damage to the veld. Veld fires are a good servant, but a bad master.
Veld is mainly burned for two reasons:
- to remove accumulated organic material, particularly in areas with a high rainfall;
- to combat or prevent bush encroachment.
When to burn
This is not only determined by the correct season of the year, but also by the amount of available combustible material. The right time of the year to burn is probably as close as possible to the first spring rains. By burning earlier in the year, the burned veld is exposed to cold and late winter winds, which can remove valuable nutrients in the form of ash. In addition, the stimulated grasses are weakened by having to rely on their reserves in order to survive without water for long periods. This is particularly the case if the veld is used as pasture. In both cases the presence of a dense stand of perennial grasses is important. By burning veld that is in a poor condition, the condition of the veld will deteriorate even further.
When burning to combat bush encroachment, it is important to have a good stand of dry grass beneath the shrub to generate a hot fire.
When not to burn
It is advisable not to burn the veld under the following conditions:
- Never burn to stimulate green pasture out of season. This practice has the same negative consequences as overgrazing and will lead to large scale veld deterioration over the long term.
- Never attempt to burn veld that is in a poor condition. This veld is already under stress and burning it will only let the veld deteriorate even further. It is preferable to only burn veld that has a majority of climax species and a biomass of ±3 000 kg of combustible material and more per hectare.
- Veld in areas with a low rainfall (±400 mm per annum and less) should preferably not be burned. Should follow-up rains not fall straight away, the veld will take a long time to recover.
Types of fire
A fire that burns in the direction of the wind is generally preferred. When burning to remove declining veld, a “cool” fire is required. This can be obtained by burning on a cool day with no wind. The cooler the fire, the less damage is caused to dormant grass plants. When burning to control bush encroachment, a “hot fire” is required. This can be achieved by burning on a hot day with a low humidity. A hot fire on a windy day will cause the bush to be burned right up to the crown, but with minimal burning at ground level.
Source: Guide to Grasses of South Africa. Frits van Oudtshoorn. Contact him at info [at] alut.co.za (find further ALUT details under the "Role players" heading)
Legal notes on firebreaks
The following are merely helpful points taken from the Act and are in no way meant to be the final word on it. It is the landowner’s responsibility to prepare firebreaks and have the correct equipment and trained personnel to prevent the spread of fires. This is made very clear in Act 101 of 1998. The act is available on www.firestop.co.za.
Landowners must prepare and maintain firebreaks on their side of the boundary or fence as well as any adjoining land.
The Landowner must obtain permission and determine a mutually agreeable date/s with owners of adjoining properties, and inform the fire protection association for the area, if any.
If no agreement can be reached on dates, the Landowner must give the owners of adjoining properties as well as the fire protection association in the area (if any) at least 14 days written notice of the intended day/s when the Landowner intends burning firebreaks.
An owner of adjoining land who has agreed on a day or who receives a notice must-
- burn his or her firebreak on the boundary concerned on the same day or days;
- be present at such burning or have his or her agent attend; and
- ensure that a sufficient number of persons are present on his or her side of the boundary to prevent any spread of fire when the firebreak is burned.
An owner may not burn a firebreak, despite having complied with subsection (2) of the Act, if the fire protection association objects to the proposed burning; or a warning has been published because the fire danger is high in the region; or the conditions are not conducive to the burning of firebreaks.
The owner must inform the owners of adjoining land and the fire protection association-
- if burning cannot be done on the agreed day or days or any of the days;
- of the additional days on which he or she intends to bum because of the failure to do so on the day or days.
It is not necessary for the owner to give 14 days notice of the additional days.
Owners of adjoining land may agree to position a common firebreak away from the boundary.
Should an owner intend to be absent for a period longer than 14 days during the period or part of any period in which burning normally takes place, he or she must give all owners of adjoining land an address and telephone number, if any, at which he or she may be contacted.
If an owner of adjoining land (i) is not present on the agreed or notified day or days; or (ii) has not given an address and telephone number, if any, as required in subsection (8), the owner may proceed with the burning in his or her absence.
Requirements for firebreaks
An owner is obliged to prepare and maintain a firebreak with due regard to the weather, climate, terrain and vegetation, and must ensure that it is wide enough and long enough to have a reasonable chance of preventing a veldfire from spreading to or from neighbouring land; it does not cause soil erosion; and it is reasonably free of inflammable material capable of carrying a veldfire across it.
Source: Agricultural Employers Organisation (LWO). Contact them at 0861 10 18 28 or visit www.lwo.co.za.
What are the legal duties regarding fire suppression?
- You may not allow a wildfire to spread across your land.
- You must report a wildfire that is burning on your land to your neighbours and the Fire Protection Association if there is one.
- If you are requested to help fight a wildfire you may not refuse to do so.
- You cannot interfere with or obstruct someone who is fighting a wildfire.
- If you are a land user, you should develop a fire management plan.
Fire Protection Associations (FPAs)
The formation of voluntary Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) is one way to prevent, combat and manage fires throughout the country. FPAs are envisaged to provide the overarching, co-ordinated support in provinces – aerial fire-fighting support, rapid attack teams, fire weather services, and co-ordination of fire records and training. Members are drawn from local communities and authorities, farmers, residents, landowners, nature conservation, municipal fire services and so on.
Through the FPA, farmers (and others) can pool their resources and jointly develop and implement veldfire management strategies for their areas. They can develop enforceable rules that protect all members and request advice and assistance from the State-employed chief fire-protection officer. This saves costs, protects you in terms of any compliance your insurer might require and enhances the protection of properties from veldfires.
Included in a FPA’s legal duties are the following. The FPA is to:
- develop and apply a wildfire management strategy for its area. This covers standards for fire breaks, exemptions from boundary breaks, and the maintenance of communal and strategic breaks.
- develop rules that will bind the members of the FPA.
- through its Fire Protection Officer, regularly communicate the forecast fire danger rating to its members.
- organise and train members in fighting, managing and preventing veldfires, and provide management services, training and support to communities.
- co-ordinate the allocation of resources and fire prevention and suppression activities of members.
- provide statistics about veldfires in its area to the Minister, and furnish the information needed to prepare or maintain the National Fire Danger Rating System.
- carry out the various powers and duties delegated to the FPA by the Minister.
It is important that your FPA has the following information about your property:
- Sources of water
- Where the firebreaks are
- The location of gates
Associations & NGOs
- Visit the Free State Umbrella Fire Protection Association pages at www.fsufpa.co.za. The KwaZulu-Natal Fire Protection Association (ZFPS), Lowveld & Escarpment Fire Protection Association and and Greater Overberg Fire Protection Association are further examples of FPAs. Visit www.firestop.co.za, www.lefpa.co.za and www.overbergfpa.co.za.
- Fire Protection Association of Southern Africa Tel: 011 397 1618/9 www.fpasa.co.za
- Grassland Society of Southern Africa (GSSA) Tel: 049 842 4335 http://grassland.org.za The GSSA has run fire management programmes
- Kishugu Non-Profit Company (NPC) Tel: 013 741 6400 www.kishugu.com
- Children of Fire Tel: 011 726 6529 www.firechildren.org Children of Fire helps severely burned children to get complex surgery, therapy and education.
- NSPCA Tel: 011 907 3590 www.nspca.co.za
- Volunteer Wildfire Services https://vws.org.za “Holding the Line Between Fire and Fynbos”
- Bosvreter & Vuurvegter Tel: 014 778 9916 / 082 574 3792 www.bosvreter.co.za
- DoseTechFire Tel: 0861 111 544 www.dosetech.co.za
- Firebreak Equipment Tel: 082 353 4336 www.firebreak.co.za
- Fire Raiders Tel: 011 894 3205 www.fireraiders.co.za
- Genpower Tel: 0861 101 103 www.genpower.co.za
- GENTAG Tel: 018 431 1287 www.gentag.co.za
- Geofire Tel: 081 495 8476 / 082 783 1671 www.geofire.co.za
- Goscor Power Products Tel: 087 232 2258 www.goscor-power-products.co.za
- Hose Manufacturers Tel: 021 948 3971 www.hosessa.com
- Joubert Implements Tel: 021 887 1220 www.joubertimplemente.co.za
- LiquidFire Tel: 072 296 2347 www.liquidfire.co.za
- Mandoval Vermiculite Tel: 011 864 5205 www.mandovalvermiculite.co.za (passive fire protection in buildings)
- McBeans Tel: 033 342 1541 www.mcbeans.co.za
- Pyro-Cote (Pty) Ltd Tel: 031 464 7893 http://pyrocote.co.za (passive fire protection in buildings)
- Quantum Field Services Tel: 056 213 3222 www.qtfs.co.za
- Rogue Agriculture Tel: 033 345 0038 www.roguesteel.co.za
- SA Emergency Care Tel: 011 608 0907 /72 www.saemergencycare.co.za
- Turfmaster (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 730 3400 www.turfmaster.co.za
The National Veld and Forest Fires Act 101 of 1998 provides a framework for owners to organise and collaborate in veldfire management. The Act is available on www.daff.gov.za (as well as on www.firestop.co.za). The reader may also contact role players mentioned in this chapter. As required by Act 101 of 1998, the National Fire-danger rating system (NFDRS), a fire-danger rating model, was worked out. Find it here.
Working on Fire Programme (WoF)
Tel: 013 741 6400 / 7340
WoF is a SA Government initiative under the Expanded Public Works Programme which employs people from disadvantaged communities and trains them in fire fighting. They are available to assist landowners in the preparation of firebelts and the fighting of fires. Contact details for their air operations, ground operations, training etc are available on their website.
Find the Parliamentary Monitoring Group account on Working for Fire (2019, February 26) https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/27955/ and (2018, October 23) at https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/27298/
South African National Disaster Management Centre
Tel: 012 848 4602 www.ndmc.gov.za
Emergency Relief Funding, Disaster Grants and Post Disaster Reconstruction & Rehabilitation Funding
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)
Directorate: Agricultural Risk and Disaster Management
Tel: 012 309 5723
pa.dadrm [at] daff.gov.za
Telephone numbers for the Forestry section can be found at www.daff.gov.za (look for forestry under “Branches”)
Provincial conservation bodies like CapeNature are also involved.
Training and research
- Some AgriSETA accredited providers of training run Fire management training, some times on your farm. Some examples: (i) Africa Land-Use Training Tel: 014 717 3819 www.alut.co.za (ii) Dicla Training Tel: 071 692 2229 www.diclatraining.com (iii) Premier Pig Producers Tel: 012 361 3920 (iv) Umnga Farmers Training Centre Tel: 051 430 6773
- Central University of Technology School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Tel: 051 507 3134 www.cut.ac.za N Dip in Fire Technology is offered
- Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Natural resources and the environment Tel: 012 841 2911 NKoorbanally[at] csir.co.za www.csir.co.za
- Fire Protection Association of Southern Africa Tel: 011 397 1618/9 www.fpasa.co.za Find the ‘Training’ option on the website
- The Grassland Society of Southern Africa co-ordinates fire management training courses. Find information at www.grassland.org.za or call 063 361 2647.
- Institution of Fire Engineers SA Tel: 011 788 4329 www.ife.org.za
- Kishugu Training (Working on Fire Training) Tel: 013 744 9328 https://kishugutraining.com
- LiquidFire Tel: 072 296 2347 www.liquidfire.co.za
- Lowveld & Escarpment Fire Protection Association Tel: 013 752 6419 www.lefpa.co.za
- Nelson Mandela University (NMU) Tiaan Pool Tel: 044 801 5024/111 http://georgecampus.mandela.ac.za/ Fire symposiums are run. In addition, NMU offers a Higher Certificate in Veldfire Management. It is either a full-time one-year course or can be pursued on a limited attendance basis over two years.
- New Africa Skills Development Tel: 033 330 7002 www.nasd.co.za
- SA Emergency Care Tel: 011 608 0907 /72 www.saemergencycare.co.za First Aid, Fire and Occupational Health and Safety training courses
- South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI) Tel: 031 508 7400 https://sasri.org.za SUSFARMS, the Sustainable Sugarcane Farm Management System, deals with fire management. Contact SASRI for more information.
- Southern African Emergency Services Institute (SAESI) Tel: 011 660 5672 / 7555 www.saesi.com
- Southern African Wildlife College Tel: 015 793 7300 www.wildlifecollege.org.za Short courses in community-based natural resource management (including fire as a management tool)
- Stellenbosch University Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology Tel: 021 808 3304 www.sun.ac.za
- University of the Free State Disaster Management Training and Education Centre for Africa (DiMTEC) Tel: 051 401 2721 www.ufs.ac.za/dimtec
- University of South Africa (Unisa) Applied Behavioural Ecology & Ecosystem Research (ABEERU) Tel: 011 471 3294 / 2339 www.unisa.ac.za
- Firewise SA – see Working On Fire (see under the “Government” sub-heading)
- Measured Farming Tel: 033 345 2508 A business which has experience in assessing fires and the resultant damage
- Orsmond Aviation Tel: 058 303 5261 www.orsmondaviation.co.za Aerial fire-fighting
- SAFIRE Insurance Company Limited Tel: 033 264 8500 www.safireinsurance.com
Websites and publications
- Visit the websites listed in this chapter e.g. www.firewisesa.org.za, www.workingonfire.org and www.firestop.co.za. Find information as well as references to publications.
- Harrison, J. & Young, D. 2010. Farming for the future: farming sustainably with nature. Cape Town: Animal Demography Unit. The book includes the section “Manage fire appropriately”. Download the book at http://www.adu.org.za/docs/farming_for_the_future_lr.pdf
- Conservation bodies like Cape Nature have publications like Landowner Guides. Fire management is one of several topics covered. Find these at www.conservationatwork.co.za/conservation-guidelines.
- Fire risk information on your area is updated daily on www.weathersa.co.za. Also find the “Fire Danger Index” option at www.forestry.co.za.
- Find the ‘Publications’ option at www.fpasa.co.za, website of the Fire Protection Association of Southern Africa.
- The CSIR’s Meraka Institute runs the Advanced Fire Information System – satellite information on fires in Southern Africa. Visit http://southernafrica.afis.co.za.
- Resource materials on the National Veld and Forest Fire Act No 101 of 1998, a CD, includes a copy of the Act and answers to FAQs, include how to fill in forms to register an FPA (Fire Protection Association). The CD is available from Department of Forestry offices (find the forestry pages at www.daff.gov.za).
- The Veld and Forest Firefighting Fundamentals handbook, by William C. Teie and edited by Fred Favard, is available from Working on Fire and Kishugu NPC.
- The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa, brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes useful notes on fire management. Find the document on www.nwga.co.za or contact 041 365 5030.
- Gids tot die Volhoubare Produksie van Weiding by Prof Hennie Snyman includes notes on veld fires. Order it from Landbouweekblad at 021 406 4962 or lbw [at] media24.com.
- The Fire Manager’s Handbook, published by the Southern African Institute of Forestry (SAIF). Visit www.saif.org.za for details (look for the “Forestry Handbook” menu option).
- Find the “Fighting Fire” Info Pak on www.daff.gov.za. Find it under the “Resource Centre” menu option. On the same website, under “General publications”, find the Fire Management option. Resources here include Preparing firebreaks and the Fire incidents reporting form.
- Find the free download of the easy-to-understand booklet You, wildfires and the law, and other material on www.firewisesa.org.za.
- Fire & Rescue International www.fireandrescue.co
- Members of the Southern Africa Macadamia Growers’ Association can access the SIZA Guide to Law and Best Practice in Fire Safety on Farms at www.samac.org.za.
- Find “Bird-friendly burning and grazing best-practice for grasslands” at www.birdlife.org.za/publications/grassland-best-practice
- http://gfmc.online, website of the Global Fire Monitoring Centre (GFMC). The GFMC is a project of the UN’s International Strategy for Disaster Reduction International Wildfire Preparedness Mechanism (UNISDR-IWPM).
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