Waste is any material lacking direct value to the producer, and so must be disposed of. All farming operations create waste products that need to be managed. Waste on the farm includes agro-chemicals (pesticides etc), animal carcasses, grey water (e.g. from cleaning the dairy equipment), black water (sewerage), manure and landfill.
Opportunities exist in recycling glass, cans, paper, cardboard, plastic and a growing number of items. For example, Treetops Farm near Eston, winner of the Nedbank Sustainable Farm Award in 2014, collects glass, metal and oil for recycling. The money funds various farm community projects and infrastructure, and so a sense of ownership and reward is created through waste management. Read more about the farming operation in “Farmers, bankers, conservationists (part 3)” blog.
|According to the National Environmental Management Waste Act of 2008, plastic containers in which agricultural chemicals are supplied ought to be tripled-rinsed, dried and securely stored on the farm for collection by accredited agencies. They should not be burnt, buried or given over for other uses. Photo used courtesy of Helen Gordon, WWF SA.|
Farmer points of interest
The poor management of pesticide application leads to severe working environment problems. The regulation on pesticides is in general good, but suffers from an administrative division between several governing departments and legal acts. The enforcement is largely based on self-regulation: how many farmers comply with the requirements? Chemical spraying requires the chemicals to be loaded into the spraying machinery. Whether spraying by air or on land the loading of chemicals into the machinery can lead to chemical spills. These are typically not well controlled and the spills result in a build-up of toxic chemicals over time. Prevention is better than control, and as far as possible, spills should be prevented. However, if spills do occur these need to be well controlled. The collected spilled chemical could then still be used if kept uncontaminated in the contained area. Alternatively, the chemical can be properly treated and disposed.
Irrigation run-off can carry crop protection chemicals to surface/ground water, even if it takes many years for this to happen. In Denmark for example, fifty years after the use of pesticides began traces of them appeared in groundwater.
Other chemicals used on farms that have environmental effects include use of paints, turpentine, creosote, etc. which are often used in significant amounts for maintenance on farm property. The waste materials and containers are often not disposed in the correct manner leading to health and environmental effects of solvents, heavy metals and other problematic chemicals.
The management of waste chemical packaging is an important environmental, health and safety issue. Of particular concern are the containers from pesticide/herbicide chemicals. Once empty they need to be carefully managed. Prior to disposal, they must be thoroughly cleaned out. The rinsewater then requires treatment. Holes are then punched in the containers and they are flattened and disposed of. They are often not disposed of in correctly controlled waste sites. If not holed and flattened, the empty containers are in demand and may be stolen (e.g. for use as water containers in rural areas). There is a high probability of a health hazard for end users in this case.
Typically farmers are known to burn these empty plastic chemical containers as well as empty plastic fertiliser bags in open fire on farms. This low temperature burning results in emissions of dioxins which are hazardous to health and the environment. Air emissions (dioxins) from burning plastics (at temperatures <400°C) are carcinogenic and are therefore potentially harmful to those who inhale the fumes.
Vehicle use and maintenance
The maintenance of farm tractors and trucks for transport results in the generation of used oil and oil filters amongst other wastes. Thousands of litres of used oil and numerous oil filters could be generated on a farm each year. Typically these wastes are poorly managed as they are most often burnt on site, and the metal of the oil filters is buried. The carbon and emissions from burning dirty oil and heavy metal wastes from filters are of environmental concern.
If not burnt, waste oil is often used as wood treatment for fence posts on farms. Although this is common practice, according to hazardous waste management practices, it is discouraged and correct treatment and disposal of waste oil is recommended.
Monoculture can affect the local ecosystem and it is therefore wise that the method of rotation crops is used. If the same crop is grown on a piece of land year after year after year, the disease organisms that attack that crop will build up in the area until they become uncontrollable. Nature abhors monoculture: inspection of natural plant and animal environments will reveal a great variety of species. If one species becomes too predominant, some event, pest or disease is likely to develop to strike it down. Man has managed to defy this law, to date, by the application of stronger and stronger chemical controls, but the pests (particularly the fast-evolving viruses) adapt very quickly to withstand each new chemical and to date the chemist has managed to keep only a short jump ahead of the disease.
The application of fertilisers requires good knowledge of soil, as adding too much can lead to destruction of the quality of the soil. Long-term use of fertilisers in one area also can have negative effects and it is important to use more natural methods of restoring soil quality.
Soil erosion is also an environmental effect associated with poor agricultural methods.
Some herbicides and pesticides remain in the upper soil layer and the dust generated during cultivation readily transports these to vulnerable and edible crops. Presence of dust on plants (near roads, etc.) encourages a build up of scale and red spider mites in cotton, citrus and other crops.
Solid waste generation
The wastes of concern that are generated on the farm are the hazardous wastes. These are not in very large quantities, but their effect on the environment demands improved management of these. Plastic and PVC wastes are not necessarily hazardous unless burnt at low temperature. Fluorescent lighting tubes contain mercury and are considered hazardous wastes. Used batteries are another typical solid hazardous waste generated on farms (particularly from workers houses) and may be in large quantities. All of these require careful environmental management.
General (low-/non-hazardous) solid waste generated by homestead as well as from workers’ housing and compounds, is also an important environmental management issue, mainly because of the volumes required for disposal. In many rural areas where farms are located, municipal dumps are located too far away for proper disposal of solid waste to be economically feasible. The burning of domestic waste and informal ‘landfilling’ (dumping) is very common. However, this has potential environmental problems that need to be addressed. Burning of plastics and polystyrene must be avoided, and location of sites where wastes are buried must be carefully chosen away from environmentally sensitive areas. Hazardous wastes should not be burnt or buried informally. A large portion of typical solid waste streams can be minimised through the use of reduction, reuse and recycling options.
Segregation of waste streams at source is essential to allow for improved waste management.
Source: Claire Janisch. Contact her at claire [at] geniuslab.co.za.
National strategy and government contact
South Africa produces around close to 110 million tons of waste each year (PMG, 2017). The waste sector is currently valued at about R50 billion per annum. Waste has value – both a social and an economic value. Waste management is central to the improvement of the standard of living and has the potential to eradicate poverty through job creation opportunities which exist in waste collection, recycling and other forms of waste management in general.
- Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) www.environment.gov.za
The National Environment Management: Waste Act 2008 (Act 59 of 2008), NEMWA, and its related Amendment Act (Act 26 of 2014), NEMLAA, is South Africa’s promulgated legislation relating to the storage, reuse, recycling, recovery, treatment and disposal of hazardous and general waste. It is implemented through the country’s National Waste Management Strategy (NWMS). The NWMS looks at the recycling economy to improve socio-economic conditions in the country. Download the NWMS at www.environment.gov.za.
The Waste Classification and Management Regulations (WCMR) encourage the movement away from landfill to treatment, reuse and recovery, and to put measures in place to monitor this progress. The WCMR mostly affects waste generators, waste transporters, waste management companies, financiers and investors.
Government initiatives like Working on Waste (WoW) sub-programme under the auspices of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) and Gauteng Youth Jobs in Waste Programme create jobs.
- Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) www.dwa.gov.za
Find the different Waste Management Guidelines and Waste Management Policies documents under the “Document Library” menu option on the website.
- Department of Public Works www.publicworks.gov.za
Several projects dealing with waste management have been run as part of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP). These include the Food for Waste Programme, Youth and Waste, and the Youth Jobs in Waste Programme.
- Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA) www.cogta.gov.za
The Municipal Infrastructure Support Agent (MISA) is involved in improving municipal infrastructure provisioning and maintenance, which includes waste sites.
- Department of Energy http://www.cefgroup.co.za/opcsa/
Oil Pollution Control SA (OPCSA), a subsidiary of the DoE’s CEF Group of Companies, “provides oil prevention, control and clean-up services, mainly in South African ports and coastal areas”
- The Intergovernmental Committee on Waste Management (IGCWM) comprises of waste management officials from all National Government Departments, and was launched at the Waste Management Summit in 2015.
The Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) runs a directory of role players involved in waste management.
Associations and NGOs
- African Medical Waste Association www.amwa.org.za
- Agricultural of Veterinary and Crop Associations of South Africa (AVCASA) Tel: 087 980 5163 www.avcasa.co.za AVCASA is the representative body which waste management programmes dealing with obsolete pesticides and empty pesticide containers in agriculture.
- groundWork Tel: 033 342 5662 www.groundwork.org.za
- Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA) Tel: 011 675 3462 /4 www.iwmsa.co.za IWMSA promotes the science and practice of waste management.
- Institute of Zero Waste in Africa (IZWA) Tel: 083 471 7276 www.izwa.org.za
- Landfill and Waste Treatment Interest Group c/o IWMSA
- Mvula Trust www.themvulatrust.org.za Mvula Trust is the largest water and sanitation NGO in the South Africa. Find regional contact details on the website.
- National Oil Recycling Association of South Africa (NORA-SA) – see ROSE Foundation
- National Recycling Forum Tel: 011 675 3462 www.recycling.co.za
- Oasis Association Tel: 021 671 2698 www.oasis.org.za Recycling is an income generator
- Packaging SA Tel: 012 001 1914 www.packagingsa.co.za
- PEACE Foundation www.peacefoundation.org.za Creating sustainable jobs through waste management
- PEDI Urban Agriculture Academy Tel: 021 371 9824 http://pedi.org.za
- Plastics SA Tel: 011 314 4021 www.plasticsinfo.co.za
- Polystyrene Packaging Council (PSPC) of South Africa Tel: 021 531 0647 www.polystyrenepackaging.co.za/polystyrenerecycling.htm
- ROSE Foundation Recycling Oil Saves the Environment (ROSE) Tel: 021 448 7492 www.rosefoundation.org.za One area of pollution in agriculture (and elsewhere) is used lubricant oil. Farmers can gather and store their used oil for responsible collection. Find provincial contacts on the website (see the NORA-SA option).
- Responsible Packaging Management Association of Southern Africa Tel: 032 942 8256 www.rpmasa.org.za
- RUCORE http://rucore.org.za One of several rural community projects entails recycling waste into art
- SEWPACKSA Tel: 079 473 4090 (administrator) www.sewpacksa.co.za This is the small wastewater treatment works suppliers association
- South African Industrial Container Reconditioners Association (SAICRA) – see ROSE Foundation
- Read about the South African Waste Pickers Union (SAWPU) here.
- Water Institute of South Africa (WISA) Tel: 011 805 3537 www.wisa.org.za WISA replaced the Southern African branch of the Institute of Water Pollution Control.
- WildTrust – recycling for life Tel: 033 343 6380 http://wildtrust.co.za
Earthworms can be used in a variety of waste management fields. They process any form of organic waste – from food waste (homes and restaurants) to garden wastes, to animal manures and wastes, to abattoir wastes. Refer to the “Earthworms and vermicompost” chapter for role players.
- ABC Hansen www.abchansenafrica.co.za Included in ABC Hansen’s products is equipment for waste water treatment
- Biobox Systems Tel: 086 124 6269 A wastewater management company
- io-Systems SA www.biosystemssa.co.za The “Agricultural” menu option discusses agricultural waste and its remedies
- Carin Bosman Sustainable Solutions www.cbosss.com Bosman is recognised as an excellent speaker and is the author of a number of papers on Water Pollution and Waste Management.
- Closing the Loop Tel: 073 228 8513 www.closingtheloop.co.za
- Collect-a-Can (Pty) Ltd www.collectacan.co.za
- Earth Probiotic Recycling Solutions Tel: 011 959 1083 http://earthprobiotic.co.za Recycle your food waste into compost
- EcoChem www.ecochem.com Natural Products and solutions for use in environmental cleanup, waste management, oil spill cleanup, soil reclamation, waste water treatment, algae control, manure management etc.
- EDAN Plastic www.edanplastic.co.za Irrigation equipment made from recycled material
- Enviro Mobi http://enviromobi.co.za, an innovative environmental information and service delivery management platform
- Envirosense cc http://envirosensecc.co.za
- Enviroserv Tel: 011 456 5682 www.enviroserv.co.za
- FBF Organic Waste Solutions www.fbforganics.com The Bio Activator technology can be applied to pig slurries, dairy and feedlot lagoons
- GCS Water & Environmental Consultants www.gcs-sa.biz
- JCL Plastic Enterprises (JCL) www.jclenterprises.co.za Plastic recyclers
- JEC Environmental Services Tel: 033 940 0450 www.jecenviro.co.za Waste Management Licence Applications
- Kyasol Green Building Technologies www.kyasol.co.za Small waste water treatment systems
- MBB Consulting Engineers www.mbb.co.za Integrated environmental management projects include waste management. Find regional office contact details on their website.
- MPact Recycling www.mpactrecycling.co.za Branches nationwide
- Neopak Recycling assesses your business to find ways of diverting waste from landfill, saving money and valuable natural resources. See www.neopakrecycling.co.za.
- New Horizons Energy http://nhenergy.co.za Convert waste to energy
- PROCON Environmental Technologies Tel: 0860 66 66 22/33 www.pro-enviro.co.za
- Remade Recycling Tel: 0860 736 233 www.remade.co.za
- Sannitree International Tel: 021 701 1266 www.sannitree.co.za 100% environmentally friendly products for treating all organic wastes: aquaculture, pigsty and septic tanks included.
- Sappi ReFibre www.sappi.com/recycling
- SA Waste Holdings (Pty) Ltd Tel: 011 919 0000 www.sawaste.co.za
- SPILL TECH www.spilltech.co.za Oil and chemical pollution control
- The Glass Recycling Company www.theglassrecyclingcompany.co.za Glass that is not recycled is landfilled, where it remains forever. This adds to the huge pollution issues facing our world. Recycling used glass saves energy and makes absolute sense.
- Thermopower Process Technology www.thermopower.co.za For the treatment of hazardous waste
- Waste Group www.wastegroup.co.za Branches across the country
- Waste Plan Tel: 086 111 6699 www.wasteplan.co.za Recycling collections and on-site waste management for you
- Waste Resolution Technologies http://waste-resolution-technologies.co.za The use of alkaline hydrolysis to deal with abattoir waste
- Xtreme Projects Tel: 041 582 2211 / 082 828 6762 www.xtremeprojects.co.za Deep cleaning, fire and water restoration, bio-remediation of contaminated soil, acid spills, oil spills etc
- The City of Cape Town runs IWEX (Integrated Waste Management), a free online system that enables waste generators and users to exchange waste. Read about it on www.capetown.gov.za/iwex.
- Read about the eThekwini Municipality’s Cleansing and Solid Waste Unit at www.durban.gov.za.
- GreenCape is a Sector Development Agency, http://greencape.co.za.
- Pikitup www.pikitup.co.za
- USE – IT is Ethekweni’s Waste Materials Recovery Industry Development Cluster. See http://use-it.co.za [“malicious link blocked”, 27 June 2018]
Training and research
ARC-Plant Protection Research (ARC-PPR)
Tel: 012 808 8000
The Pesticide Analysis Laboratory is involved in developing new analytical methods for quantitative analysis and confirmation of pesticide residues
ARC-Agricultural Engineering (ARC-AE)
Tel: 012 842 4000
Research and training done on farm structures (includes facilities to deal with manure).
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
Tel: 012 841 2911
Search for “Pollution and waste” on the website.
Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa (IWMSA)
Tel: 011 675 3462 /4
National Cleaner Production Centre
Prof Nico Smit Tel: 018 299 2128
Nico.smit [at] nwu.ac.za
Two new chairs were launched in August 2018 under the South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI). The University of KwaZulu-Natal hosts the Research Chair in Waste and Climate, Prof Cristina Trois, while the University of the Western Cape hosts the Research Chair in Waste and Society to Prof Catherina Schenck. The special focus on waste and climate and waste and society are two key elements of South Africa’s Waste Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Roadmap.
South African Sugarcane Research Institute (SASRI)
Tel: 031 508 7400
SUSFARMS, the Sustainable Sugarcane Farm Management System, deals with waste management. Contact SASRI for more information.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Department of Civil Engineering
Prof Cristina Trois – 031 260 3058
Pollution Research Group
Tel: 031 260 3375
Find documents and papers like “Sustainable reuse of wineries waste” and “Community-led total sanitation – Lessons and recommendations” on the Water Research Commission website, www.wrc.org.za.
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier in this chapter.
- The BeauTi-FueL™ Project was about turning waste and garbage into liquid fuel, electricity, waxes and paraffin. The technology was developed by an engineering team from the University of the Witwatersrand and the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Find the BeauTi-Fuel video on www.youtube.com.
- www.mywaste.co.za is a recycling portal
- Toxipedia is a free toxicology encyclopedia. Go to www.asmalldoseoftoxicology.org/toxipedia.
- For a list of all registered agricultural Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects across the world, go to http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/registered.html, to click on “Project search” and to choose the “agricultural” category.
- Zero Emissions Research Initiative (ZERI) – www.zeri.org
- Global Alliance of Waste Pickers – http://globalrec.org/
- To read tips and suggestions about waste management, visit www.greenworks.co.za.
- Cups made from Rice husks http://go-ecozone.com/
- “Why recycle when you can upcycle?” www.upcycling.co.uk
- Call 012 842 4000/17 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the following publication, available from ARC-Agricultural Engineering: Manure Handling in Intensive Animal Production Units in South Africa by H T Breedt (Pr Eng), Edited and revised by F Cilliers (Pr Eng) 2009.
- The Best practice reference manual for wool sheep farming in South Africa, brought out by the National Wool Growers Association (NWGA) includes notes on waste management along with the other information. Find the document on www.nwga.co.za or contact 041 365 5030.
- Camp, W.G. & Heath-Camp, B. 2016. Managing Our Natural Resources. 6th Edition. Boston, MA: CENGAGE Learning.
- Water & Sanitation Africa – complete water resource and wastewater management. bi-monthly magazine from 3S Media. Call 011 233 2600 or visit www.3smedia.co.za.
- Arnoldi, M. 2018, October 17. “Informal waste pickers should be integrated into formal waste management sector, suggests analyst”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/informal-waste-pickers-should-be-integrated-into-formal-waste-management-sector-suggests-analyst-2018-10-17
- Zama, S. 2018, June 20. “Springs business finds innovative way to reuse used motor oil”. Available at https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/1959003/springs-business-finds-innovative-way-to-reuse-used-motor-oil/
- Schreuder, N. 2018, June 12. “Compulsory recycling will turn residents, waste pickers into each other’s sidekicks”. The Citizen. Available at https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/1951605/compulsory-recycling-will-turn-residents-waste-pickers-into-each-others-sidekicks/
- Palm, K. 2018, May 17. “SA plastic industry breaks recycling record”. Eye Witness News. Available at http://ewn.co.za/2018/05/17/sa-plastic-industry-breaks-recycling-record
- Reporter. 2017, August 23. “Soy as an alternative to plastic”. CosmeticBusiness. Available at www.cosmetic-business.com/news/677182
- Ellis, M. 2018, January 11. “PE project gives unemployed a helping hand with innovative trading system”. LEADSA. Available at http://leadsa.co.za/articles/287694/project-gives-unemployed-helping-hand-with-trading-system
- Find the parliamentary Portfolio Committee of Environmental Affairs colloquim (March 2017) notes at https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/24152/
- Van Wyngaardt, M. 2016, October 21. “Growing appreciation for the economic and environmental contribution of South Africa’s waste pickers”. Engineering News. Available at www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/growing-appreciation-for-the-economic-and-environmental-contribution-of-south-africas-waste-pickers-2016-10-21
- Read the article “Plastic pollution risks ‘near permanent contamination of natural environment’” (2017, July) at www.theguardian.com.
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