Agrochemicals are an intervention that assists farmers grow their product – be it fruit, grain, vegetable or livestock – and for use in the various forms of processing and post-harvest treatments.
Choosing the right chemicals can be bewildering, and a wrong choice can lead to marketing and financial problems. The misuse of agrochemicals too introduces a negative note. Many of them are toxic with potential hazards for the environment and wildlife, and humans. For this reason, trade in chemicals is well regulated and great emphasis is placed on the correct handling and storage of chemicals. Agrochemicals help ensure food security.
Major initiatives by CropLife SA (under the umbrella association AVCASA)
In addition to the training courses mentioned in the “Crop protection” chapters, the following is undertaken:
- Retrieval and disposal of obsolete stock. AVCASA runs a waste management programme in line with the National Waste Management Act which is aimed at retrieving and disposing of obsolete stocks in South Africa.
- Pesticide Container Management. AVCASA works on various environmentally sound container management strategies for adoption and implementation by industry in line with the above.
- Aerial Application. CropLife SA, in alliance with the SA Aerial Applicators Association, has modern calibration equipment from the USA which ensures a more efficient aerial application of products.
- South African Pollinator Forum. (see “Crop protection” chapter).
Poison Information Centres
For advice on cases of poisoning:
- Tygerberg Poison Information Centre (Human Poisoning), 021 931 6129
- Red Cross Children’s Hospital Poison Line, 021 689 5227
- Public Emergency Communication Centre, 021 480 7700
- Griffon Poison Information Centre (Wildlife Poison), 082 446 8946
- Nashua Pesticides Helpline 082 325 6223 Tim Snow
African business environment
Top trends shaping the future of the African chemicals industry include:
- An uptake in digitisation by chemical companies in Africa due to major business hubs such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya;
- Increased local manufacturing, intra-Africa trade, and diversification in business models, portoflios and economics;
- Additive manufacturing disrupting the industry with significant growth potential over the next three to five years;
- Increased use of precision agriculture (smart farming) as concerns over food production heighten;
- Rise of startups drives productivity in agriculture due to the use and benefits of IoT.
Frost & Sullivan’s research, Africa Chemicals Outlook 2017: Adoption of Mobile Technologies to Drive Innovation in the African Chemicals Industry, outlines the key trends, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa, that will impact the African chemicals market over the next few years. Find the Frost & Sullivan report at https://go.frost.com/AF_PR_SJames_MD0A_Oct17.
National strategy and government contact
The Department of Trade & Industry (the dti) 2017/18-2019/20 Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) provides a very useful overview of the chemicals sector as it sets out its interventions to encourage growth. This is contained on pages 138-140 of the document which can be downloaded at www.thedti.gov.za.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)
Registrar: Act No. 36 of 1947
Tel: 012 319 7303
In South Africa all chemicals used for the control of any pest or disease on a plant must be registered for such use under Act 36 of 1947 (the Fertilisers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act). An amendment to this Act (No R.1716 of 26 July 1991) prohibits the acquisition, disposal, sale or use of an agricultural remedy for a purpose or in a manner other than that specified on the label on the container.
The list of registered products is updated regularly with new agrochemicals introduced and some removed. The use of the old ones is illegal and it is in the producer’s interest to keep up to date with the list of registered agents. Find the Agricultural Remedies Database at www.avcasa.co.za.
The Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (Act No. 54 of 1972) determines the maximum residue levels of agricultural chemicals that may occur on food products in South Africa and is applied by the Department of Health (see www.health.gov.za).
The Department of Science & Technology is involved with the Post Harvest Innovation Programme. See www.postharvestinnovation.org.za.
Other government departments
- Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) www.environment.gov.za
- Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) www.thedti.gov.za
- Department of Water & Sanitation (DWS) www.dwa.gov.za
- Department of Transport (DoT) www.transport.gov.za
The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) has compiled a national standard which summarises all legislation which pertains to the handling and storage of chemicals on farms – SANS 10206. It applies to all kinds of farming, including fruit, grain, vegetable and livestock. See www.sabs.co.za (find the “Services and sectors” option).
- Animal Feed Manufacturers Association (AFMA) www.afma.co.za
- Association of Veterinary and Crop Associations of South Africa (AVCASA) www.avcasa.co.za. AVCASA has two affiliates, namely CropLife SA (www.croplife.co.za) and the South African Animal Health Association (www.saaha.co.za).
- Responsible Packaging Management Association of South Africa (RPMASA) www.rpmasa.org.za
- South African Association for Food Science and Technology (SAAFoST) www.saafost.org.za
The Sustainable Sugarcane Farm Management System (Susfarms®), linked to the WWF SA, the South African Sugar Association and other role players, provides sugarcane farmers with a tool to keep on the right side of agrochemical usage.
Other associations like Grain SA include guidelines in the handling and storage of chemicals in their material for farmers.
Training & research
- AVCASA offers training programmes in responsible product handling and use. See www.avcasa.co.za or call 011 805 2000.
- The RPMASA also co-ordinates training.
- The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) runs workshops and training. Visit www.sabs.co.za or call 012 428 7911.
- AgriSETA accredited trainers like Agriskills Transfer provide training in the handling of agrochemicals. Call 012 460 9585 or visit www.agriskills.net.
- The relevant education and training authority (SETA) is CHIETA. Visit www.chieta.org.za.
- Wildlife Poisoning Prevention Tel: 082 802 6223 http://wildlifepoisoningprevention.co.za Training to prevent unforseen results of using chemicals
- Birdlife SA Tel: 011 789 1122 www.birdlife.org.za
Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) Tel: 011 372 3600 Birds of Prey Programme andreb [at] ewt.org.za, Carnivore Conflict Mitigation derekv [at] ewt.org.za, www.ewt.org.za
Websites and publications
Registered chemicals in South Africa are published in guides such as A Guide for the Control of Plant Diseases and A Guide for the Control of Plant Pests issued by the DAFF on a regular basis. Contact 012 319 7141 or write: Resource Centre, Private Bag X144, Pretoria 0001.
The following publications are available from DAFF’s Resource Centre, and can also be accessed at www.daff.gov.za (take the “Resource Centre” option):
- Pesticides: disposing of empty containers
- Pesticides: How to handle pesticides safely
- Pesticides: poisoning
- Pesticides: protective clothing
- Pesticides: Safety measures
- Pesticides: storing agrochemicals and stock remedies
- Pesticides: What does the label say?
Publications available from CropLife SA/AVCASA:
- AGCHEM lists of coded products for integrated fruit production
- Plant Disease Compendium
- Weed Control Compendium
- Problem Plant Control Compendium
- Plant Pests Compendium
- Control of Indoors Pests compendium
- A Guide for Operators: Responsible Pesticide Use (Available in 11 official languages)
- Guide to the Treatment of Poisoning by Chemicals – a must for the medical profession.
- Guidelines to the RSA Classification Code and Labeling of Agricultural Chemicals and Stock Remedies
- Guidelines for the Road Transportation of Classified Dangerous Goods and Substances
- Responsible Use poster
To view a table comparing the pre- and post-2014 signs displayed on chemical products, find the article “New chemical warning signs are set for international understanding” at www.bizcommunity.com.
Production guidelines like those by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) Institutes include the latest information on agrochemicals. In the case of grain farmers, the Maize Information Guide and Manual for the production of small grains, published every year apply. The publications are free of charge for producers. They can also be downloaded at www.arc.agric.za.
A database of agrochemicals and related services for South Africa exist at www.agri-intel.com.
- Agribusiness Global – www.agribusinessglobal.com
- Find the future for Agrochemicals Market Industry Report 2017-2024 by Global Market Insights at http://bit.ly/2ph8MLv.
- Rosane O. 2018, June 22. “Farm Bill With Huge Giveaways to Pesticide Industry Passes House”. EcoWatch. Available at www.ecowatch.com/farm-bill-passes-house-2580286425.html