The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) defines biotechnology as: “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”.
These technologies are applied in crops, forestry, livestock and aquaculture, and in food processing.
They are used for many different purposes, such as the genetic improvement of plants and animals to increase their yields or efficiency; characterisation and conservation of genetic resources for food and agriculture; plant and animal disease diagnosis; vaccine development; and production of fermented foods.
Source: www.fao.org/biotechnology/en/ (adapted)
Biotechnology in agriculture-related sectors
Biotechnology in crops
Biotechnologies used for crops include tissue culture based techniques (such as micropropagation), mutagenesis (the use of agents like chemicals or radiation to modify DNA), interspecific or intergeneric hybridisation, genetic modification, marker-assisted selection (MAS), disease diagnostics and bioprotection, and biofertilisation.
It is important to underline that biotechnology can assist and expand, but not substitute, traditional plant breeding programmes. The presence of skilled personnel and adequate facilities for the identification of appropriate parents and segregating materials, as well as the selection of improved lines for their stabilisation and agronomic assessment, are essential. Even countries that decide to rely on research results obtained abroad, for instance in neighbouring countries with similar ecological conditions, need capacities for the evaluation, adaptation and adoption of improved lines developed elsewhere. Investments in biotechnology infrastructures and human capacities cannot therefore be made at the expense of conventional breeding or agronomic research and strong breeding programmes must remain at the core of crop improvement.
Source: Biotechnologies for Agricultural Development, p 28
Biotechnology in livestock
Artificial insemination (AI), Embryo Transfer (ET) and use of molecular markers is the focus. A wide range of biotechnologies are available and have already been used in developing countries in the main animal science disciplines, i.e. animal reproduction, genetics and breeding; animal nutrition and production; and animal health.
In animal reproduction, genetics and breeding, artificial insemination (AI) has perhaps been the most widely applied animal biotechnology, particularly in combination with cryopreservation, allowing significant genetic improvement for productivity as well as the global dissemination of selected male germplasm. Complementary technologies such as monitoring reproductive hormones, oestrus synchronization and semen sexing can improve the efficiency of AI. Embryo transfer provides the same opportunities for females, albeit on a much smaller scale and at a much greater price. Molecular DNA markers can also be used for genetic improvement through marker-assisted selection (MAS) as well as to characterise and conserve animal genetic resources. [p 123]
Biotechnologies for Agricultural Development identifies and looks at the following:
- Artificial insemination
- Sperm sexing
- Progesterone monitoring
- Oestrus synchronization
- Embryo transfer
- Embryo sexing
- In vitro fertilization (IVF)
- Recombinant DNA technology
- Molecular markers
Products from biotechnological processes are added to animal feeds e.g. nutrients, enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics. Biotechnology also advances measures to benefit e.g. sterile insect technique (SIT) to counter insects like tsetse fly which cause livestock disease.
Biotechnology in forestry
The focus is on micropropagation. Micropropagation includes somatic embryogenesis (SE), a tissue culture technique. Other biotechnologies include molecular markers and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, whole genome sequencing and functional genomics. The more sophisticated group of biotechnologies includes backward and reverse genomics approaches, whole-genome sequencing, low-cost vegetative propagation and genetic modification of forest trees. Biofertilisers and biopesticides also play a part. [p79]
Biotechnology in aquaculture
The four main areas where biotechnologies have been used in aquaculture and fisheries include genetic improvement and control of reproduction; biosecurity and disease control; environmental management and bioremediation; and biodiversity conservation and fisheries management.
Biotechnology in food processing
Biotechnology makes use of microbial inoculants to enhance properties such as the taste, aroma, shelf-life, texture and nutritional value of foods through fermentation which is also widely applied to produce microbial cultures, enzymes, flavours, fragrances, food additives and a range of other high value-added products.
International business environment
- African Agricultural Technology Foundation – http://aatf-africa.org
- African Biological Safety Association (AfBSA) – http://afbsa.org
- African Biosafety Network of Expertise (ABNE) – http://nepad-abne.net/
- AgriForest Bio-Technologies – www.agriforestbiotech.com
- AquaBounty Technologies, genetically engineered salmon – https://aquabounty.com
- BGI creates cloned pigs – www.genomics.cn
- Biosafety Clearing-House (BCH) – http://bch.cbd.int
- Bioversity International – www.bioversityinternational.org
- Boyalife Group – www.boyalifegroup.com
- Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) – www.conacyt.gov.py
- Comisión Intersecretarial de Bioseguridad y Organismo Genéticamente Modificados (CIBIOGEM) – http://conacyt.gob.mx/cibiogem/
- Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) – www.cgiar.org
- CropLife International – http://croplife.org Find the “Plant Biotechnology” menu option
- European South African Science and Technology Advancement Programme (ESASTAP), an initiative of South African Department of Science and Technology’s Programme for International Co-operation and Resources – www.esastap.org.za
- Read about the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) says about biotechnology at www.fao.org/biotechnology/en/
- Global Forum on Agricultural Research (GFAR) – www.gfar.net
- www.grain.org – website of Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN)
- GMO Free USA – https://gmofreeusa.org
- Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agricolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP) – www.inifap.gob.mx
- International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) – www.icgeb.org
- International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) – www.isaaa.org
- The Global Crop Diversity Trust – www.croptrust.org
- Okanagan Specialty Fruits, the first GMO apples – www.okspecialtyfruits.com
- Southern Africa Network for Biosciences (SANBio) – www.nepadsanbio.org
- Union for the International Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) – www.upov.int
- The United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – www.unesco.org
- World Health Organisation (WHO) http://who.int/topics/food_genetically_modified/en/
Centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) operate genebanks containing more than 650 000 samples of staple crops and related wild species. Those materials include traditional varieties developed through many generations of selection by farmers, as well as wild species, crop breeding lines and improved varieties. See www.cgiar.org/research/research-centers. Some of these are listed below.
|Centre and website||Genebank|
|Africa Rice Centre (WARDA) www.africarice.org||Rice|
|International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) – www.ciat.cgiar.org||Beans, cassava, forages|
|Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) – www.cifor.org||Forestry|
|International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) www.cimmyt.org||Maize, rye, triticale, wheat|
|International Potato Centre (CIP) www.cipotato.org||Andean roots and tubers, potato, sweetpotato|
|International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) www.icarda.org||Barley, chickpea, faba bean, forage, lentil, wheat|
|World Agroforestry Centre www.worldagroforestry.org||Forestry|
|International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) www.icrisat.org||Chickpea, groundnut, pearl millet and other millets, pigeonpea, sorghum|
|International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) – www.iita.org||Bambara groundnut, cassava, cowpea, soybean, yam|
|International Livestock Research Institute www.ilri.org||Forages|
|International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) http://irri.org||Rice|
- Find global statistics at www.isaaa.org, website of International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications.
- Read about the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture at www.fao.org/plant-treaty/en.
- Information about the Nagoya Protocol is available at www.cbd.int/abs/about/. The latter “provides a transparent legal framework for … the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources”.
- To read about the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, an international agreement to regulate the transboundary movements of genetically engineered organisms, go to https://bch.cbd.int/protocol.
- Find the USDA Agricultural Biotechnology reports on different countries, including the one on South Africa (2020, Feb).
- Find the article by Wandile Sihlobo (Agbiz) under “Websites & publications” (last heading) which argues that institutional limitations are a greater impediment to the acceptance of biotech crops in Africa than a belief that they pose health problems.
Local business environment
GMO maize, soybean and cotton are approved and well established in commercial production in South Africa. The annual report of the South African National Seed Organisation (SANSOR) includes a Gentically Modified Seed chapter. This captures the developments and sales relevant to this sector. Find it at www.sansor.org.
GMO – a need for rapid testing
GMO testing is a legislative requirement in the grain industry. Requirements of the Cartagena Protocol make it essential to test grain for GMO presence.
Two common methods are used for testing of GMO:
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): Molecular DNA test which detects certain DNA sequences in ground grain samples. This method is performed in a laboratory and requires trained personnel. The method takes several hours to complete and cost per analysis is high.
- Immunoassay: This method makes us of specific antibodies to detect specific proteins expressed by the gene involved in the GMO technology. It is usually in the form of a flow lateral flow strip, and can be performed at the grain facility. Minimal training is required. This is a rapid test, completed in 5 minutes and cost per analysis is low.
Studies have shown that the lateral flow strip shows excellent is ideal for screening throughout the supply chain, from the field to the silo and every step in between, and all this while maintaining a relatively accurate result.
While polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered as the “gold standard” for certifying non-GMO maize for export; It is not always feasible to perform PCR at every stage of the supply chain because it of time and cost constraints.
During importation and exportation, grain needs to be tested at the harbours and borders to prevent GMO grain from entering a non-GMO area. Testing after arrival at a grain processors’ facility is important to pick up any contamination that could have occurred during loading and transportation.
In most cases this neglected, since the PCR techniques are not simple to perform and requires time which may not be available.
Most industry, farmers, and users requiring rapid results are moving toward Lateral flow devices. Results are available immediately and time is not wasted by waiting for laboratory results which can take days. The lateral flow devices help the grain move faster through the supply chain.
The greatest need of any industry is time, and Lateral Flow devices offer exactly this to the user. It is a growing trend, and the move toward Rapid GMO testing has enabled decisions on storage and transportation of product to be made quickly and accurately.
Source: Stargate Scientific. Visit them at www.stargatescientific.co.za.
National strategy and government contact
Education and research is covered in chapter 9 of the National Development Plan (NDP). Of interest to this article, plant cultivars is listed as one area in which SA research has been good.
In South Africa, plant breeders’ rights (PBR) are protected under the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, 1976 (Act No.15 of 1976). Also of relevance are the Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997 (Act No.15 of 1997) and Plant Improvement Act, 1976 (Act No. 53 of 1976). An amendment of the latter is currently before parliament. Find copies of these acts at http://sansor.org/seed-legislation. Of relevance to livestock is the Animal Improvement Act, 1998 (Act 62 of 1998).
Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)
The Directorate Genetic Resources administers the Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR) Act, Act No. 15 of 1976 as amended in 1996. The objective of this Act is to provide for a system through which intellectual property rights (plant breeders’ rights) relating to varieties of certain kinds of plants may be granted and registered.
Find details of the Directorate: Genetic Resources; Registrar: Plant Breeder Rights Act; Registrar for the Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997; and The Plant Genetic Resources Centre (PGRC) at www.dalrrd.gov.za. Information and contact details for all DALRRD directorates can be found under the “Branches” menu option on the website.
Department of Science and Innovation (DSI) www.dst.gov.za
Phone the Biotechnology Strategies Unit at 012 843 6531 (Manager).
- Agriculture is one of three sectors targeted by the DSI’s Bio-Economy Strategy. Together with the Technology Innovation Agency (TIA) it has projects involving wheat, cassava, sweet stem sorghum, table grapes, indigenous flower bulbs, and more. Read about the TIA at www.tia.org.za. Download a copy of the Bio-Economy Strategy from the DSI website or at www.gov.za.
- The DSI’s agency, the South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement (SAASTA), runs a technology awareness campaign called the Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB). Visit www.saasta.ac.za and www.pub.ac.za.
- Biosafety SA http://biosafety.org.za.
Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment www.environment.gov.za
This Directorate: Biodiversity Risk Management was formed to co-ordinate and support work in implementing the Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety. Call 012 399 9000 for more information.
- South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) is legally mandated to monitor the impacts of GMOs in our environment. Visit www.sanbi.org.
The Department of Trade, Industry and Competition (the dtic) considers trade and industrial development issues. See www.thedti.gov.za.
Department of Health (DOH) www.doh.gov.za
The DoH, which has a Biotec unit, has responsibility for labelling and related legislation. According to the Consumer Protection Act, food containing more than 5% of a GM ingredient needs to be labelled. Call 012 312 0000.
- Bayer in Southern Africa Tel: 011 921 5911 www.bayer.com/en/za/southern-africa-home
- Bioindustrial Services Tel: 011 822 8135 www.bioindustrial.co.za
- Biosafety South Africa Tel: 021 850 0530 www.biosafety.org.za
- Citrogold www.citrogold.co.za “a specialised platform for commercialising their new varieties”
- DuPont Tel: 011 218 8600 www.dupont.com and www.dupont.co.za Includes a Regional Technology Centre in Delmas.
- Du Roi Tel: 015 345 1217 www.duroilab.co.za Du Roi Laboratory is a South African-based horticultural company specialising in the production of tissue culture banana and sugarcane plants.
- Dube AgriZone has a plant tissue culture facility. Call 032 814 0000 or visit www.dubetradeport.co.za
- FoodNCropBio Wynand van der Walt Tel: 012 347 6334 / 083 468 3471 wynandjvdw [at] telkomsa.net Refer to the “Consultants” chapter for services here.
- Hishtil SA Tel: 015 395 4034 / 43 www.hishtilsa.com Hishtil complies with the strictest international standards of healthy and clean propagation material production complying with ISO 9001:2000 and GLOBALG.A.P.
- INCOTEC South Africa Tel: 033 386 1560 / 071 352 1493 www.incotec.com/sa/en Seed and coating technology
- Stargate Scientific Tel: 011 675 7433 www.stargatescientific.co.za GMO Test and other equipment supplied to many sectors
- Stargrow Tel: 021 880 1882 www.stargrow.co.za Stargrow is a Cultivar Developer and Fruit Tree Nursery.
- SunBio is a company within the Institute for Wine Biotechnology at Stellenbosch University. It is aimed at commercialising the research outputs of the Institute. Find its pages at www.sun.ac.za/wine_biotechnology
- Syngenta South Africa (Pty) Limited Tel: 011 541 4000 www.syngenta.com andwww.syngenta.co.za
- TopFruit Tel: 021 874 1033 www.topfruit.co.za
- Agribusiness and biotechnology are both priorities for Wesgro in the Western Cape. Find more at http://wesgro.co.za.
Also find the list of companies on the “Animal Improvement and breeders” page.
NGOs and industry bodies
- AfricaBio Tel: 012 844 0126 www.africabio.com
- African Centre for Biosafety Tel: 011 486 1156 www.acbio.org.za
- African Harvest Biotech Foundation International Tel: 011 079 4189 http://africaharvest.org
- Biowatch South Africa Tel: 031 206 2954 www.biowatch.org.za
- Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA) Tel: 0861 242 000 www.cgcsa.co.za The Consumer Goods Council of South Africa is “an industry body representing over 12 000 member companies in the retail, wholesale, manufacturing within the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) industry”. It is involved in negotiations around the GM labelling.
- Deciduous Fruit Plant Improvement Association – see Plant Improvement
- South African Cultivar and Technology Agency (SACTA) www.sactalevy.co.za
- South Africa Plant Improvement South Africa www.plantsa.co.za
- South African Plant Improvement Organisation (SAPO) www.saplant.co.za
- South African Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology www.sasbmb.org.za
- Southern Africa Plant Breeders’ Association (SAPBA) www.sapba.co.za
Training and research
The PUB website contains a list of training providers and institutions in this area, along with possible careers in genetics and biotechnology. Visit www.pub.ac.za. Another place to find tertiary institutions is on the “Links” menu option on the Southern Africa Plant Breeders’ Association website – www.sapba.co.za.
- AfricaBio www.africabio.com
- African Centre for Crop Improvement (ACCI) www.acci.org.za
- The African Centre for Gene Technologies (ACGT) is an initiative that involves the CSIR, the University of Pretoria, the University of the Witwatersrand, the University of Johannesburg and the Agricultural Research Council (ARC). Visit www.acgt.co.za for more information.
- ARC-Vegetable and Ornamental Plants (ARC-VOP) www.arc.agric.za Biotechnology forms an integral part of the Plant Breeding and Crop Protection divisions of the Agricultural Research Council’s Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plants. The Plant Breeding division relies on biotechnology for the development of molecular markers for various vegetable crops. The other ARC horticultural and field crop research campuses do research, breeding new cultivars producing seed for cultivars developed in breeding projects. Find their details on the “Research and development” page.
- The AgriSETA Learner Guide Primary Agriculture “Explain the propagation of plants”, the Assessment Guide “Propagate plants”, and links to South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA)-accredited qualifications like “Manipulate plants” and “Demonstrate an understanding of plant propagation” can be found at www.agriseta.co.za.
- Cape Peninsular University of Technology Department of Biotechnology www.cput.ac.za
- Cape Peninsular University of Technology Department of Horticulture www.cput.ac.za
- Central University of Technology (CUT) Centre for Applied Food Security and – Biotechnology (CAFSaB)www.cut.ac.za/cafsab
- CSIR – Biosciences www.csir.co.za
- Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) – see University of Pretoria
- Human Science Research Council (HSRC) www.hsrc.ac.za Dr Michael Gastrow conducted a survey in 2016 on the Public Perceptions of Biotechnology in South Africa.
- Institute for Commercial Forestry Research www.icfr.ukzn.ac.za
- National Research Foundation www.nrf.ac.za
- North-West University School of Environmental and Health Sciences www.nwu.ac.za
- Private Companies conduct their own research.
- Read about Rhodes University’s Biomedical Biotechnology Research Unit at www.ru.ac.za/biobru
- Stellenbosch University (SU) Institute of Plant Biotechnology (IPB) www.sun.ac.za
- SU Institute of Wine Biotechnology (IWB) www.sun.ac.za/wine_biotechnology The IWB has long term collaboration with the South African Wine Industry to generate transgenic grapevine with improved disease resistance.
- SU Department of Genetics Plant Breeding Laboratory (SU-PBL) www.sun.ac.za/genetics
- SA National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) GMO Monitoring and Research Unit www.sanbi.org
- University of Cape Town (UCT) Molecular and Cell Biology www.mcb.uct.ac.za
- University of the Free State (UFS) Department of Plant Sciences www.ufs.ac.za/plantsci
- UFS Department of Agricultural Economics www.ufs.ac.za/agri-econ
- University of Johannesburg Plant Biotechnology Programme www.uj.ac.za
- University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) Department of Crop Science www.ukzn.ac.za
- UKZN School of Life Sciences http://plantgermcons.ukzn.ac.za
- University of Pretoria (UP) Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI) www.fabinet.up.ac.za
- UP Plant and Soil Sciences www.up.ac.za
- University of the Western Cape Department of Biotechnology www.uwc.ac.za
- University of the Witwatersrand School of Molecular & Cell Biology www.wits.ac.za
- Vaal University of Technology www.vut.ac.za
Websites and publications
Visit the websites listed earlier on this page.
- Download the publication Biotechnologies for Agricultural Development from www.fao.org.
- Read the USDA report on South Africa entitled “Agricultural Biotechnology Annual: Biotechnology and Other New Production Technologies” (2020, October 14) on the Internet
- Find the quarterly South African Plant Variety Journal on the Directorate: Genetic Resources webpages at www.dalrrd.gov.za.
- A number of publications are available from the Biotechnology Unit at the Department of Science and Innovation (DSI).
- Access the biotechnology cartoons commissioned by the DSI’s Public Understanding of Biotechnology (PUB) unit at www.pub.ac.za.
- An inventory of wild relatives to food crops has been compiled at www.cwrdiversity.org. This offers potential for plant breeders who could use genes to strengthen agricultural crops.
- Grouse M. 2016. Genetically Modified Maize. BFAP. Available at www.bfap.co.za/genetically-modified-maize/
- Bayer’s pages on glyphosate are www.glyphosatelitigationfacts.com/main/ and www.bayer.com/en/glyphosate-roundup.aspx.
- Running a non-GMO food operation is quite difficult. Find the check lists of such a company at www.futurelife.co.za/gmo.
- www.actionbioscience.org – “Bringing biology to informed decision making”
- “Support GMOs and Golden Rice”, http://supportprecisionagriculture.org/
- Muigai A., Djikeng A. & Echezona T. 2022, April 19.”Why African scientists are studying the genes of African species, and how they do it”. The Conversation. Available at https://theconversation.com/why-african-scientists-are-studying-the-genes-of-african-species-and-how-they-do-it-180881
- Daba T. 2020, December 9. “Why a new potato variety could be a game-changer for farmers in East Africa”. The Conversation. Available at https://theconversation.com/why-a-new-potato-variety-could-be-a-game-changer-for-farmers-in-east-africa-150801
- McKie R. 2020, June 14. “Lords seek to allow gene-editing in UK ‘to produce healthy, hardier crops'”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/science/2020/jun/14/lords-seek-to-allow-gene-editing-in-uk-to-produce-healthy-hardier-crops
- Edgell D. 2019, October 7. “Gene editing needs to become more precise to live up to its promise”. The Conversation. Available at https://theconversation.com/gene-editing-needs-to-become-more-precise-to-live-up-to-its-promise-123845
- Botha L. 2019, September 11. “Gene editing: a precise approach to crop and animal breeding”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/agri-technology/farming-for-tomorrow/gene-editing-a-precise-approach-to-crop-and-animal-breeding/
- Neslen, A. 2018, July 25. “Gene-edited plants and animals are GM foods, EU court rules”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/25/gene-editing-is-gm-europes-highest-court-rules
- Ghosh, P. 2018, June 20. “Gene-edited farm animals are on their way”. BBC News. Available at www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-44388038
- Devlin, H. 2018, March 17. “Scientists on brink of overcoming livestock diseases through gene editing”. The Guardian. Available at www.theguardian.com/science/2018/mar/17/scientists-on-brink-of-overcoming-livestock-diseases-through-gene-editing
- Dovey, D. 2018, February 2. “GMO Corn Is Safe and Even Has Health Benefits, Analysis of 6,000 Studies Concludes”. Newsweek. Available at www.newsweek.com/gmo-ge-corn-farming-agriculture-816261
- Sihlobo, W. 2017, July 6. “Institutional issues are the main bugbear”. The Green Keeper. Available at www.thegreenkeeper.co.za/institutional-issues-are-the-main-bugbear/
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