Food is a dynamic substance which changes with time and through exposure to different temperatures, storage conditions and processing methods.

  • Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the production, harvesting, handling, processing, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of procedures and practices that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease to humans as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.
  • Traceability gives the ability to identify the past or current location of a food item, as well as to know the item’s history. To achieve traceability, a producer and other supply chain participants must be able to link the physical flow of materials and products with information about locations, parties, processes and conditions. Traceability of food products is driven by food safety requirements and consumer concerns about where the food they eat comes from and how it was produced.

Some notes on traceability

Traceability helps to identify the source of products and their ingredients, to identify the processes conducted, to assure compliance with food safety standards, and to affirm the authenticity of a product and claims made about it. When something goes wrong, the information recorded for traceability purposes can help to locate and prevent further distribution of products that may be affected, and if necessary support withdrawals.

Implementing traceability requires supply chain participants to link the physical flow of materials and products with information about locations, parties and processes. This requires each party to keep “vital records”. “Vital records” are the minimum records required to achieve a particular outcome.

The following actions are required in order to achieve traceability:

  • Identify and record the food and its components
  • Identify and record relevant locations and parties
  • Identify and record treatments and processes
  • Record movements of products, one-step-back and one-step-forwards, in other words – what exactly was received from whom, and what exactly was sent to whom
  • Record changes of constitution of products, such as breaking or building a pallet
  • Record transformations of products, for example on-site processing
  • Link the inputs to the outputs, taking account of constitutional changes and transformations
  • When needed, recreate what happened from records,
  • View across the whole supply chain (which is the greatest challenge)

Typical uses for traceability:

  • provides a foundation for vital data records
  • determines the origin of a product
  • gives evidence of compliance to requirements of regulations, agreements and standards
  • authenticates claims made about a product, such as “Organic” and “Fairtrade”
  • satisfies consumer demands for information on production conditions
  • reports on, locates and manages products that might have a problem.

Traceability vital records enable us to recreate the production, processing and distribution of a food or feed product, and associate a specific product with others that shared its experiences or which it met in its journey on and from farm to fork. Traceability systems enable this to happen quickly and efficiently.

The details to be recorded would depend on the reason for having traceability – food safety data requirements and records would differ from those for organic products, fair trade and carbon footprint. However, all could apply to the same product across its production and supply chains.

A “traceability system” is defined as the totality of data and operations that is capable of maintaining desired information about a product and its components through all or part of its production and utilisation chain (ISO22005:2007; SANS22005:2009).

Source: Gwynne Foster of Interlinks Traceability Services

International business environment

If we wish to be internationally competitive, exporters of food and beverages must be aware of and implement the numerous protocols, systems and standards which include:

GLOBALG.A.P.

  • Find the standard documents on www.globalgap.org
  • The GLOBALG.A.P. standard is primarily designed to reassure consumers about how food is produced on the farm by minimising detrimental environmental impacts of farming operations, reducing the use of chemical inputs and ensuring a responsible approach to worker health and safety as well as animal welfare.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

  • Find guidelines on www.fao.org
  • HACCP is a food safety management system that is based on proactivity and prevention, and is therefore seen as the management of product safety to prevent food poisoning incidents. It can be used to ensure quality, and goes a long way to ensuring food safety.
  • There are control points – and critical control points (CCP). The CCP is any point at which a hazard can be prevented, reduced or eliminated in a food process.

The Codex Alimentarius

  • Find these documents on www.codexalimentarius.org
  • This is a collection of international set of standards, guidelines and codes of practice. Each country has the right to set stricter standards and/or regulations than Codex guidelines, under the WTO SPS agreement, provided that that country can scientifically prove why their regulations are stricter (otherwise these can be seen as an artificial barrier to trade).
  • These food standards aim to protect consumer’s health and ensure fair practices in the food trade. The Codex Alimentarius includes standards for all the principle foods, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, for distribution to the consumer.

GS1 Standards

  • Find out more at www.gs1za.org
  • The GSI Standards identify locations, trade items and logistics units. The GS1 South Africa User Manual, the Global User Manual and the GS1 General Specifications can be ordered from GS1 South Africa.

ISO 22000

ISO 22000 is a Food Safety Management System that can be applied to any organisation in the food chain, farm to fork. Becoming certified to ISO 22000 allows a company to show their customers that they have a food safety management system in place. ISO 22 000 was modified in July 2018 to reflect new food safety challenges. Find more at www.iso.org/iso-22000-revision.html and www.iso.org/iso-22000-food-safety-management.html.

The Food Safety System Certification (FSSC)

The Food Safety System Certification (FSSC) is a voluntary certification based on ISO standards and is recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI). The certificate affirms that the inspected production facilities of global food companies meet the food safety requirements of its customers. See www.fssc22000.com.

Find the different Global Food Safety Initiative documents at www.cgcsa.co.za.

 

Some international websites

The World Health Organization’s five keys to food safety :

 

  • Keep clean. Wash your hands before handling food and often during food preparation.
  • Separate raw and cooked food. If you are handling or storing raw food, do not touch already cooked food unless you have already washed your hands and food preparation utensils.
  • Cook food thoroughly. Food that does not usually need cooking before eating should be washed thoroughly with clean running water.
  • Keep food at safe temperatures.
  • Use safe water for domestic use at all times or boil before use.

Local business environment

Read about Food Business Operators under the “National strategy and Government contacts” heading.

 

A critique of South Africa’s food safety system

  • Pieces of legislation that manage how food safety is handled remain outdated. It means that the systems in place are inadequate. This includes detecting and verifying potential problems.
  • On top of this there is a critical shortage of regulators, inspectors, laboratory personnel, scientists and auditors.
  • South Africa has been dealing with a lack of effective regulation in the food sector. Industry has relied on self regulation in the absence of an effective regulatory system. Product recall is also not common despite being a requirement in food safety systems. Due to the gaps in the system companies can become complacent and provide sub-standard products if not pressured to effectively self regulate.
  • Another problem is that when there are threats of a foodborne disease, the government, industry and academia work in silos and don’t share knowledge or technologies that could benefit the whole country. These shortcomings were all evident in the extensive delay between the first reported case in January 2017, the announcement of the outbreak in December 2017 and the source being identified in March 2018. In the intervening 14 months, more than 180 people died and close to a thousand were affected.

 

Solution

  • The South African government should consider establishing a national food safety authority. A central authority would shorten the time frame between the initial outbreak, identifying the source and product recall. It could also control imports and prevent illegal dumping and movements of counterfeit goods more effectively.
  • In addition to a centralised food safety authority, there have also been suggestions that the agricultural and food legislative framework should be revised and the fragmented and outdated regulations be amended or new legislation promulgated.
  • Lastly, certification bodies responsible for certifying food safety management systems and test laboratories must reassess their role in supporting an effective food safety system.
Source: adapted from an interview with Prof Lise Korsten in The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/what-led-to-worlds-worst-listeriosis-outbreak-in-south-africa-92947 

 

SA-GAP

SA-GAP is the collective name given to the SA quality standards that are the minimum required for exporting products of plant origin. The reader can pick up the links and standards from either the DAFF website, www.daff.gov.za (find the “Food Safety & Quality Assurance” pages) or the Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) one, www.ppecb.com. The reader will find it valuable to contrast this with the G.A.P. programmes at www.globalgap.org/uk_en/what-we-do/globalg.a.p.-certification/localg.a.p./localg.a.p.-Programs-Available-for-Producers/

 

Listeriosis

Visit the website dedicated to Listeriosis issues at www.listeriosisfacts.co.za.

Listeriosis is a disease caused by a bacterium, not a virus. You get it when you ingest food contaminated with this bacterium. Listeriosis is widely found in nature – in soil, water, vegetation or faeces of some animals. From these sources, it can contaminate food from four different areas.

  1. The food production site – that is the farms and the abattoirs
  2. The food processing factories
  3. The food packaging sites
  4. The food preparation at restaurant hotels or in individual homes.

 

The contaminated food gets into a person’s mouth and infection takes place. This may result in three groups of symptoms or signs.

  • Flu-like symptoms – headaches, general body pains, sometimes vomiting, diarrhoea and stomach aches.
  • Infection of the blood stream. This is called septicaemia and it is deadly.
  • Infection of the brain and the membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord, called meningitis.

 

Although anyone of us can get Listeria, those who are found highly vulnerable are four groups of people:

  1. Pregnant women because they don’t have a very strong immunity
  2. Newborns in the first 28 days of life because they get it from their mothers
  3. Elderly people above the age of 65
  4. People with suppressed immunity like people living with HIV and Aids, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, people on chemotherapy and people who have undergone transplants and are on immunosuppression therapy to avoid organ rejection.

The disease occurs annually in South Africa and that doctors typically see 60 to 80 patients per annum. This has been the case for the past 40 years. The disease is treatable with an antibiotic called ampicillin which is widely available in health facilities, both public and private.

Source: A speech by then Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi as reported in SANews, 8 March 2018.

Find the Situation Report by the Department of Health (June 2018) giving an overview of the recent listeriosis outbreak in South Africa at https://t.co/YvTkoxJgGO.

 

The Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Baseline 2018-2027 takes a look at implications of the 2018 outbreak of listeriosis and consumers’ perceptions (page 71). Find the document at www.bfap.co.za.

 

Issue 76 (February 2019) of the DAFF-NAMC TradeProbe looks at the recent outbreak of listeriosis. Find it at www.namc.co.za.

 

Genetically modified (GM) products

Consumer concerns include those of glyphosate (in the USA) being found in products like bread and beer.

South African regulations state foodstuffs containing more than 5% of GM organisms should be labelled “contains genetically modified organisms”, whether or not they originate in the country. GM opponents say that the law has been “flouted” since it was passed in 2011 (tests carried out by the African Centre for Biosafety found GM ingredients in maize meal and baby cereal without the called-for labels on the products). Business disputes the interpretation of the regulations, and so the country has a stalemate at present. Find the Cliffe Dekker Hofmeyr discussion on GMOs and the Consumer Protection Act at www.cliffedekkerhofmeyr.com/export/sites/cdh/en/news/publications/2014/consumer-protection/downloads/Consumer-Protection-Act-Alert-12-March-2014.pdf

 

Consumer Protection Act (CPA)

  • Find notes at www.saconsumercomplaints.co.za. 
  • The attention given to exports has not always extended to produce destined for the local market. The CPA changes this.
  • A problems of this legislation is that emerging farmers, struggling with the administrative and bookkeeping demands of food safety, could be shut out of the supply chain.

Large commercial companies are well informed about legal requirements and market expectations. They appoint qualified quality assurance specialists and administrators, train operational staff and use computer systems to ensure that they meet the QMS requirements of clients, markets and supply chain partners. This is not the case with smallholder farmers and SME supply chain companies, which operate less formally, have few permanent employees, typically don’t keep records or use computers and in most cases do not even know what is expected in these regards.

 

In order to address the challenges facing small-scale operators, Interlinks Traceability Servicesformed Prodev Agency NPC (Prodev). Prodev is leading an initiative to establish a managed network of community services centres in rural areas to support smallholder farmers, fishers, producer groups and agri-businesses with information, record keeping, traceability, quality management and compliance services. The initiative will be implemented by “CARA” – Community Agrihubs for Rural Areas (Pty) Ltd. It aims to register traceability under under SIP 11 – the Strategic Infrastructure Programme for Agriculture, managed by the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC). The NAMC, which manages SIP 11, has committed to support the application.

 

Source: excerpts from “Prodev CARA - Registering Traceability as a project under SIP 11” document.

National strategy and government contact

Find the legislation option at www.foodfocus.co.za.

The South African government has created a regulatory framework and related instruments for food safety and traceability. The Department of Health (DoH) and Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) have responsibilities relating to safety of food locally and with regard to meeting requirements of international markets.

DALRRD Inspection Services ensures compliance with phytosanitary agreements. Government assignees assure compliance of products in different sectors, e.g. the Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) is responsible for assuring that exports of fresh and processed products of plant origin meet the requirements of the South African Agricultural Products Standards Act [Act 119 of 1990]. Similarly, the South African Bureau of Standards assures that fish products comply with regulations, and the Wine & Spirits Board assures compliance of wine and spirits processes and products.

The Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act 40 of 2000) provides for measures to promote meat safety and the safety of animal products; establishes and maintains essential national standards in respect of abattoirs; regulates the import and export of meat; and establishes meat safety schemes.

The national Food Safety Forum is chaired by the DALRRD Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance. The Forum publishes hazard profiles, and food safety checklists and compliance criteria for different types of food business operators. Separate operating procedures and guidelines may be provided, e.g. for residue sampling and traceability. PPECB inspectors use the checklists during food safety export compliance audits. A Food Safety Forum Technical Working Group updates the documents from time to time. Further documents are under review or in the process of being prepared. The documents are available under the food safety section on the DALRRD website: www.daff.gov.za. This is SA GAP.

Companies handling products of plant origin that are destined for export markets are required to register with DALRRD as Food Business Operators. Producers who supply local fresh produce markets will in future also register as Food Business Operators (FBO). An FBO must adhere to good handling practices and traceability, keep adequate records and be able to withdraw implicated products from the market should there be a serious problem. An approach to responding to product alerts, withdrawals and recalls is provided in the Traceability Standard Operating Guideline published on the website of the DALRRD, www.daff.gov.za. The FBO code database is available under the “Food Safety and Quality Assurance” option on the same website.

Larger South African retailers are adopting international trade standards or/and defining their own standards. This has a domino effect back up the fresh produce chain, and producers and processors who are unable to provide evidence of adhering to good practices may be locked out of storage and processing facilities. The ability to show evidence of due diligence and compliance with a standard would depend on the records available about a specific product or process at each point in the chain.

Source: Gwynne Foster of Interlinks Traceability Services
In addition to the above, other relevant legislation includes:

Role players

There are Food Control Committees in every province consisting of provincial Departments of Agriculture, Health, Municipal Health Services and the South African Police Service Stock Theft Unit. Those Committees conducted joint inspections of food premises, combatted illegal slaughtering and undertook road blocks to search food delivery vehicles for compliance. See Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries parliamentary committee meeting (March 28, 2018) notes at https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/26087/.

Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)

Find information on directorates under the “Branches” option at www.daff.gov.za.

Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) Tel: 021 930 1134 www.ppecb.com

PPECB was mandated under the Agricultural Products Standards Act (Act 119 of 1990) to ensure compliance with the food safety standard by conducting food safety audits on all registered FBO’s (Food Business Operators). Assessors are stationed across the country and delivers inspection services on 200 product types at more that 1500 locations. PPECB also audits the use of legislated pesticides on a regular basis, according to an MRL Standard Operating Procedure. This forms part of the risk based approach of the total PPECB mandated function.

Department of Health (DoH)

  • Programme: Food Control Tel: 012 395 8799 / 800 www.health.gov.za
  • National Codex Office Tel: 012 395 8789 The Food Legislation Advisory Group (FLAG) consists of government departments, industry, academia, research institutions and consumer organisations to provide scientific advice on the development of legislation in food safety.

Department of Trade, Industry and Competition (the dtic) Tel: 012 394 9500 www.dti.gov.za The dtic is the custodian of the Consumer Protection Act, 2008 (No 68 of 2008)

South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Food and Beverages Tel: 012 428 7911 www.sabs.co.za

Food-related standards include: (i) SANS 241-2, SANS241-1: 1 Drinking water Part 1: Microbiological, physical, aesthetic and chemical determinants and SANS 241-2: Drinking water Part 2: Application of SANS 241-1. (ii) SANS 10049 – Food safety management — Requirements for prerequisite programmes (PRPs). (iii) SANS 10330 – Requirements for a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system (Intermediate Level). (iv) SANS 289 – Labelling requirements for pre-packed products.

National Regulator for Compulsory Specification (NRCS) Food and Associated Industries www.nrcs.org.za

Role players

 

Associations and Councils

  • Association of Dietetics of South Africa www.adsa.org.za
  • Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA) Food Safety Initiative www.cgcsa.co.za The Food Safety Initiative (FSI) is one of the three divisions of the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA)
  • Environmental Health Research Network (EHRN) www.ehrn.co.za
  • International Life Sciences Institute (ILSA) South Africa http://ilsi.org.za
  • National Animal Health Forum http://nahf.co.za Find the “Animal identification and traceability” option
  • Pest Control Service Industries Board www.pcsib.org.za
  • South African Association for Food Science and Technology (SAAFoST) www.saafost.org.za
  • South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) www.sanas.co.za
  • South African National Consumer Union www.sancu.co.za
  • TOPIC www.topicsa.org.za A consumer-led organisation that tests the authenticity of product labels

 

Consultants and certification services

 

Food safety products

  • Bühler https://digital.buhlergroup.com/laatu/ sustainable microbial reduction solution
  • DFM Technologies Tel: 021 904 1154 https://dfmtechnologies.co.za
  • Diversey www.diversey.com
  • Endress+Hauser Tel: 011 262 8000 www.za.endress.com/en
  • Green Worx Tel: 011 708 6626 www.green-worxcs.co.za “bio cleaning solutions”
  • Hanna Instruments http://hanna.co.za
  • Kemklean Hygiene Systems Tel: 080 142 4141 www.kemklean.co.za
  • Nilfisk (Pty) Ltd Tel: 021 691 0080 www.nilfisk.com Nilfisk cleaning equipment offers assistance to local farmers in fit-for-purpose, specialised equipment, eco friendliness, better working conditions and lower bills
  • PHT Tel: 0861 777 993 www.pht-sa.co.za Hygiene, food safety and technology solutions for food and beverage companies
  • Pork 360 Quality Assurance Programme www.pork360.co.za
  • Pyrotec Tel: 021 787 9600 www.pyrotec.co.za Industry-leading product identification solutions
  • Stargate Scientific Tel: 011 675 7433 www.stargatescientific.co.za Equipment and consumables supplied to, amongst others, the food and beverage industry. Some of these allow for instant tests for mycotoxins and GMOs (find the article in the “Biotechnology and plant breeding” chapter).
  • Testo South Africa Tel: 011 380 8060 www.testo.com/en-ZA/ Products for storing and processing food safely
  • TraQtion Tel: 021 880 2024/34 www.traqtion.com Software Solutions
  • Verify Technologies www.verifytechnologies.com “Paperless, end-to-end, food business management software that helps automate your Food Traceability and HACCP requirements”
  • The Werner Group Tel: 011 835 2136 www.wernerbrushware.co.za They supply rotary spiral / staple brushes, donuts and an entire range of hygiene (HACCP) brushware. They also train on the implementation of HACCP cleaning methods with specific reference to the basket the group carries

 

Laboratories

See the “Laboratories and agriculture” page.

 

Training and research

  • Agri-IQ Tel: 032 586 1010 www.agri-iq.com
  • Some agricultural colleges/Provincial Departments of Agriculture provide short courses on health and Food Safety e.g. the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, who can be contacted at 033 355 9444/5. Find details on the “Agricultural education and training” page.
  • Some AgriSETA accredited trainers provide courses in the area of food safety. Find details of these providers on the “Agricultural education and training” page or at www.agriseta.co.za.
  • Anatech Tel: 041 366 1970 / 80 www.entecom.co.za
  • Annelie Coetzee Tel: 021 871 1563 www.anneliecoetzee.com
  • ARC-Animal Production Tel: 012 672 9111 www.arc.agric.za When the 2017-18 Listeriosis outbreak occurred, the ARC “was the only institution that had metadata and isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. The isolates and metadata would help the NICD make accurate diagnosis of the L. monocytogenes strain or strains responsible for the outbreak” (https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/26087/).
  • ARC-Plant Protection Research (PPR) Tel: 012 808 8000 www.arc.agric.za
  • Cape Peninsular University of Technology (CPUT) (i) Food Technology Tel: 021 959 6236 (ii) Department of Environmental and Occupational Studies Tel: 021 460 9068 www.cput.ac.za
  • Central University of Technology Unit for Applied Food Security and Biotechnology (UAFSB) Tel: 051 507 3121 www.cut.ac.za
  • The Consumer Goods Council of South Africa (CGCSA) offers training courses. Call 0861 242 000 and see www.cgcsa.co.za.
  • Entecom www.entecom.co.za Offices across the country. Consulting and training done in food safety.
  • FoodBev SETA Tel: 011 253 7300 www.foodbev.co.za FOODBEV is the Sector Education and Training Authority (SETA) responsible for facilitating education and training in the food and beverages manufacturing sector.
  • FoodPath Tel: 074 143 4540 www.foodpath.co.za
  • Food Safety in SA Tel: 041 365 0868 / 071 809 2887 www.foodsafetyinsa.co.za
  • HACCP Academy Tel: 082 883 2103 www.haccpacademy.co.za
  • International Meat Quality Assurance Scheme (IMQAS) Tel: 012 348 5115 / 6 www.imqas.co.za
  • MERIEUX NutriSciences www.merieuxnutrisciences.com/za HACCP and hygiene-related training
  • North-West University Food Security and Safety (FSS) Tel: 018 389 2568 http://natural-sciences.nwu.ac.za/food-security-and-safety/about-us
  • NSF International Tel: 021 880 2024 http://nsfafrica.com/
  • The Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) programme for training and technical support also provides training and consultation programmes to facilitate growers and other operators in the supply chain to comply with food safety standards. Visit www.ppecb.com or call 021 930 1134.
  • Pest Control Industries Training Board Tel: 012 654 7708 www.pcita.org.za
  • SA Agri Academy Tel: 021 880 1276 www.agriacademy.co.za Training includes GAP and certification procedures, food safety, quality standards, Phytosanitary requirements/MRL’s, and packaging and packaging requirements.
  • SA GAP Tel: 021 872 9846 www.sagap.co.za
  • Southern African Auditor & Training Association (SAATCA) Tel: 012 349 2763 www.saatca.co.za
  • Stellenbosch University Department of Food Science Tel: 021 808 3578 www.sun.ac.za/foodsci Introductory HACCP training is also offered. The Centre for Food Safety is situated within this department. It was founded in 2018 and is a one-of-a-kind applied food science research consortium, looking into matters related to food defence and food processing.
  • University of the Free State Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology Division of Food Science Tel: 051 401 2692 / 3261 www.ufs.ac.za/biotech
  • University of Pretoria Department of Consumer Science Tel: 012 420 2531 www.up.ac.za/consumer-science
  • Wareham & Associates Tel: 021 713 2380 www.wha.co.za

Websites and publications

Visit the websites listed earlier in this page.

 

Some articles

Food safety is frequently covered in the articles on the Food Stuff South Africa website, www.foodstuffsa.co.za.

  • GAP – Good Agricultural Practices are practices on farms which define the essential elements for the development of best practice for production, incorporating integrated crop management, integrated pest management and integrated agricultural hygiene.
  • GHP – Good Hygiene Practices include all practices regarding the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain, including primary production, facility design, operational control, maintenance, personal hygiene, transport, consumer complaints, product information and training (Codex).
  • GLP – Good Laboratory Practices refers to a quality system concerned with the organisational process and the conditions under which non-clinical health and environmental safety studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, archived and reported (OECD).
  • GMP – Good Manufacturing Practices are that combination of manufacturing and quality control procedures aimed at ensuring that food products are consistency manufactured to their specifications (IFST). Limited to such a maximum level that the product concerned will not be deleteriously affected or its compliance with legal requirements disturbed (Department of Health).
Source: www.foodsafetyinitiative.co.za (website, now defunct, of the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa’s Food Safety Initiative)

Our thanks to Gwynne Foster of Interlinks Traceability Services for valuable feedback

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