• Vegetables offer a unique market for the South African producer since they are a basic requirement of every person.
  • Vegetables play a central role in addressing food security and providing nutritional supplements and requirements to people.
  • Vegetable production is largely driven by the expansion of the domestic market and is important for job creation and food security. It has been placed in the quadrant of having both high-growth potential AND being labour intensive (Sihlobo, 2018).

International business environment

Find international news on vegetables at www.freshplaza.com.

South Africa exports and imports

Vegetable exports in 2021 were made up of butternut (46%), sweet potatoes (25%), pumpkins (17%), onions (10%), carrots (1%) and potatoes (1%) (FPEF, 2022).

  • Carrot exports went mostly to Africa (66%) and the Indian Ocean Islands (22%), with 7% going to Europe and 5% to the UK (FPEF 2022).
  • Butternut exports in 2020/21 went mostly to the UK (44%) and Europe (39%). The Middle East (14%) and Russia (3%) also featured (FPEF 2022)
  • Onions were exported mostly to the UK (47%), Europe (38%), the Indian Ocean Islands (9%) and Africa (5%) (FPEF 2022).
  • Tomatoes went to the Middle East (70%) and Africa (7%) (FPEF, 2022).

The annual Food Trade SA and the Fresh Produce Exporters’ Forum (FPEF)’s Export Directory publications are good sources of export statistics for fresh produce. Find these at https://ppecb.com/documents and www.fpef.co.za respectively.

Getting started in Precision agriculture (Queensland Agriculture, 2020), demonstrated on vegetable farm

Local business environment

Using the Abstract of Agricultural Statistics (DALRRD, 2019), the Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy (BFAP) (2020) gave the gross production value (GPV) of vegetables in South Africa as being R17.7 billion. This GBV figure is constituted by:

  • Potatoes (42%)
  • Green mealies and sweet corn (26%)
  • Tomatoes (12%)
  • Onions (8%)
  • Pumpkins, gemsquash & cauliflower (3%)
  • Carrots (3%)
  • Other (6%)

The “Other (6%)” is constituted by cabbage (2%), beetroot (1%), lettuce (1%), sweet potatoes (1%) and green beans (1%).


Further reference:

Find the market value chain profile reports for beetroot, cabbage, carrots, garlic, lettuce, onions and sweet potatoes on the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)’s Directorate Marketing pages at www.dalrrd.gov.za.

Recent Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy (BFAP) Baselines include a short study on the relative affordability of vegetables.

The Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands study The Current State of Fruit & Vegetable Agro-Processing in South Africa (February 2019) can be found at https://agbiz.co.za/uploads/AgbizNews19/190215_Current-state-of-agro-processing-in%20SA.pdf

African business environment

Prior to Covid-19, vegetable exports into Africa were supported by the relatively higher GDP growth in the sub-Saharan region, coupled by the boldness of retail supermarkets that have expanded into Africa over the past two decades. These countries were forecast to grow their GDP significantly faster than South Africa and the trends of urbanisation and the inevitable switch from informal to formal retail meant that supermarkets not in South Africa would continue to deliver growth in excess of what can be achieved in South Africa.

Source:  ABSA Agricultural Outlook 2017(adpated)

For the newcomer

Producing vegetables is a farming activity which needs to be planned well. It is a business in that it involves finances such as buying, selling and the management of funds.

  • You must plan in order to decide which crops to plant and to know which actions to perform at specific times, e.g. fertilising, planting, irrigating, weeding, trellising, harvesting and distributing. It is important to plan twice a year as different crops require planting in different seasons.
  • How to plan: (1) Use a year planner and a calendar to organise your actions. (2) Obtain knowledge and decide on implements, workers, pest and disease control and market prices (3) Find out when the market prices will be at their best.
  • Remember to rotate your crops and never to plant the same or closely related crops on the same soil during the next planting season. Crop rotation prevents poor soil and it prevents pests and diseases.

A well-planned vegetable production results in better profits, higher yields, healthy vegetables and happy families.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) booklet “Vegetable production”

Further reference:

Find recommended reading under both “Websites & publications” (last heading in this article) and the individual vegetable type headings. Here we will refer to useful, general information when starting out.

Under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak” on the DALRRD website at www.dalrrd.gov.za, find:

Find the guideline “Practical application of vegetable regulations for the local market” under “Resource Centre” at www.dalrrd.gov.za. 

The VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN KWAZULU-NATAL heading at www.kzndard.gov.za website of the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture & Rural Development (KZNDARD) provides general notes on the following crucial factors: Climatic Requirements, Expected Yields, Fertilisers, Importance of Quality and Presentation, Investigation of Growth Problems, Length of Growing Period, Marketing, Planning, Plant Establishment, Plant Nutrition, Plant Populations & Plant Spacings, Principles of Weed, Pest & Disease Management, Seasonal Variation in Prices, Soil Preparation, Successional Cropping, Water Requirements and Irrigation, and Weed Control.


In South Africa, asparagus is mainly grown in Tarlton to the west of Krugersdorp, Eikenhof, south of Johannesburg and the Eastern Free State.


Further reference:

  • Find the DALRRDProduction guidelines Asparagus” under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and production guidelines” at www.dalrrd.gov.za.
  • From ARC-Agricultural Engineering order “Agro-processing of Root Crops (Asparagus, beets, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato, ginger, parsnip, kohlrabi, turnips)”. Call 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za.
  • Find the latest Overview Global Asparagus Market on the Fresh Plaza website, www.freshplaza.com.


Beetroot, sugar beet and Swiss chard

  • The cultivated form of the plant Beta vulgaris of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) is one of the most important vegetables. It is a biennial plant with four distinct types that are cultivated for different purposes: (i) Garden beet, beetroot or table beet, as a garden vegetable; (ii) Sugar beet, a major source of sugar; (iii) Mangel-wurzel or mangold, a succulent feed for livestock; and (iv) Leaf beet or Swiss chard for its leaves, which may be eaten or used as a seasoning.
  • Beets are very common, popular crop in Southern Africa. Pests and diseases are not major concerns and it is relatively easy to grow. Beetroot is sown throughout the year to supply market demand. Beets take longer to mature when growing into the winter cool season and should be given ample time to mature. South Africa has a significant fresh market for beet where both bulb and top are consumed.
  • Two niche markets in the fresh market beet arena are: (i) Baby round beets for both the local and export markets. The requirement is for these varieties to produce uniformly round beets that are harvested at diameters between 20-30 mm. (ii) Baby beet leaves of various colours to be used in fresh salad packs.
  • Historical fresh-market grower prices indicate that the highest prices are received in April due to difficulty in establishing beet in the warm season and then in July and August due to cool winter conditions.
Source: SAKATA Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd. Find the SAKATA reference guides for beets and Swiss chard at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/. Contact them at 011 548 2800.


Further reference:

From ARC-Agricultural Engineering order “Agro-processing of Root Crops (Asparagus, beets, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato, ginger, parsnip, kohlrabi, turnips)”. Call 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za.

On the DALRRD website, on the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Beetroot Market Chain Value Profile.

Under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines”, find:

Under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find: Vegetables – Spinach beet (Swiss chard)

On www.kzndard.gov.za read the grower notes on Beetroot and Swiss chard.

Cabbages and kind (Cole crops)

Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower and Brussel sprouts

In terms of growth in gross value of production (2013-2017) and share of total agricultural production value (2013-2017), DALRRD (2018) placed cauliflower in the top 10 of all agricultural products.

  • The production of cabbage is always an attractive option. As with most vegetable crops, cabbages are mostly produced for and marketed through the national fresh produce markets, the informal market and chain stores. Like most vegetables, a market for quality and diversity has been developed that creates lucrative opportunities of which the producer can take note.
  • Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower and Brussel sprouts are crops that grow best under cool conditions. Varieties have been developed, however, that grow well under very warm conditions.
  • Temperatures a few degrees below freezing generally will not adversely affect the crop. Broccoli is the most sensitive of these crops to frost, and heads may be damaged if temperatures fall below –2ºC. During very high temperatures these crops may suffer. Matching the proper variety to the season is essential in summer; however, cultivars to be grown should be heat tolerant and have good tolerance to Black rot.
Source: Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd. Find the SAKATA reference guides for broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/. Contact them at 011 548 2800.
  • Cabbage is used raw in salads (such as coleslaw), as a cooked vegetable, (added to soups or stews) or preserved in pickles or sauerkraut.
  • Cabbage is also dehydrated (dried, flaked or power) for use as a flavouring agent in soups and as an ingredient in other dehydrated foods.
  • Cabbage leaves are used to treat acute inflammation. A paste of raw cabbage may be placed in a cabbage leaf and wrapped around the affected area to reduce discomfort.
  • Cabbage can also be canned, prickled, frozen and cabbage juice can be extracted to make ink.
Source: The Cabbage Value Chain Profile which can be found at www.dalrrd.gov.za. 

Further reference:

From ARC-Agricultural Engineering order “Agro-processing of Brassicas (Broccoli, sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower)”. Call 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za

Under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines” at www.dalrrd.gov.za, the DALRRD website, find:

Under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find:

On the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Cabbage Market Chain Value Profile. 

On the KZNDARD website, at www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre there are grower notes on Cole Crops.

Find the Starke Ayres “Broccoli Production Guideline” at www.starkeayres.co.za/com_variety_docs/Broccoli-Production-Guideline-2014.pdf


Carrots are one of the major vegetables consumed in South Africa. Export markets are other African countries (66%), Indian Ocean Islands (22%), Europe (7%) and the UK (5%) (FPEF, 2022).

  • Carrots can be eaten raw, whole, chopped, grated or added to salads for colour or texture.
  • They are also often chopped and boiled, fried or steamed, and cooked in soups and stews, as well as fine baby foods and select pet foods grated carrots are used in carrot cakes, as well as carrot pudding. The greens are edible as a leaf vegetable, but are rarely eaten by humans.
  • Baby carrots have been a popular ready to eat snack food available in supermarkets.
  • Carrot processing includes canning, freezing and dehydration.
  • Carrot juice is also widely marketed, especially as a health drink, either stand-alone or blended with other fruits and vegetables.
  • Carrots seed oil is an essential oil extract of the seed from the carrot plant. Carrot seed oil is used as massage oil, in creams and lotions.
Source: The Carrot Value Chain Profile document which can be found at www.dalrrd.gov.za.

Further reference:

Find the SAKATA reference guides for carrots at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/.

Under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines” on the DALRRD website, find:

Under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find:

On the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Carrot Market Chain Value Profile.

On the KZNDARD website are grower notes on Carrots.



Photo used courtesy of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)

Butternut, cucumber, pumpkin, sweet melon, watermelon, baby marrow

  • Cucumbers originated in India. Technically this is a fruit, but can be classified as both a fruit and a vegetable. Certainly it is usually perceived and eaten as a vegetable.
  • Cucumber can be cooked, but they are most often eaten raw in salads, in cold soups and cucumber based sauces.
  • Cucumbers are also the vegetable of choice for pickles. Pickles are made by placing cucumber in a seasoned brine or vinegar solution.
  • Cucumber juice is in great demand in various forms as a cooling and beautifying agent for the skin. Cucumber juice is also used in the preparation of cosmetics like soap, glycerine, creams and perfumes
Source: The Cucumber Value Chain Profile can be found at www.dalrrd.gov.za

In the 2020/21 season butternut exports went mostly to the UK (44%) and Europe (39%). The Middle East (14%) and Russia (3%) also feature (FPEF 2022). Find the latest global overviews of butternut, pumpkin, melons and other cucurbits at www.freshplaza.com.

Further reference:

Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for the following publication, available from ARC- Agricultural Engineering: “Processing of Cucurbits (Butternut, cucumber, pumpkin, sweet melon, watermelon, baby marrow)”.

On the DALRRD website, under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines”, find:

On the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Cucumber Market Chain Value Profile. 

The KZNDARD website has grower notes on Cucurbits.

Find the SAKATA reference guides for cucumber, pumpkin, squash butternut, sweet melon, and watermelon at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/.

Find the Haifa cucumber crop guide at www.haifa-group.com.


Garlic is a close relative of onion, leeks and chives. It has nutritional, medicinal and culinary value, being widely used for flavouring and seasoning dishes, pickles and sauces.

  • Imports from the East, where production costs are lower, make up over half of the local market. What counts against the taste of imported garlic is the long time in storage (with the artificial cooling to extend the shelf life) and the irradiation process done for biosecurity reasons.
  • It is also exported to other countries through exports agents and marketing companies. There are grading, packing and marking quality standards for garlic. Complying with these encourage confidence in locally produced garlic.
  • Garlic is a high value crop that can be marketed being fresh, dehydrated or as certified seeds. The majority of garlic is dehydrated and used in a variety of processed foods. Garlic bulb can be peeled, sliced, flaked and dried. This can be packaged or processed further as food spice, vegetable mixtures and sprays. India also produces odourless oil and oleoresin from garlic. Garlic can be used externally for skin problems and fungal infections. It is also uses as insect repellent. Garlic is also alleged to help regulate blood sugar levels.
Source: The Garlic Value Chain Profile at www.dalrrd.gov.za and a South African Garlic Growers Association press release in 2014.


Further reference:

Read the latest Fresh Plaza overview of the global garlic market at www.freshplaza.com.

Find “Some tips for growing garlic” at www.farmersweekly.co.za/farm-basics/how-to-crop/tips-growing-garlic/

From ARC-Agricultural Engineering order “Agro-processing of Root Crops (Asparagus, beets, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato, ginger, parsnip, kohlrabi, turnips)”. Call 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za.

At www.dalrrd.gov.za, the DALRRD website, on the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Garlic Market Chain Value Profile.

Under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines”, find:

Jansen C. 2020, November 2. “Imports crowd South African garlic out of the marketplace”. FreshPlaza. Available at www.freshplaza.com/article/9264313/imports-crowd-south-african-garlic-out-of-the-marketplace

Uys G. 2019, June 3. “Growing garlic: a golden opportunity for SA farmers”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/crops/field-crops/growing-garlic-opportunity-for-sa-farmers/

Green beans

Photo used courtesy of Fred Shikweni, Precedential Agri. Holdings

Further reference:

Green Peas

Further reference:


Further reference:

On the DALRRD website:

  • on the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Lettuce Market Chain Value Profile. 
  • under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines” at www.dalrrd.gov.za, find: Brochure Lettuce and Production guidelines Lettuce.

Among the KZNDARD notes at www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre are ones on growing Lettuce.

Find the SAKATA reference guides for lettuce at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/

Phillips, L. 2019, February 12. “Quality and efficiency drive commercial lettuce production”. Farmer’s Weekly. Available at www.farmersweekly.co.za/crops/quality-and-efficiency-drive-commercial-lettuce-production/


The country is self-sufficient in terms of onion production. Onions are considered to be the third most important vegetable crop in South Africa after potatoes and tomatoes (ABSA, 2017). Onions are mostly grown in Limpopo (84%) and the North-West (12%) (Fresh Plaza, 2021). In the 2020/21 season onions were exported mostly to the UK (47%), Europe (38%), the Indian Ocean Islands (9%) and Africa (5%) (FPEF 2022).

  • Processing of onions consists of canning, oil extraction, freezing and dehydration. They are most often used to enhance flavour in a wide range of recipes such as casseroles, pizzas, soups, and stews. As a garnish, onions are used on sandwiches and salads. In addition, onions are used as a cooking ingredient in countless recipes, and are frequently used as a condiment on sandwich, side dish and appetizer.
  • Over the years there has been an increase in onion dehydration and freezing activities.
Source: The Onion Value Chain Profile at www.dalrrd.gov.za 


Further reference:


Further reference:


Photos used courtesy of Fred Shikweni, Precedential Agri. Holdings


Photo used courtesy of Fred Shikweni, Precedential Agri. Holdings



Spices and chillies

See the “Herbs and spices” page.


Further reference:

Sweet potatoes

For potatoes, see the “Potatoes” page.

Further reference:

  • Find the latest Global Overview Sweet Potatoes at www.freshplaza.com.
  • The ARC-Agricultural Engineering (ARC-IAE) has a publication “Agro-processing of Root Crops (Asparagus, beetroot, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato)”. Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] arc.agric.za for a copy.
  • A number of leaflets are available from the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Agriculture, including “Sweet Potatoes Production” (also available in isiZulu). Find these at www.kzndard.gov.za.
  • Grower notes are available on the DALRRD website under “Resource centre”, namely “Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) production”.



The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a fruit, botanically speaking. Nutritionally, like the cucumber and squash, it is categorised as a vegetable, and so is included on our vegetables page.

  • It is the second-largest traded vegetable on the five large fresh produce markets, after potatoes.
  • Tomato is consumed in diverse ways including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes and sauces and also in drinks.
  • In South Africa tomatoes are used in stews to complement the staple diet of maize meal. As a result, it is also one of the main vegetables used for hawking by small-scale entrepreneurs in the informal sector.
  • Limpopo is the major production area, followed by Mpumalanga, the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Production is very limited in winter months and tomatoes can only be produced in frost-free area during winter, or under protection like tunnels.
  • Processing of tomatoes consists of canning, freezing, dehydration and juice production. Tomatoes are processed into whole pealed, tomato and onion braises, pasta, shredded, puree and pasta concentrate.
  • Most exports go to the Middle East (70%) (FPEF, 2022).
Source: The Tomato Value Chain Profile at www.dalrrd.gov.za.


Further reference:

Under “Resource Centre” and “Brochures and Production Guidelines” at www.dalrrd.gov.za, the DALRRD website, find:

Under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find:

On the Directorate Marketing pages, take a look at the annual Tomato Market Chain Value Profile. 

On the KZNDARD website, www.kzndard.gov.za read the grower notes on tomatoes.

Find the SAKATA reference guides for tomato at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/

Find the Haifa tomato crop guide at www.haifa-group.com.

Read the latest Fresh Plaza overview of the global tomato market at www.freshplaza.com.


The turnip is a root vegetable. Turnip leaves and smaller turnips are eaten by humans, while larger varieties of turnips can be used as feed for livestock.


Further reference:

  • From ARC-Agricultural Engineering order “Agro-processing of Root Crops (Asparagus, beets, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato, ginger, parsnip, kohlrabi, turnips)”. Call 012 842 4017 or visit www.arc.agric.za.
  • Find the SAKATA reference notes for turnip at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed.

Vegetable soybeans

Vegetable soyabeans (Glycine max (L.)) are speciality cultivars that have been bred for human consumption as a green bean.

  • The pods are harvested when still green and the beans have filled 80 – 90% of the pod. The pods are boiled for a few minutes, shelled and only the bean is eaten, usually as a snack or included in salads and stews. The beans are larger, sweeter, more tender and have a nuttier flavour than grain soybeans.
  • They are regularly eaten in Eastern Asia where they are called edamame (“beans on branches”) in Japan and mao dou (“hairy bean”) in China.
  • In South Africa this high protein crop has the potential to fill a niche market and ensure food security in rural communities. Research on the crop is currently being conducted at Cedara and Dundee Research Stations.
Source: James Arathoon, Cedara, who is doing research on this crop. Contact him at james.arathoon [at] kzndard.gov.za. 


Further reference:

Read more at www.soyinfocenter.com/HSS/green_vegetable.php.


Witlof, also known as Belgian endive, costs more to produce than many other leafy vegetables.


Further reference:

Other vegetables

Photo used courtesy of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)

There are several other vegetable types not covered here, to which there are grower guides at www.dalrrd.gov.za. These include:

Under “Resource Centre” and “Info pak”, find:

Under SPECIFIC CROPS at www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre are grower notes on Brinjal – Eggfruit and Loofah.

Find the SAKATA reference guides for Chinese cabbage, eggplant, okra, pak choi, radish, squash butternut, squash other and rootstock at http://sakata.co.za/vegetable-seed/.

National strategy and government contact

Find information on the different directorates of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD) under “Branches” at www.dalrrd.gov.za.

The Vegetables sector is vital for the country’s food security and livelihoods – from the farm labourers or subsistence growers to the multipliers in the value chain i.e. the people transporting vegetables; working in processing plants, packaging factories, supermarkets or fast food outlets; or working as informal traders. Interventions like the Industrial Action Policy Plans (IPAPs) and Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP) have looked at ways to strengthen the vegetable sector.

Read about the Perishable Products Export Control Board (PPECB) at www.ppecb.com.

The National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC) does research on vegetable production in South Africa. Find their reports at www.namc.co.za.

Role players



  • Fresh Produce Importers Association www.fpia.co.za
  • Produce Marketing Association Find the Country Manager Southern Africa contact details at www.pma.com.
  • Tomato Producers’ Association of South Africa http://tomatoessa.org
  • Vegetable Industry Value Chain Round Table (VIVCRT) c/o Fresh Producer Exporters Forum at 021 526 0474


Companies involved


Consultants and other services

  • Airin https://airin.co.za
  • Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy (BFAP) www.bfap.co.za 
  • Garlic Growers www.garlic.org.za Details of the compound changes which occur after crushing and cutting garlic may be found on this website, as well as a five-year garlic business plan.
  • HelloChoice www.hellochoice.co.za Online trading platform for fresh produce
  • JBT FoodTech www.jbtfoodtech.com/en Processing solutions
  • KOROM http://korkom.co.za The purpose of Korkom is to gather information in order to help onion and potato growers with matters such as planting and market planning.
  • NviroTek Labs www.nviroteklabs.co.za Independent laboratory services for agriculture in Southern Africa.
  • Timbali Technology Incubator, based in Mpumalamga, sets up small-scale farmers in sustainable businesses. 100% of Timbali’s farmers make it through the first year of business. See www.timbali.co.za.

Some producers, packers and exporters

Also consult the annual Fresh Produce Exporters Forum (FPEF) directory, which gives details of companies exporting vegetables.


Training and research

See the “Agricultural education and training” page.

  • Agri Start trains people top establish their own vegetable gardens at home and produce their own basic food at home. Take a look at http://agristart.co.za.
  • Agricultural Colleges provide courses in vegetable production, and in vegetable and fruit drying. Madzivhandila College presents training in vegetable achaar processing. Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute runs short courses on vegetable production. Details of Agricultural Colleges can be found in the “Agricultural education and training” article. Research is also conducted.
  • AgriSETA accredited providers offer training on vegetable production. Examples of these are: Agriskills Transfer www.agriskills.net, Dicla Training www.diclatraining.com, Skills for Africa www.skillsafrica.co.za
  • ARC-Plant Protection Research Tel: 012 808 8000. For the Plant Pathology and Microbiology Division, contact 012 356 9800.
  • Training courses on vegetable production for resource poor farmers were developed by the ARC-Vegetable and Ornamental Plants. These range from basic courses, dealing with the basic principles of vegetable production, to more advanced courses. Contact 012 841 9611. Production courses are also given on growing organic vegetables.
  • Foundations for Farming does training in, amongst other things,  planting a vegetable garden. https://foundationsforfarming.org
  • NGOs are involved in training food insecure communities to grow vegetables. Consult the “Food security” page.
  • Terra Madre SA https://terramadre.co.za Design, install and maintain edible gardens for homes, communities projects and business.
  • University of the Free State Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry www.ufs.ac.za/biotech
  • Universities offering agricultural degrees do research and training in vegetable production.





Websites and publications

Visit the websites listed earlier on this page.

  • Find the bi-monthly Fresh Produce Market Trends at www.absa.co.za/business/sector-solutions/agribusiness/agri-smart-insights/
  • Two general grower guides are available from the Agricultural Research Council (ARC)Production Guideline for summer vegetables and Production Guideline for winter vegetables. There are also over 100 grower guide leaflets. These cover general vegetable topics (e.g. crop rotation in vegetables), onions and garlic, root crops (e.g. the production of carrots, turnips, beetroot), leaf crops (e.g. spinach, lettuce), green beans and broadbeans, green and dry peas, eggfruit, cole crops (e.g. cauliflower and cabbage cultivars), cucurbits (e.g. pumpkin and squash cultivars) and other vegetables. Contact the Public Relations Officer at 012 841 9611.
  • Order online at www.arc.agric.za, call 012 842 4017 or send an email to stoltze [at] arc.agric.za for the following publications, available from the ARC Agricultural Engineering: (i) Agro-processingof Root Crops (Asparagus, beets, carrots, garlic, onions, potatoes, sweet potato, ginger, parsnip, kohlrabi, turnips) (ii) Agro-processingof Legumes (Cowpeas, beans, green beans, lentils, green peas, peanuts) (iii) Agro-processing of Cucurbits (Butternut, cucumber, pumpkin, sweet melón, baby marrow, watermelon) (iv) Agro-processingof Brassicas (Broccoli, sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower) (v) Agro-Processing of Field Crops (chilli, bell peppers, tomatoes) (vi) Agro-processing of Olives and Legumes (green peas, green beans, cowpeas, lentils, olives, peanuts, mushrooms).
  • CD Roms from the ARC-PPR (Plant Protection Research) include: Crop Pests, Vol. 3: Potatoes and Other Vegetables (also available as a book). Write to booksales [at] arc.agric.za or infopri [at] arc.agric.za.
  • Find the “Vegetables” option at https://wikifarmer.com.
  • The AgriSETA Assessment Guide Primary Agriculture “Monitor the establishment of a crop” includes tunnel crops and vegetable garden beds. Other learning material includes “Harvesting agricultural crops”.
  • Available at www.kzndard.gov.za/resource-centre is the downloadable Vegetable Production in KwaZulu-Natal.
  • Itsweng M. 2021. Veggie Licious. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.
  • Stork, P. 2017. The Vegetable Producer’s Manual: A Practical Guide for Cultivating Vegetables Profitably. Watch the overview on YouTube at www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdUaKitbuWY and order it at www.kejafa.com.
  • Veg Power https://vegpower.org.uk “Eat more veg”. Resources like posters and charts for children (and adults!)
  • An Introduction to Growing Vegetable Gardens / Intshayelelo Ekulimeni Imifuno / ‘N Inleiding na Groentetuine, written and made available by Nelson Mandela University (NMU) is a NMU introductory guide to growing vegetables for schools. Read it at bit.ly/agriVEG.
  • Guide to Growing Vegetables, a handy A6 booklet. Order from 021 406 4962, or fax 021 405 1031.
  • The publication The people’s guide to farming: growing plants handbook is an adaptation of David Phillip’s earlier The people’s farming workbook. It was developed for the Environment and Development Agency Trust by Shelley Epstein and several others, and is published by Lansdowne: Juta Education.
  • Find the Nation in Conversation overview of the vegetable industry (Feb 2017) on YouTube www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yy6HD0IcicE
  • Companies involved often have Grower guides for different vegetables. Find the frequent references to SAKATA notes in earlier headings, for example.
  • Find the many grower guides at www.growveg.co.za.


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